TAKEDA, Shoichi and MURAOKA, Teruo: Analysis of Acoustical Features of Biphonic Singing Voices Male and Female Xöömij and Male Steppe Kargiraa

Analysis of Acoustical Features of Biphonic Singing Voices Male and Female Xöömij and Male Steppe Kargiraa TAKEDA, Shoichi and MURAOKA, Teruo
1 Teikyo Heisei University; 2 Musashi Institute of Technology 1 2289-23 Uruido Ichihara-shi, Chiba 290-0193 JAPAN
E-mail: takeda@thu.ac.jp E-mail: muraoka@ee.ec.musashi-tech.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
This paper clarifies spectral features of Mongolian or Tuva’s biphonic singings such as Xöömij, Steppe Kargiraa, etc. Spectra of five types of Xöömij sounds sung by male singers showed that a resonance with a high Q value is necessary if a listener is to perceive two pitches, and the spectra of all the sounds were found to have second-formant peaks corresponding to the higher-pitch voice. Similar second-formant peaks were observed in Xöömij sounds sung by a female singer. In Steppe Kargiraa /a/ sounds sung by a male singer, we found that first formants have acute peaks instead.

INTRODUCTION
Traditional Asian biphonic singings, among which the Mongolian “Xöömij [1]” may be best known, are produced by a single singer articulating two voices simultaneously: a “drone,” which is bass voice of almost constant low-pitch, and a “melody tone” of high-pitch. Xöömij is most popular in West Mongolia [2], and its singing technique is thought to have spread to European countries and been used in epical chants such as “two voices from a single mouth” in Yugoslavia [3]. Steppe Kargiraa is another example of biphonic singings sung in Tuva, Siberia located in the centre of Asia.
The origin of Xöömij is still uncertain. It was once thought to have been a kind of conjuration, but today is most widely believed to have sprung from a vocal imitation of murmuring streams or the echoes in the Altai mountain-chain [3, 4]. It has also been suggested that Xöömij is an imitation of the sounds of the Morin Khuur [3] and was used to pacify female animals separated from their young; a way in which it is still used [5].
This paper pursues the process of Xöömij generation by using the results of spectral analysis. Taking into account the results of previous acoustical analyses [6, 7], we formulated the following three hypotheses:

1. There actually is, in addition to a glottal source, an independent sound source (such as a whistle). (Hypothesis of Independent Sound Sources) [8]
2. Some portion of the vocal tract vibrates at a high frequency, and the product of the modulation of that high frequency vibration with a glottal source is perceived as the melody tone. (Hypothesis of Modulation)
3. A sharp resonance formed by a peculiar vocal tract shape selectively enhances some harmonics of the glottal source, and this resonance is perceived as the melody tone. (Hypothesis of Resonance)

Past soundspectrographic analyses [1], [9] did not prove any of the hypotheses because the amount of data analyzed was insufficient and the measurements were not accurate enough. We [6, 7], [17] first tested whether the “Hypothesis of Resonance” would be supported by the results of a detailed spectral analysis of a typical example of Xöömij singing and then repeated the analysis [18] using a Xöömij recording obtained under better conditions and using a state-of-the-art computer system. We then examined whether or not our results would hold for other types of Xöömij singing [11-13]. We first investigate the mechanism of Xöömij generation by using numerical speech signal analyses such as short-time FFT analysis, LPC analysis, and cepstrum analysis. Observing the harmonic structures of Xöömij sound waveforms and tracing the transitions of formant frequencies and the accompanying Q (quality of resonance) values, we obtained results consistent with the “Hypothesis of Resonance.”
Adachi & Yamada recently also used FFT and LPC as part of their research on vocal tract shapes during Xöömij singing [10], [16]. They used four Xöömij samples sung by one singer (the type of Xöömij is unknown), and their results also support the Hypothesis of Resonance.

