Hanggai – My Banjo and I, Inner Mongolia

Hanggai – My Banjo and I
Sari8907
Published on May 4, 2010
This is the song “My Banjo and I” which is by the Mongolian band called Hanggai. I fell in love with their unique music when I was fortunate enough to be able to see them live when they came to play at my college, Northwestern Michigan College in TC, MI. I wanted to help get their music out there for more people to hear, and I hope that you enjoy them and their music as much as I do!

Enjoy!

Disclaimer: I do not claim to own either the song or the photoo used in this video.

Hanggai – Xiger Xiger

Hanggai – Xiger Xiger
HanggaiBand
Published on Aug 5, 2010
A compilation video of Hanggai performing live on various stages around the world.
Category
Music
Music in this video
Learn more
Listen ad-free with YouTube Premium
Song
Xiger Xiger
Artist
Hanggai
Album
He Who Travels Far
Licensed to YouTube by
The Orchard Music (on behalf of World Connection BV / Times Square); Warner Chappell, and 9 Music Rights Societies

PHYLLIS FREE : THROAT SINGING

PHYLLIS FREE : THROAT SINGING
THROAT-SINGING
by PHYLLIS FREE
D503-A Geographic Appreciation of Music
Peter Galvin & Sid King
Indiana University Southeast
FALL 2000
INTRODUCTION:
Listening samples:
The Power of Overtones and Chants by Don Campbell
Songs of the Inuit (Canada)
INUIT THROAT-SINGING (Katajjaq)
• Technique: 4 methods of producing sound

• Tradition: women standing face-to-face,
using each other’s mouth as resonator
competitions, teams, entertainment
• Roots: imitation of sounds in nature, especially animals
survival? excercise? warmth?
shamanic traditions based in spiritual animism?
(more on this later)

* EXERCISE (participatory): Inuit Style — try it
TUVAN THROAT-SINGING (Khomeii & variations)
Listening sample: Where Young Grass Grows by Huun-Huur-Tu
• Techniques: various styles/techniques characterized by
simultaneous pitches, amplifying overtones,
nasal tones plus manipulation of oral cavity
rhythmic harmonic melodies over fundamental tones
sometimes extended pauses between breaths

• Tradition: functional communication, nomadic herdsmen
incorporated into songs with popular themes
(horses, life on the land, emotional relationships)
gender: equality in ancient traditions, later became
taboo for women, now some women practicing

• Roots: spiritual animism, sounds from nature imbued with spiritual significance
(including geographic features–rivers, mountains, etc.)
harmonics project over expanse of Central Asian steppes
surrounded by mountains which echo sounds

* EXERCISE–try it
HARMONIC TONING, OVERTONE SINGING
(TIBETAN & MONGOLIAN STYLE CHANTING)
• Techniques: “Asian-style”, same as described for Tuvan
• Traditions: spiritual practices, meditation, healing
• Roots: ancient spiritual practices
tribal shamans, Buddist monks, etc.
Listening sample: Om Namaha Shivaya
BACK TO THE INUIT: WHAT & WHY IS MUSIC?
Viewing sample: The Nature of Music

Discography

RECORDINGS PRESENTED

• OVERTONE SINGING IN HEALING & MEDITATION PRACTICES
The Power of Overtones and Chant by Don Campbell
1991 Institute for Music, Health, and Education
Box 1244, Boulder CO 80306 (CS)
(selected excerpt )
• INUIT THROAT-SINGING
Songs of the Inuit People (Canada)
1994 JVC World Sounds, Canada VICG 5333
JVC Musical Industries, Inc (CD)
Track #: 1. Amma 2. Ihan 3. Amuma
• TUVAN THROAT-SINGING
Where Young Grass Grows by Huun-Huur-Tu;
produced by Niall Macaulay & Sayan Bapa
1999 Shanachie Entertainment Corporation 66018 (CD)
Track #: 3. Deke-Jo
• TIBETAN & MONGOLIAN STYLE OVERTONE CHANTING
Om Namaha Shivaya by Robert Gass and On Wings of Song;
Tenth Anniversary Deluxe Edition;1996 Spring Hill Music 6018.2 (CD)
Track #: 2. Om (Aum)
• INUIT (VIDEO)
The Nature of Music
Produced, written, and directed by Jeremy Marre; Reiner Moritz Associates Ltd.
Public Media, Home Vision (VHS)
End of Part I: 5 minutes
ADDITIONAL RECORDINGS
THROAT-SINGING
• Back Tuva Future by Kongar-Ol Ondar (Warner Brothers Records)
• Sprouts (Young Voices of ancient TUVA ) by O”zum (SUM 90 008)
• Voices from the Distant Steppe by Shu-De (Realworld/Carol 2339-2)
• Cho”o”mej–Throat-Singing from the Center of Asia by Tuvinian Singers(WDR 55.838)
• TUVA: Echoes from the Spirit World (PAN 2013 CD)
• TUVA: Voices from the Land of the Eagles (PAN 2005 CD)
• Mongolie by Ensemble Mandukhai (Playasound – PS 65115)
• Mongolian Songs (KICC 5133)
• Mongolia (Mongolie ) (UNESCO D8207)
• Uzlyau (Gutteral singing of the peoples of the Sayan, Altai, and Ural Mountains (PAN 2019 CD)
• TUVA: Voices from the Center of Asia (1990 Smithsonian Folkways CD SF 40017)
• 60 Horses in my Herd by Huun-Huur-Tu (S1993 Senachie 64050)
• Hearing Solar Winds by David Hykes and the Harmonic Choir (1994 Ocora ,
distributed in the US by Harmonia Mundi)
• TUVA, Among the Spirits: Sound, Music, and Nature in Sakha and Tuva (1999 Smithsonian Folkways 40452)
Please note: Source document for the first ten recordings listed above is LINGUIST List 5.1422: TuvanThroat-Singing. Source states that these recordings “may be found in local retail music outlets or purchased directly from the publishers” but suggests for readers “to purchase Tuvan CDs from The Tuvan Trader, an updated copy of which is included with each Friends of Tuva (FoT) Newsletter….(Proceeds help fund Friends of TUVA projects.)” The last two listings are from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN : Feature Article: The Throat Singers of Tuva: September 1999. TUVA: Voices… and 60 Horses…were listed by both sources.
The following recordings are available from Sound Photosynthesis (www. photosynthesis.com/music/html):
• David Hykes: A visit with the founder of The Harmonic Choir
Harmonic Choir audio cassette # A294-88
• Huston Smith: Presents the Gyuto Monks multi-phonic choir’s “Music of Tibet”
audio cassette # A171-86
• Tuvan Throat Singers: Harmonic Throat Singing audio cassette #A414-85
• Tuvan Throat Singers: Tuvan Throat Singing in Tuva with Phoebe and Ralph Leighton
video cassette # V198-89
Available from Lark in the Morning (www.larkinam.com):
• Voices of Forgotten Worlds: Traditional Music of Indigenous People