NUMERICAL SIGNAL ANALYSES [18]
We investigated the three hypotheses using Xöömij material. After careful auditory examinations, we selected a recording of unaccompanied single Xöömij singing entitled “Gooj Nanaa” (the singer is unknown) recorded on the LP “Folk Songs [Asian version]” (JVC SKX25017 25018, Japan). The signal was digitized (16-bit samples) at a sampling rate of 22.05 kHz for calculation of formant frequencies, bandwidth, and Q values. For spectrum display the sampling rate was only 11.025 kHz. Short-time FFT was again applied to 1024 data samples and LPC analyses were carried out with a 30-msec Hamming window weighting. The order of LPC analysis for a sectional spectrum display was 10 and that for a 3D time-varying spectrum pattern display was 12. The orders were determined empirically by observing each spectrum.

Figure 1 is an expanded view of the middle part of a Xöömij waveform, where the waveform is considered almost stationary. The melody-pitch heights that were obtained by music score transcription approximately coincided with the second formant frequency F2. This suggests that the movements of F2 are perceived as melody in Xöömij singing. To trace the variation of F2, we calculated the successive spectrum envelopes shown in
Fig. 2.

A distinctive feature of our analysis that a formant that forms the melody tone is revealed by the use of the LPC method. As shown in Fig. 2, this formant is extracted clearly and quantitatively. Notable findings are that the intensities of the second formants of Xöömij sound waveforms are quite different from those of normal speech and that the Q values of F2 range from 6 to 98 and have an average value of 32.
According to the data in the literature [14, 15], the estimated Q of formants in normal speech is at most 30. The spectra of a Xöömij sound signal have a harmonic structure consistent with the Hypothesis of Resonance.

SPECTRAL FEATURES OF VARIOUS XÖÖMIJ ARTICULATIONS [11-13], [17, 18]
The detailed spectral investigation described in the previous section supports the Hypothesis of Resonance but was based on the analysis of only a single Chest Xöömij sample. A stronger conclusion could be drawn from the analysis of many samples of Xöömij with different articulations.
We further investigated samples of five types of Xöömij singing in order to find out whether there are spectral differences between the different types. The samples we analyzed were (1) Nasal Xöömij, (2) Oral-Nasal Xöömij, (3) Glottal Xöömij, (4) Chest Xöömij, and (5) Throat Xöömij.
This classification is based on where the singer believes the resonance point to be, and there is no proof that the resonance is actually at that place. These Xöömij samples were sung by male Mongolian singer Ganbold and were recorded on a CD entitled “Mongolian Songs” (KING RECORD, KICC-5133, Japan (1988)).
For sound pieces in which each of the present authors perceived two tones, sharp peaks could be observed in their spectra. These peaks correspond to the second formant frequencies F2, which thus are strikingly enhanced and are heard as the melody tone. This was commonly found for each type of Xöömij investigated in the present study, thus supporting the Hypothesis of Resonance.

FORMANT TRANSITIONS FROM NORMAL VOWELS TO XÖÖMIJ SOUNDS [18]
We also tried to clarify the spectral features of the transition from the sounds of normal vowels to Xöömij sounds. It is widely recognized that the phonetic impressions of Xöömij sounds somehow resemble [i], [e], or [u] sounds and that Xöömij initially sounds similar to an [u] when the melody tone is not heard clearly. We asked a Japanese Xöömij singer to articulate [(1) Normal vowel_ (2) Xöömij _ (3) Normal vowel] with one breath. The specific vowels used in this exercise were the four Japanese vowels [i], [u], [e], [o], and the singer was asked to pronounce them as normally as possible. It must be noted that our Japanese Xöömij singer’s control of Xöömij articulation was inferior to that of expert Mongolian Xöömij singers because our singer was not as well trained as expert Mongolian Xöömij singers. The analysis results were summarized using an F1-F2 diagram.
As shown in the F1-F2 diagram in Fig 3, shifts of the F1-F2 combinations toward the region of [i] were always observed. This suggests that the location of the stricture during Xöömij singing is almost the same as its location during the articulation of the vowel [i]. In the transitions from vowels to Xöömij, F1 shifted to about 250 Hz, while F2 shifted into the range of 1.8 kHz 2.3 kHz and its remarkable Q-
increases were also observed. The frequency range of F2 is almost the same as that of the melody tone.