Additional Discography and Review of Mongolian and Tuvinian Music is available on the web @ http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/im/Musik/disds.unx
COMPOSITIONS INFLUENCED BY TRADITIONAL THROAT-SINGING
• ARTIC DREAMS by Michael Colgrass (Centaur Records, CRC 2288)
Performed by the New England Conservatory Wind Ensemble with members of the New England
Conservatory choruses.
• ECKLECTICA by Eckart Seeber (www.mantragroup.com) (www.seebermusic.com/s6.htm)

OVERTONE SINGING IN HEALING & MEDITATION PRACTICES
HEALING YOURSELF WITH YOUR OWN VOICE by Don Campbell
Institute for Music, Health, and Education
Sounds True Recordings, 735 Walnut Street, Boulder CO 80302
Liner notes: ” Ancient culture looked at the human voice as the link between the inner and outer psyches. Healing Yourself with Your Own Voice is about rediscovering the natural power of the human voice, and its role in establishing a balanced, healthful life.”
REFERENCE ARTICLES
(Websites listed in alphabetical order)
http: //www.
apocalypse.org/pub/leadheads/leadheads-mail/09-94/msg00046.html
Throat Singing: Definitions and descriptions of Central Asian style throat-singing
included in e-mail correspondence from Wil Howitt () to leadheads ().
arctictravel.com/chapters/inmusicpage.html
Inuit Music by David Serkoak, with contributions from Ann Meekitjuk Hanson and Peter Ernerk. Includes information on drum dancing, traditional songs, and throat-singing. This article also acknowledges the introdution of Western-European music brought by whalers and traders, the arrival of radio in the region, as well as travel to southern hospitals as significant influences in the development of more contemporary styles of Inuit Music, including the current popularity of country-and-western, bluegrass, and gospel music.
cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/04/ondar.wb/
CNN-WorldBeat Spotlight : “Throaty singers excel in Tuvan art “: June 4, 1999.
Feature artical on Tuvan throat-singer and Warner Brothers recording artist Kongar-Ol Ondar as “Tuva’s musical ambassador to the world”.
danwinter.com/harmonic/index.html
Harmonic Choir: Geometry of Vocal Chords Relax? by Dan Winter of Sacred Geometry master index () with “Hawk Kelly from Adelaide (“Allan Kelly” ). Information regarding harmonic toning– description of physical techniquesof producing multi-harmonic vocal sounds , geometric analyses of sound wave “damping” within the context of “Sacred Geometry” theory, effect s on brain wave patterns, chakras, etc.
emich.edu/~linguist/issues/5/5-1422.html
Linguist : Sum: Tuvan troat-singing by Vern M. Lindblad ().
Summary of queries and replies among educators and researchers in the field of linguistics “regarding various aspects of Tuvan throat-singing, particularly its articulatory phonetics”.
nunatsiaq.com/archives/back-issues/80206.html
Nunatsiaq News, February 6, 1998: “With katajjaq, composer makes footprints in new music” by Dwane Wilkin. Descriptions of compositions by contemporary composers whose works are based on, influenced by, or incorporate traditional Inuit throat-singing.
peyote.com/jonstef/khoomi.htm
Khoomei (author not listed by name): Descriptions of and distinctions between various styles and techniques of traditional Asian-style throat-singing known as Khoomei, also known as Xoomii, Khoomii, Xoomej, etc. in various Asian languages and more contemporary Western techniques and styles. Also includes editorial information on the therapeutic and healing benefits of throat-singing.
purenaturemusic.com/
Source site for contemporary recordings of professional Asian-style throat-singing. Also includes cultural and geographical information about throat-singing traditions in Central Asia.
sciam.com/1999/0999issue/0999levin.html
Scientific American: “The Throat-Singers of Tuva” : Feature article, September, 1999, by Theodore C. Levin and Michael Edgerton. Includes descriptions of techniques, information about cultural legends about the origins of throat-singing
sjansson/throat.htm
On Throat Singing of South Siberia by Sami Jansson. Descriptions of various styles, techniques of sound production, sound physics analyses, and cultural roots of tribal throat-singing traditions in South Siberia/Central Asia.
http://homepages.ius.edu/PGALVIN/music/present/ethnomus/freethroat.htm

SAMI JANSSON : A miraculous method of singing On Throat Singing of South Siberia

SAMI JANSSON : A miraculous method of singing On Throat Singing of South Siberia
A miraculous method of singing

On Throat Singing
of South Siberia

Sami Jansson narrates

Exercised by a number of Central Asian tribes, throat singing is a peculiar vocal art with three basic vocalizing methods and at least four submethods that allow a singer to simultaneously sing with two, indeed, sometimes even with four voices.

A rich throat singing tradition survives in Tuva (this is a republic that today belongs to Russia) and in Western Mongolia. In these areas that are marked by vast grasslands and mountain ranges, throat singing is called “chömei” (“ö” is pronounced like “o” and “e” simultaneously). As a singer elicits a fundamental tone that allows overtones to be extracted, the result is a “chömei-voice”. The singer extracts overtones by varying the shape of his oral parts and pharynx: as a result two, three, or even four distinct tones can be heard. As the fundamental tone remains constant, melodies are sung with the highest overtone, that resembles the sound of a flute.
Tuva is located in Central Asia
sam 1.jpg

What is throat singing and how does it differ from western singing?

Western people commonly think that a single artist cannot simultaneously sing with more than one voice and that consequently several singers are required for a multivocal concert. However, a human voice is never absolutely pure. The reason for this is that voice is blown all the way from the lungs through the windpipe and small chambers in the respiratory tract. Two persons can never have quite identical air chambers; consequently no two human voices exist with exactly similar timbres. The peculiar character of a person’s voice results partly from a fundamental tone formed by the vocal chords, and partly from overtones that resonate in the windpipe and air chambers of the respiratory tract. Siberian singers, however, constrain the part of throat called false vocal chords and vary the shape of their pharynx and tongue to produce miraculous overtones of various kinds. Some of these overtones are nothing but buzzing and sqeaking, others sharp, clear, and beautiful, some of which resemble the sound of a flute. Usually these vocal overtones are not heard as distinct sounds. Instead, they are rather conceived as the characteristic quality of a person’s voice. By the way, it is the overtones that allow us to tell apart different vowels. It is clear that letters a, e, i, o, etc. uttered at the same pitch nevertheless sound different to our ears. However, stronger overtones can be produced with a somewhat stricter voice; that is: with constricted false vocal chords. Their task is to prevent the access of any food or liquid to the vocal chords and windpipe. Throat singers also amplify vocal overtones with their false vocal chords.


On peoples that exercise throat singing

A centuries-long tradition, throat singing is practised by nomadic tribes of South Siberia, where it is commonly called “chömei”. It is known to many Central Asian tribes like the Chacass, the Tuvinians, the Altaians, the Mongols, etc.
Ancient historians knew the Central Asian nomads as the Scythians. After the period of the Scythians Europe was terrorized by Attila and the Huns – also Siberian nomads. Later large areas of Asia were occupied by the Turcs, who left grave monuments scattered everywhere on the vast grasslands.
In the Middle Ages Chingghis Khan with his heirs collected fierce Mongol armies in the same areas. With his officers Chingghis Khan lead the Mongol armies against many Chinese, Middle Asian, and European cities that they often totally destroyed and killed the inhabitants to the last individual. In those days Europeans used to call these oriental bandits “the Tartars”.
It is believed that traditionally male and female singers had an equal position. Later however, throat singing was not considered suitable for women: and the tradition was long sustained mainly by men. The reason for this might have been a rumour according to which pregnant women would risk a miscarriage while practising throat singing. After the perestroika and the end of the Soviet imperium several minor tribes remained subjects to Russia. And many of them – especially the Tuvinians – recovered their spirit and felt their nation united by the traditional vocal art passed down by their ancestors. As more liberal ways have gradually gained footing, today also women are known to practise chömei.
sam 2.jpg


Tuvinians wearing national costumes

Siberian equitarian herdsmen had little variation in their daily activities and so they would amuse themselves and their families by singing. They could not carry large instruments on horseback wherefore chömei long remained principally a vocal art among them.