ACOUSTICAL FEATURES OF FEMALE XÖÖMIJ VOICES
This section describes acoustical features of female Xöömij voices. It is known to be difficult for females to sing Xöömij songs.
Analysis was conducted using voices of Mongolian female singer Sainkho Namtchylak recorded on a CD entitled “Lost Rivers” (FMP CD 42, Germany (1992)).
The signal was digitized (16-bit samples) at a sampling rate of 16 kHz for spectrum display. Short-time FFT and LPC analyses were carried out with a 30-msec Hamming window weighting.

Figures 4 (a) shows a short-time spectrum of monophonic part of a female Xöömij sound waveform, and (b) shows that of biphonic part. A sharp peak can be observed in the spectrum in Fig. 4 (b), whose sound is perceived as two pitches. This peak corresponds to the second formant frequency F2, which is strikingly enhanced and is heard as the higher pitch. This was commonly found for each sample of female Xöömij voices investigated in the present study, thus supporting again the Hypothesis of Resonance.
A conspicuous difference from male Xöömij voices is in that the harmonic structure of the spectrum of a female Xöömij sound waveform is coarse compare to that of a male one.This coarse harmonic structure may be the reason why it is difficult for female singers to control melody tones.
ACOUSTICAL FEATURES OF MALE STEPPE KARGIRAA VOICES
Another interesting biphonic singing is a Tuva’s singing method called “Steppe Kargiraa,” which is characterized by an extremely low fundamental pitch. Recently the voice-production process has been explained by Imagawa, Sakakibara, Konishi, and Niimi using a glottal source model based on a “false vocal fold [19].” In this section we describe the results of spectral analysis of Steppe Kargiraa sound waveforms that have an auditory impression near a vowel /a/.

Analysis was carried out using voices of two male singers, Fedor Tau and Gundenbiliin Yavgaan. Tau’s voices were recorded on a CD entitled “TUVA Voices from the Center of Asia” (Smithsonian Folkway CD SF 40017, USA (1990)), and Yavgaan’s voices on a CD entitled “Mongolian Xöömij” (King KICW 1004, Japan (1999)). The signal was digitized (16-bit samples) at a sampling rate of 16 kHz for spectrum display. Short-time FFT and LPC analyses were carried out with a 30-msec Hamming window weighting.

Like Xöömij sound waveforms, the spectrum of a Steppe Kargiraa waveform in Fig. 5 (b) shows a prominent formant peak; while that of a normal vowel /a/ in Fig. 5 (a) does not. An interesting finding here is that the peaks yielding melody tones are not the second formant frequencies F2 but the first formant frequencies F1

CONCLUSIONS

We have analyzed spectral features of two types of biphonic singing: Xöömij in Mongolia and Steppe Kargiraa in Tuva. Measuring time-varying formant frequencies and Q values for a typical sample of Xöömij singing, we obtained results suggesting that resonance with an extremely large Q value is required for Xöömij generation. This is consistent with the Hypothesis of Resonance.

To further test this hypothesis, we evaluated samples of four types of Xöömij singing classified according to where the singer believes the resonance point to be. Sharp peaks were found in the spectra of all types of Xöömij. These results support the Hypothesis of Resonance, in which glottal waves and the sharp resonance of their higher harmonics are perceived as biphonic tones.

Another important finding in this work is that the first formant frequencies of Xöömij sound waveforms are constant. Investigating the transitions of formant frequencies from normal vowels to Xöömij sounds, we found that the F1-F2 combination always shifts toward the [i] region, with the first formant frequencies shifting to about 250 Hz.

The results of analyses of spectral features of female Xöömij and male Steppe Kargiraa singings also showed sharp formant peaks in the spectra that yield perception of melody tones. A conspicuous feature of spectra of female Xöömij sound waveforms is that the harmonic structure is coarse compared to those of male Xöömij sound waveforms, which may make female singers control melody tones difficult.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors express their sincere appreciations to Professor Kiyoko Motegi at Joetsu Kyoiku University and Mr. Masamitsu Yamakawa, previous senior engineer at JVC Company for their offer a chance to this research. And also thank with all their heart to former Professor Isao Nakamura at Teikyo Heisei University for his invaluable comments, and Messrs. Kikuji Wagatsuma, Yoshiyuki Tsuchikane, and Masato Horiuchi, the research engineers at JVC company for their cooperation to analyses, Dr. Masashi Yamada at the Osaka University of Arts for his offering useful literatures for this research, Mr. Daisuke Naganuma at Teikyo Heisei University (formerly) for his offering Xöömij sounds as a Xöömij singer, Xöömij singer Mr. G. Yavgaan, Mr. Kyoji Hoshikawa, folk music recording producer, Mr. Katsunobu Tokuda at KING RECORD Co., Ltd., President Keiko Kawashima and Ms. Hiroko
Ochiai at Plankton Co. for their offering valuable information on Xöömij. Finally, the authors would like to appreciate Messrs. Masashi Itoga, Katsuhisa Tadokoro, and Masashi Miyashita, former students at the Te ikyo University of Technology (presently Teikyo Heisei University) for their cooperation in the experiments.
This research was partly supported by Grant -in-Aid from Teikyo Heisei University as well as
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (2) “Diversity of Prosody and its Quantitative
Description” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (No.12132206).

REFERENCES
[1] Trân Q. H. and D. Guillou, “Original research and acoustical analysis in connection with the Xöömij style of biphonic singing,” Musical Voices of Asia, Individual research reports | Mongolia, pp.162-173 (1980).
[2] M. Yamada, “Mongolian biphonic singing Xöömij,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan Vol. 54-9, pp.680-685 (1998).
[3] ” A general survey of Mongolian music,” Asian traditional performing arts 1978,” The Japan Foundation, pp.5-9 (1978.11).
[4] Batzengel, “Urtin duu, Xöömij, and Morin xuur,” Musical Voices of Asia, Seminar information and documentation | Mongolia, pp.52-53 (1980).
[5] H. Hasumi, “Understanding Mongolian music,” Musical Voices of Asia, Seminar information and documentation | Mongolia, pp.142-148 (1980).
[6] T. Muraoka, K. Wagatsuma, and M. Horiuchi, “Acoustic Analysis of the Mongolian singing Xöömij,” Preprint of the Acoustical Society of Japan 2-3-9, pp.385-386 (1983.10).
[7] T. Muraoka, K. Wagatsuma, Y. Tsuchikane, and M. Horiuchi, “On a Consideration of Mongolian Singing Xöömij and its Specialities,” Preprint of the seminar on Musical acoustics, The Acoustical Society of Japan MA84-1, pp.1-6 (1984).
[8] B. Chernov, and V. Maslov, “Larynx -double sound generator,” Proc. 11th Int’1. Cong. Phonetic Sci., pp.40-43 (Tallin, Estonia, 1987).
[9] S. Gunji, “An acoustical consideration of Xöömij,” Musical Voices of Asia, Individual research reports | Mongolia, pp.135-141 (1980).
[10] S. Adachi, and M. Yamada, “An Acoustical Study of Sound Production in Biphonic Singing, Xöömij,” Proceedings of 1997 Japan – China Joint Meeting on Musical Acoustics, pp.21-26 (Tokyo, 1997).
[11] S. Takeda, M. Itoga, Y, Sato and Y, Ueda, “Analysis of Acoustical Features of Mongolian Singing “Khöömij”,” Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 2-7-15, pp605-606 (Oct, 1992).
[12] S. Takeda, M. Itoga, “On the differences in Spectra in Accordance with the Phonemic and Tone-height Differences in Mongolian Singing “Khöömij”,” Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 2-3-3, pp.499-500 (March, 1993).
[13] S. Takeda, M. Itoga, “Analysis of Acoustic Features of Mongolian Singing “Khöömij”,” Technical Report on Musical Information Sci.1-4, pp.1-4 (April, 1993).
[14] J. Ohizumi, and Y. Fujimura, Onsei kagaku (Science of Human Voices), Tokyo University Publishing (1972).
[15] K. Nakata, Onsei (Human voices), Acoustic Engineering Series by the Acoustical Society of Japan (Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1977).
[16] S. Adachi, and M. Yamada, “An Acoustical Study of Sound Production in Biphonic Singing, Xöömij,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 105, pp.2920-2932 (May, 1999).
[17] T. Muraoka, S. Takeda, and M. Itoga, “Analysis of Acoustic Features of Mongolian Xöömij Singing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan Vol. 56-5, pp.308-317 (May, 2000).
[18] T. Muraoka, S. Takeda, and M. Itoga, “An Acoustical Analysis of Mongolian Xöömij Singing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (in submission).
[19] H. Imagawa, K. Sakakibara, T. Konishi, and S. Niimi, “Glottal Source Model for Throat Singing Based on Vocal Fold and False Vocal Fold Vibrations,” Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 1-6-14, pp.255-256 (March 2001).