However, various instruments were gradually introduced: e.g. the peculiar byzaantzy – a sort of viol – is played with the hairs of the bow threaded between the strings. Consequently, the bow always hangs onto the instrument! A musician holds the byzaantzy on his knee while playing. Although Siberian groups today make use of stringed instruments, drums, and voices in ensembles, the ancient tradition of single vocalists still survives.

sam 3.jpg

Tuvan musicians with instruments. On the left Anatoli Kuular holds a byzaantzy, Radomir Mongush holds a dyngur in the middle, and on the right Kongar-Ool Ondar holds a doshpulur.

On chömei-methods practised by the Tuvinians and their neighbouring tribes: introductory directions

There are three basic Tuvinian throat singing methods: chömei, kargyraa, and sygyt. These are further embellished to at least five submethods.

The word “chömei” means “guttural” in English and this is a general name for Central Asian throat singing, as mentioned above. However, a certain method is also called chömei, and it is a little easier than the rest. This is how you can learn to sing chömei: if you utter a vocalization with constrained false vocal chords (Notice that the vocalization must have power yet be constrained at the same time) and then contract the opening of your lips with open mouth cavity and pharynx, you will have a resonating chamber in the mouth. With different positions of the lips and the tongue you will soon discern flute-like overtones whistling along the borduna (that is, along the fundamental tone). Of course, in the beginning your overtones will be weak or hardly exist. But do not give up. In fact few people can produce a borduna strong enough for clear overtones at their first attempts. But if you practise your voice well every day you will certainly get used to this kind of singing. After a few months of practise you will achieve a valid chömei-voice.

“Sygyt” has its roots in the chömei-method. To practise sygyt you must start with chömei. Sing chömei with a half-open mouth, place the tip of your tongue behind your front teeth as if pronouncing the letter “L”; then press sides of your tongue against the molars. Now you may be puzzled to realize that you no longer can utter a sound. However, if you keep your tongue in the described position you have a resonating chamber in your mouth again. If you now make a little opening to the seal between your tongue and your palate and utter a strong, constrained sound you will hear a clear flute-like overtone – a harmonic of the borduna. This miraculous overtone is actually as clear as the sound heard when a wineglass is clinked! A few people, who are not familiar with this sound, hardly believe that what they hear is a human voice. At your first attempt you will certainly notice that keeping the tongue in that position and simultaneously trying to utter a constrained sound is extremely difficult. However, a constrained voice character is a necessary condition without which you will not be able to utter any distinct overtones. For such a voice contains more material for overtone singing than a soft and ordinary voice.

“Kargyraa” is an extremely low sound: to get an idea of kargyraa imagine a voice that resembles the roaring of a lion, the howling of a wolf, and the croaking of a frog – and all these mixed together. The Tuvinian word “kargyraa” means “hoarse voice”. You can also learn to sing kargyraa: when you start speaking, don’t you often hawk and clear your throat? This is the desired trick: for kargyraa is nothing else than a deep and continuous hawking. This hawking must rise from the deepest part of the windpipe; consequently low tones will start resonating in the chest. Overtones are amplified by varying the shape of the mouth cavity and the position of the tongue. Other methods are derived from the above mentioned.

The Mongolian musical tradition is essentially similar with that of Tuvinian. The Mongolians know throat singing methods that can be identified with the Tuvinian sygyt and kargyraa. Also Tibetan Gyoto monks chant their prayers in a very low register that resembles the Tuvinian kargyraa method. However, the monks have not developed as many variations as Tuvan and Mongolian musicians.


On Tuvan web-pages

With the exception of its native areas, throat singing has almost entirely been an unknown form of art until this decade. Tuva and Mongolia have remained remote and unknown areas to the peoples of the west until the Soviet Imperium came to its end last decade. Due to that event news between the East and the West began to move more freely. Rumours about Tuva and the peculiar Tuvinian musical culture spread in the West and especially in North America thanks to Richard Feynman, a distinguished American physicist, who was an ardent devotee of Tuvan matters. Today, partly because of Feynman’s influence, there exists a society called “Friends of Tuva” in California. Friends of Tuva circulates news about Tuva in the West [among other things; Friends of Tuva was founded by Ralph Leighton, a friend and travelling companion of Richard Feynman].

Anyone with an access to the internet can navigate in the web and see many pictures and find a lot of information about Tuva by using “Tuva” or “Friends of Tuva” as entries. In these pages there are discographies, questions and answers about Tuva (naturally written in English), photographs, and even samples of songs that you can actually listen to if you have a computer with audio equipment! You will also find precepts for learning throat singing. I suggest that, unless you do not use the entries, you first open a page called “Frequently Asked Questions” (that is “http://www.feynman.com/faq/tuva-faq.html”). On that page you will find questions and anwers and some links to pages of related matters.

Acknowledgements

I am most grateful to the distinguished gentlemen Tuomo Pekkanen and Erkki Palmén (University of Jyväskylä, Finland), who read the text throughout and gave me many useful pieces of advice. Honorable Mr. Kerry Yackoboski (University of Manitoba, Canada) kindly permitted me to use his photograps for which favour I am indebted to him. I found the geographical map in the web but have no idea of its origin. I am grateful to the person who composed it, whoever it is! Lady Kaija Virolainen advised me on the use of computers and their programs for which work I am indebted to her as well.