MARK VAN TONGEREN’s BIOGRAPHY

Biography
mark van tongeren
MarkVanTongerenByJochemHartzBig

photo by Jochem Hartz

Mark van Tongeren is a sound explorer and performance artist with a PhD in artistic research from Leiden University. He did ground-breaking research and vocal experiments in the field of overtone singing, which he began studying around 1990. He feels equally at home ‘in the field’ to study and practice indigenous vocal techniques, as in experimental performance art, using voice, small instruments and/or electronics.

He received his M.A. in ethnomusicology from the University of Amsterdam and has taught world music at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague. His PhD from the Academy of Creative and Performing Arts at Leiden University explores the boundaries of science and art and is entitled Thresholds of the Audible: about the Polyphony of the Body. During his PhD studies he founded a vocal laboratory (Paraphony) to develop little known aspects of multi-voiced harmonic singing. He created a series of compositions for two or more voices, called 0… (‘Nulpunten’ or ‘Zero-points’), which make audible hundreds of possible connections or permutations within the natural harmonic series, so that it ‘encounters itself.’ The results were presented in 2010 and 2013 by Mark van Tongeren and Rollin Rachelle, aka the Superstringtrio, in the performances entitled 0… and Incognito Ergo Sum in Amsterdam and Poland. Composer Paul Oomen also conducted the three-hour Overtone Singing Marathon held at the occasion of van Tongeren’s PhD defense in 2013.

MARK BIOGRAPHY 0

Incognito Ergo Sum with Rollin Rachele

He began his performance carreer with the artists – contructors of Silo Theatre of Amsterdam (De Parade, Oerol), where he did sound-design, and created live and recorded soundtracks (1992 until 1998). In 1999 he presented new vocal works in The Trumpets of Jericho, alongside the Trivento organ of the project’s initiator Horst Rickels, and singing ‘with’ and ‘through’ Tjeerd Oostendorp’s 7-meter long tuba. In 2001 he was artist-in residence at the School of Music of Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand for Jack Body’s Secret Sounds project, producing the CD-Rom Secret Sounds and several performances. with Phil Dadson (NZ), Leo Tadagawa (JP) and Bennicio Sokong (PH). At the Silk Road Festival in Washington, D.C. he performed as a throat singer with the festival’s initiator – cellist Yo-Yo Ma – over one of Johann Sebastian Bach’s cello suites (2002).

yo-yo-mark

throat singing with cellist Yo-Yo Ma at the Smithsonian Folklife/Silk Road Festival

From 1995 onward van Tongeren has made solo appearances as a singer in the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Finland, Germany, New Zealand, Belgium, China, the USA and most recently in Taiwan (Taipei, Chiayi). In 1995 he received a special prize at the International Throat Singing Festival in Tuva, Siberia (the same festival documented for the famous Gengghis Blues documentary).

He is featured on CD-ROM’s and DVDs, including Secret Sounds (an audio-visual guide to overtone singing and Jew’s harps with Jack Body; Ode Records); Raum Klang Stimme / Space Sound Voice (documentary about overtone singing by Minghao Xu; Traumzeit Verlag). His CDs include Paraphony-Extended Harmonic Techniques, a solo exploration of the resonances of the voice and space (Ode Records), Etos (with Oorbeek, Nice Noise Foundation) and Sphere by his ensemble Parafonia (Fusica). Horst Rickels’ piece Lift-Off, written for Parafonia, is also featured in Jiska Rickels’ award winning documentary Four Elements. Van Tongeren is featured prominently on Deer Woman, composed by Taiwanese film music composer Cincin Lee with Van Tongeren as a soloist. This CD was nominated for Taiwan’s Golden Melody Awards 2008.

An unusual collaboration was his involvement in the realisation of the world première of a work by the renowned Russian composer Dimitri Shoshtakovich (1906-1975), 28 years after his death. He assisted conductor Mark Fitz-Gerald at restoring the lost score of the film Odna (“Alone”), by directors Kozintsev and Trauberg (1931). Van Tongeren transcribed an original piece of Altay throat singing that was used for the film and took part in several screenings of Odna with live music, including the 2003 world première in The Netherlands. In 2008 Naxos published Fitz-Gerald’s CD recording in Germany with van Tongeren’s singing.

In 2002 Fusica published the book Overtone Singing – Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Fusica/Eburon), the fruit of over 10 years of scholarly and artistic research on this vocal technique. It is the first book-CD to document comprehensively the traditional and modern forms of this unusual vocal art. It exemplifies Van Tongeren’s interest to fuse intuitive and creative processes of singing and art with theoretical issues and critical reflection.

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Van Tongeren began extending his array of small, toy and ethnic instruments, as well as a Korg Kaoss Pad, while playing with Oorbeek, an Amsterdam-based collective of artists exploring the boundaries of sound and visual art. Oorbeek is one of his most enduring collaborations. Though very un-typical for Oorbeek, their televised adaptation of John Cage’s 4’33” was selected in 2017 as one of the pearls of 70 years Holland Festival.

He played with Collision Palace, an Amsterdam-based improv collective led by Nathan Fuhr (NYC), in John Zorn’s game piece Cobra. In New Zealand he collaborated with former Scratch Orchestra member Phil Dadson and Japanese singer/performer/bandleader Makigami Koichi in Off the Wall: Vocal Acrobats.
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He provided electronic/vocal soundtracks for several animation video’s by Oorbeek’s Serge Onnen, displayed in New York and in MOCA Taipei, and took part in several of Onnen’s live shadowperformances with Oorbeek or as a duo on in Beijing.
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In Taipei Onnen and van Tongeren presented new works for video/shadow/sound at the Taipei Artist Village (together with composer/guzheng player Tung Chao-Ming) and Lacking Sound Festival. Also in 2014, he began collaborating with the dancers of Biao/Horse, in a project produced for the Chang Kai Shek National Theatre in Taipei collaborating with pianist Lee Shih-Yang and cellist Chen Yu-Rong. More dance collaborations followed, with Biao’s Yeh Ming-Hwa (2015, 2016, 2017) and with Taipei Dance Circle.
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As a teacher, Van Tongeren gave a one-minute crash course of overtone singing for His Royal Highness the Aga Khan and secretary of state Colin Powell at the opening ceremony of the Silk Road / Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington, D.C. (2002). (usually learning to sing overtones takes longer, though). He has taught overtone singing workshops and courses for exploring/integrating the dynamics of voice, mind and body at various universities (Victoria School of Music, Wellington NZ; TNUA, Taipei TW) and privately. He teaches semester-long courses at National Cheng-Chi University’s creative department (X-Academy) in Taipei. Since 2012 he offers weekly Voice Yoga classes at Canjune and since 2014 a year-long Resonance course in Taipei.
MARK BIOGRAPHY 4

An enduring passion and artistic influence are local musical traditions from around the world. Since the 1990s Van Tongeren has studied music, singing and ritual in Siberia and Russia (Tuva, Altay, Khakassiya, Kalmukiya), Mongolia, India (Tibetan monks in Dharamsala), Sardinia and Corsica (polyphonic singing) and Taiwan. His move to Taiwan prompted a further study of its indigenous music and dance, particularly through the traditions of the Bunun and Saisiyat tribes. In Israel, Dutch composer Merlijn Twaalfhoven organised yearly events to empower Palestinian artist in East-Jeruzalem. In 2010, Twaalfhoven invited composer Paul Oomen, who guided a unique meeting between Firaz Gazzaz, a well-known Palestinian muezzin (reciter of the koran), and van Tongeren.