My email address: sjansson@kanto.jyu.fi ;
my URL-address: http://www.jyu.fi/~sjansson/index.html
(where you can find samples of throat singing)

Note of the editors: Unfortunately in our little Melissa there was not enough room to publish the long bibliography added by Sami Jansson; if you want to see it, please write to the author.

http://users.jyu.fi/~sjansson/throat.htm

Prof. TSAI Chen-Gia’s publications

Tsai, Chen-Gia

Associate professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology

Ctr. for Neurobiology and Cognitive Science

National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Research Interests

Biomusicology, neuroesthetics, arts and medicine, affective science, music acoustics, Xiqu

Books

Tsai, C.G.*, & Chen, R.S. (2017). Structures and Emotions in Chinese Sentimental Ballads: A Perspective of Cognitive Psychology (in Chinese). Taipei: Faces Publishing LTD.

Tsai, C.G. (2013). The Cognitive Psychology of Music (in Chinese). Taipei: NTU Press.

Tsai, C.G. (2011). Alternative Watching/Listening: Brain Diseases and Voice Disorders in Performing Arts (in Chinese). Taipei: NTU Press.

Journal Articles

Tsai, C.G. (2018). The psychology of musical creativity: the self, executive control, and generation of creative ideas (in Chinese). Journal of National Taiwan University of Arts, 27.

Tsai, C.G., Chou T.L., & Li, C.W.* (2018). Roles of posterior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in relative pitch processing: comparing musical intervals to lexical tones. Neuropsychologia, 119, 118-127. [SCI, IF=2.888]

Tsai, C.G., Du, W., & Chen, C.L.* (2017). Influence of literature music on the museum visitor experience: a case study of the Laiho Memorial Museum (in Chinese). Museology Quarterly, 31(3), 5-29.

Tsai, C.G., Li, C.W., Yeh, C.H., Chen, R.S., & Lin, Y.S.* (2017). Why do mandarin popular songs usually deal with break-ups? The therapeutic potential of sentimental ballads (in Chinese). Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 47, 371-420. [TSSCI]

Wu, M.T., & Tsai, C.G.* (2017). Emotional effects of Teresa Teng’s songs in Taiwanese healthy and disabled older adults (in Chinese). Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Medicine, 4, 119-138.

Tsai, C.G.*, & Hsia, L.T. (2107). Musical features and theatrical uses of Jin-La-Man-Chang rhythmic mode in Xiqu (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal, 25, 105-128.

Wen, Y.C., & Tsai, C.G.* (2017). The effect of harmonization on cortical magnetic responses evoked by music of rapidly changing tonalities. Psychology of Music, 45(1), 22-35. [SSCI, IF=2.173]

Cheng, T.H., & Tsai, C.G.* (2016). Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 182. [SSCI, IF=2.560]

Tsai, Y.H., & Tsai, C.G.* (2016). Emotional effects of the chorus scenes in musicals on audience: a study on Les Misérables and Chicago (in Chinese). Collected Papers on Arts Research, 25, 147-166.

Li, C.W., Chen, J.H., & Tsai, C.G.* (2015). Listening to music in a risk-reward context: the roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss. Brain Research, 1629, 160-170. [SCI, IF=2.988]

Chen, C.L., & Tsai, C.G.* (2015). The influence of background music on the visitor museum experience: a case study of the Laiho Memorial Museum. Visitor Studies, 18(2), 183-195.

Tsai, C.G.*, & Chen, C.P. (2015). Musical tension over time: listeners’ physiological responses to the ‘retransition’ in classical sonata form. Journal of New Music Research, 44(3), 271-286. [SSCI, IF=0.771]

Tsai, C.G.*, Yang, C.M., Chen, C.C., Chen, I.P., & Liang, K.C. (2015). Relaxation and executive control processes in listeners: an exploratory study of music-induced transient suppression of skin conductance responses. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 33(2), 125-143. [SSCI, IF=0.370]

Chang, Y.H., Lee, Y.Y., Liang, K.C., Chen, I. P., Tsai, C.G.*, & Hsieh, S.* (2015). Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1160. [SSCI, IF=2.560]

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.C., Wen, Y.C., & Chou T.L.* (2015). Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison of music and speech. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 455. [SCI, IF=3.626]

Tzeng, N.S., & Tsai, C.G.* (2015). Dutuo and salvation in Beijing Opera Peng-Bei (Tragic Monument in Yang’s Saga) and Nan-Tien-Men (South Heavenly Gate): a study from the perspectives of psychiatry and audience psychology (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal, 22, 25-50.

Tsai, C.G., & Tzeng. N.S.* (2015). Music therapy for the elderly: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (in Chinese). Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Medicine, 2, 87-106.

Tsai, C.G.*, Chen, R.S., & Yu, S.P. (2014). Analyzing the verse-chorus form: schema shifts and musical rewards in lyrical-slow songs (in Chinese). Research in Applied Psychology, 61, 239-286.

Tsai, C.G.*, Chen, R.S., & Tsai, T.S. (2014). The arousing and cathartic effects of popular heartbreak songs as revealed in the physiological responses of listeners. Musicae Scientiae, 18(4), 410-422. [SSCI, IF=1.537]

Tan, W.H., Tsai, C.G., Lin, C., & Lin, Y.K.* (2014). Urban canyon effect: storm drains enhance call characteristics of the Mientien tree frog. Journal of Zoology, 294(2), 77-84. [SCI, IF=1.545] [reports: Nature, bioforum.tw]

Yang, I.H., & Tsai, C.G.* (2014). Plucking positions on the guzheng strings: timbral analysis and performance practice (in Chinese). Yin Yue Yan Jiu, 19, 1-30.

Tsai, C.G.* (2014). The emotional expressions and structure in Beijing opera Pong-Yin: combining performance analysis with audience’s physiological measures (in Chinese). Journal of Traditional Chinese Theater, 11, 125-161.

Chen, I.P.*, Lin, Z.X., & Tsai, C.G. (2013). A felt-emotion-based corpora of music emotions (in Chinese). Chinese Journal of Psychology, 55(4), 571-599. [TSSCI]

Tsai, C.G.* (2013). Relationships between musical emotions and music cognition: dialogues between aesthetics and psychology (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music, 2013.2, 120-127.

Tsai, C.G.*, & Chen, R.S. (2012). Desire, resolution, and reward system: listeners’ emotional responses to musical cadences (in Chinese). Journal of National Taiwan University of Arts, 90, 325-345.

Tsai, C.G., Fan, L.Y., Lee, S.H., Chen, J.H., & Chou, T.L.* (2012). Specialization of the posterior temporal lobes for audio-motor processing – evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of skilled drummers. European Journal of Neuroscience, 35(4), 634–643. [SCI, IF=3.658]

Yang, W.C., & Tsai, C.G.* (2011). Telling the red myth with western music: the function and practice of musical schema shifts in model Beijing operas (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal, 13, 131-157.

Tsai, C.G.*, Chen, C.C., Chou, T.L., & Chen, J.H. (2010). Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI study. Brain and Cognition, 74(2), 123-131. [SCI & SSCI, IF=2.547]

Tsai, C.G.* (2010). The song forms in cultures of humpback whales and songbirds: interdisciplinary perspectives of biomusicology (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory, 2010.4, 129-134.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.L.*, & Lee, J.W. (2010). Literature soundscape in the museum: on the roles and functions of sound elements in literature exhibitions (in Chinese). Museology Quarterly, 24(1), 93-115.

Tsai, C.G.*, Wang, L.C., Wang, S.F., Shau, Y.W., Hsiao, T.Y., & Auhagen, W. (2010). Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: acoustic characteristics, musical implications, and biomechanical mechanisms. Music Perception, 27(3), 209-221. [SSCI, IF=1.068]

Tsai, C.G.* (2009). The Taiwanese horned fiddle: an example of exaptation of musical instruments (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory, 2009.4, 129-134.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, J.H., Shau, Y.W., & Hsiao, T.Y.* (2009). Dynamic B-mode ultrasound imaging of vocal fold vibration during phonation. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 35(11), 1812-1818. [SCI, IF=2.395]

Tsai, C.G.* (2009). Impure musical sounds: auditory model and harmonic-to-noise ratio (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal, 10, 113-125

Tsai, C.G.* (2009). From propaganda to dramatic ornaments: arias and divertissements in modern Beijing operas in 1958-1976 (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal, 10, 113-147.

Tsai, C.G.* (2008). String vibration with nonlinear boundary condition: an acoustical study of “blossoming tones” produced by the junhu (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory, 2008.4, 168-173.

Tsai, C.G.* (2008). Madness by romantic identification: Brain diseases in Xiqu (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 161, 83-133. [TSSCI]

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., Liu, H.M., & Hsiao, T.Y.* (2008). Laryngeal mechanisms during human 4 kHz vocalization studied with CT, videostroboscopy, and color Doppler imaging. Journal of Voice, 22(3), 275-282. [SCI, IF=0.953]

Tsai, C.G.*, & Lin, Y.Y. (2008). Contributions of epilepsy research to the psychology of music (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music, 2008.1, 31-37.

Tsai, C.G.* (2007). When Beijing Opera actors meet Beiguan Opera: an impartation project for Beiguan Opera by Xiao-Yiao Theater (in Chinese). Journal of Culture Resources, 3, 75-94.

Tsai, C.G.* (2006). Disease and composing: syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert (in Chinese). Formosan Journal of Music Research, 3, 91-106.

Tsai, C.G.* (2006). Towards the cognitive psychology of Xiqu music: examples from Xi-Mei-Fong-Yun and Da-Tzei-Men (in Chinese). Performing Arts Journal, 12, 159-172.

Tsai, C.G.* (2005). Chaotic behavior of performers’ vocalizations: an interdisciplinary study of growl voices (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal, 2, 39-62.

Tsai, C.G.* (2004). Absolute pitch: studies in cognitive psychology (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal, 1, 77-92.

Tsai, C.G.* (2000). Fu-Lu Sheng-Qiang of Taiwanese Luan-Tan-Xi belongs to Luan-Tan-Qiang system: evidence from tunes and repertory (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 123, 43-88.

Tsai, C.G.* (1997). A comparison of Chinese Nan-Xi and opera comique: the structure of He-To and vaudeville final (in Chinese). Arts Review, 8, 163-185.

Tsai, C.G.* (1997). A preliminary study on music of Luan-Tan Xiao-Xi (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 106, 1-29.

[Chinese version / Home]

email :
tsaichengia@ntu.edu.tw

biography of Prof. Dr. TSAI Chen-Gia

院) Musicology (音樂學研究所) CHEN-GIA TSAI (蔡振家)
tsai chengia.jpg

Musicology (音樂學研究所)

JEN-YEN CHEN (陳人彥)
TUNG SHEN (沈冬)
CHEN-GIA TSAI (蔡振家)
YING-FEN WANG (王櫻芬)
YUH-WEN WANG (王育雯)
FUMITAKA YAMAUCHI (山內文登)
CHIEN-CHANG YANG (楊建章)

CHEN-GIA TSAI (蔡振家)
ORCID
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Musicology (音樂學研究所)
Associate Professor (副教授)
+886-2-3366-4691
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teacher.Publications 44

teacher.Profile 2017-12-04 16:09:53
teacher.Education Ph.D. , Systematic Musicology , Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Humboldt University of Berlin) , Berlin , Germany, Federal Republic of Germany , 2004
teacher.CareerAndExperience teacher.CurrentPositions:

2011- Now, Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

teacher.Experiences:

2006- 2011, Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
2006- 2006, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

teacher.ResearchField

Chinese theater music
biomusicology
phoniatics
music acoustics
psychoacoustics

http://ah.ntu.edu.tw/web/Teacher!one.action?tid=2530

Tsai, Chen-gia, biography

Tsai, Chen-gia, biography

Chen-gia_Tsai

Tsai, Chen-gia

Assistant professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University

PhD (Musikwissenschaft), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Research Interests

Biomusicology, music cognition, vocal fold dynamics, music acoustics, Chinese opera

Courses Opened

Music of local Xiqu; Music acoustics; Music, evolution and the brain; Feeling and representations of love: linguistic and musicological perspectives

Journal Articles

Tsai, C.G. (2010). The song forms in cultures of humpback whales and songbirds: interdisciplinary perspectives of biomusicology (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music (in press)

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.C., Chou, T.L., Chen, J.H. (2010). Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI study. Brain and Cognition 74(2): 123-131. [SCI & SSCI, IF=2.547]

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.L., and Lee, J.W. (2010). Literature soundscape in the museum: on the roles and functions of sound elements in literature exhibitions (in Chinese). Museology Quarterly 24(1):93-115. [THCI]

Tsai, C.G., Wang, L.C., Wang, S.F., Shau, Y.W., Hsiao, T.Y., and Wolfgang Auhagen. (2010). Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: acoustic characteristics, musical implications, and biomechanical mechanisms. Music Perception 27(3):209-221. [SSCI, IF=1.714]

Lu, Y.H., and Tsai, C.G. (2009). Importance of motor imagery for music performance: Evidence from neuroscience (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 11:75-90.

Tsai, C.G., (2009). The Taiwanese horned fiddle: An example of exaptation of musical instruments (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory 2009.4:129-134. [CSSCI]

Tsai, C.G., Chen, J.H., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2009). Dynamic B-mode ultrasound imaging of vocal fold vibration during phonation. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 35(11):1812-1818. [SCI, IF=2.395]

Tsai, C.G. (2009). Impure musical sounds: auditory model and harmonic-to-noise ratio (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 10:113-125.

Tsai, C.G. (2009). From propaganda to dramatic ornaments: arias and divertissements in modern Beijing operas in 1958-1976 (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal 10:113-147. [THCI]

Tsai, C.G. (2008). String vibration with nonlinear boundary condition: an acoustical study of “blossoming tones” produced by the junhu (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory 2008.4:168-173. [CSSCI]

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Madness by romantic identification: Brain diseases in Xiqu (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 161:83-133. [TSSCI]

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., Liu, H.M., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2008). Laryngeal mechanisms during human 4 kHz vocalization studied with CT, videostroboscopy, and color Doppler imaging. Journal of Voice 22(3):275-282. [SCI, IF=1.143]

Tsai, C.G., Lin, Y.Y. (2008). Contributions of epilepsy research to the psychology of music (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music 2008.1:31-37.

Tsai, C.G. (2007). When Beijing Opera actors meet Beiguan Opera: An impartation project for Beiguan Opera by Xiao-Yiao Theater (in Chinese). Journal of Culture Resources 3:75-94.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Disease and composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert (in Chinese). Formosan Journal of Music Research 3:91-106.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Towards the cognitive psychology of Xiqu music: Examples from Xi-Mei-Fong-Yun and Da-Tzei-Men (in Chinese). Performing Arts Journal 12:159-172.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Chaotic behavior of performers’ vocalizations: an interdisciplinary study of growl voices (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal 2:39-62.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Absolute pitch: studies in cognitive psychology (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 1:77-92.

Tsai, C.G. (2000). Fu-Lu Sheng-Qiang of Taiwanese Luan-Tan-Xi belongs to Luan-Tan-Qiang system: evidence from tunes and repertory (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 123:43-88.

Tsai, C.G. (1997). A comparison of Chinese Nan-Xi and opera comique: the structure of He-To and vaudeville final (in Chinese). Arts Review 8:163-185.

Tsai, C.G. (1997). A preliminary study on music of Luan-Tan Xiao-Xi (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 106:1-29.

Conference Papers

Tsai, C.G. (2010). Oral representations of Beijing opera percussion music and jazz drum music: fMRI studies (oral). 「迎向21世紀台灣音樂學:全球化與跨文化」研討會,11月30日至12月2日,國立臺北藝術大學,臺灣

Chen, C.L., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). 〈博物館中的文學風景:台灣文學博物館發展與展示內涵之研究〉(oral). 「博物館展示的景觀」研討會,11月18-19日,國立臺北藝術大學,臺灣

Chen, I.P., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Emotional attributes of music (oral). 「情緒標準刺激與反應常模的基礎研究」99年度計畫研討會,11月6日,國立中正大學,臺灣

Wang, L.C., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Beat Perception through body movements: a case study of Nanguan, Beiguan and western classic music (oral). The 3rd International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology, September13-15, 2010, Cambridge, UK.

Huang, P.L., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Pitch glide in Chinese small gongs: effects of macrostructure and microstructure. International Symposium on Music Acoustics, 30-31 August, Sydney, Australia.

Tsai, C.G., Bai, M.R. (2010). An acoustical and historical study of the Taiwanese horned fiddle: Exaptation of musical instruments. International Symposium on Music Acoustics, 30-31 August, Sydney, Australia.

Cheng, J.Y., Tsai, C.G. and Lee, S.C. (2010). Bamboos as the material for saxophone reed. 20th International Congress on Acoustics, 23-27 August, Sydney, Australia.

Tsai, C.G., Auhagen, W., and Causse, R. (2009). The nonlinear membrane of Chinese flutes: its impacts on timbre and performance techniques (oral). 5th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM09). October 26-29, Paris, France.

Tsai, C.G. (2009). Possible impact of brain-imaging technology on the psychology of Asian music (oral). CUHK-NTU Music Forum 2009, 2-3 Jan 2009, Hong Kong, China.

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Emotional contents of the growl-like timbre: a study of biomechanics (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2008, Tainan, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., Shau, Y.W., and Wang, S.F. (2008). Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: acoustical features and biomechanical mechanisms (oral). 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, 25-29 August 2008, Sapporo, Japan.

Chen, J.H., Chang, M.D., Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., and Shau, Y.W. (2008). On the application of PIV algorithms to the analysis of ultrasound images of vocal fold tissues during phonation. 13th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Nice, France, July 1-4, 2008.

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Oral transmission of music: roles of the mirror neuron system in humans and humpback whales (oral). Mini-Symposium on Cultural Evolution & Human Ecology, 30 May, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2007). Cognitive mechanisms revealed by some forms of animal song: chunking, working memory, and self-associative memory (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2007, December 14-15, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, J.H., Hsiao, T.Y., and Shau, Y.W. (2007). A seawater-seabed model of vocal fold vibration: in-vivo measurements of amplitude attenuation and phase lag (oral). International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, 9-12 September, Barcelona, Spain.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.C., Chen, D.Y., Chou, T.L., Chen, C.H., Lee, C.W. (2007). Musical memes and oral tradition: the role of an auditory mirror system in music transmission and cognition (oral). Music and Evolutionary Thought Conference, June 22-23, Durham, England.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in Western music and Beijing Opera (oral). 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, 28 November-2 December, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2006). Vocal fold wave velocity in the cover and body layers measured in vivo using dynamic sonography (oral). 7th International Conference on Advances in Quantitative Laryngology, Voice and Speech Research, October 6-7, 2006, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., Shau, Y.W. and Chen, J.H. (2006). Towards an intermediate water wave model of vocal fold vibration: Evidence from vocal-fold dynamic sonography (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, July 12-14 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Disease and composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, Schubert (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2005, November 11-12, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Auhagen, W. (2005). Intonation, tone range and timbre of the Chinese flute (dizi): a Duffing oscillator model of the dizi membrane (oral). Symposium on Traditional Musical Instruments, September 10-11, 2005, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing (oral). International Symposium on Body & Cognition, June 4-5, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). The timbre space of the Chinese membrane flute (dizi): physical and psychoacoustical effects (invited). 148th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, November 15-19, San Diego.

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2004). False vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a hypothesis (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, August 18-20, Marseille, France.

Chen, J.H., and Tsai, C.G. (2004). Experimental research of the flow field in a brass mouthpiece-like channel using Particle Image Velocimetry (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Auditory grouping in the perception of roughness induced by subharmonics: empirical findings and a qualitative model (oral). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Helmholtz’s nasality revisited: physics and perception of sounds with predominance of upper odd-numbered harmonics (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2003). Relating the harmonic-rich sound of the Chinese flute (dizi) to the cubic nonlinearity of its membrane (poster). Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2003, August 6-9, Stockholm, Sweden.

[Blog / Chinese version]

http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/