Since 2010 Van Tongeren lives in Taiwan with his wife June and his children Attar and Illy.

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One thought on “Biography”

maisa van der Kolk
09/08/2015 at 19:56

BEste Mark, Geen idee waar ik u kan bereiken, maar uw naam kreeg ik van Jan Van Dijk van de Univeriteit Amsterdam.Ik ben bevriend met zijn vrouw Leontien. Wij zijn druk bezig een cultureel centrum op te starten in Edam. Zelf organiseer ik inmiddels 5 jaar maandelijkse wereldmuziekconcerten en ben altijd op zoek naar bijzondere uitingen in de volksmuziek.Volgend jaar hopen we in ons centrum ook films te draaien met een mogelijkheid daar na afloop over te praten. Ik dacht aan Meeting with Remarkable Men van Gurdjieff en dan zou het geweldig zijn om ook live boventoonzang te beluisteren.Wie weet is er eenmogelijkheid om uw zang te beluisteren als u eens in Nederland bent. U kunt me antwoorden via de mail:maisavanderkolk@ziggo.nl , Met groet, Maisavan der Kolk.
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Types of Throat-Singing with Tips Under Construction Tuvan Throat-Singing

Types of Throat-Singing
with Tips
Under Construction
Tuvan Throat-Singing

Tuvan throat-singing, or Khoomei, is the area with which I have the most extensive experience. While I am familiar with other types of harmonic singing and chant, the main focus of this page will be Tuvan. You can find some information/links about other regions below.

All styles of Tuvan Khoomei involve controlled tension in and manipulation of the diaphragm, throat, and mouth. However, there are great differences between the different types of throat-singing; for example, some styles are multiphonic whereas other styles are not. Even this description must take into consideration the hearing, or conditioned hearing of the listener as much as the intention and execution of the singer.

There is no real consensus on Khoomei categories; this is a complicated issue due to a number of confusing factors. For one thing, affecting western scholars, there have to date been very few texts about Khoomei in Western European languages. The most commonly cited source when I began my research in the early 1990s was translated from Tuvan Folk Music, a book published in 1964 by A. N. Aksenov, a Russian composer who surveyed Tuvan Khoomei styles in the 1940-50s. More recently, there have been such resources such as Mark van Tongeren’s quite interesting Overtone Singing, various CD liners of varying quality and accuracies, and WWW sites such as my own Khoomei.com, which also vary greatly in worth.

There are major discrepancies between Aksenov’s descriptions and other older sources, and those of other more contemporary observers, and several plausible explanations. One is that Aksenov’s survey of Tuvan styles was limited in scope, though he was a highly educated and skilled composer and musician, who seemed to take his research most seriously. Although a definite factor, it is also apparent that there has been an appreciable development and metamorphosis of common Khoomei styles since Aksenov’s time. Also, many performances now include mixtures of styles much more extensively than in the past. Whereas many singers in the old days tended to sing mostly in one or two styles, and there was greater regional differentiation, many modern singers perform in numerous styles, hybrids, and develop their own takes on “the classics.”

So, although there is no widespread agreement, many contemporary Khoomei cognoscenti designate three or five major styles:

1. Khoomei

2. Kargyraa

3. Sygyt

4. Borbangnadyr

5. Ezengileer

As noted below, #4 and 5, Borbangnadyr and Ezengileer are sometimes considered to be proper styles, and sometimes to be ornamentations added to Khoomei, Kargyraa, or Sygyt. I would add to the top of the list Xorekteer, as it underlies most of the various styles.

All video examples are QuickTime movies. Click here to get QuickTime (available for Mac and PC).

All movies are © Steve Sklar/Skysong Productions, Inc. and may NOT be copied or distributed without consent. All Rights Reserved.

Please Note: If you don’t have QT Pro and want to save the videos, then either R click (PCs) or Option Click (Mac) and do a Save to Disk, then view the .mov file from your hard drive. If you have QT Pro, then you can view the videos from within your browser, and save them from there. If you view them from within your web browser, I recommend configuring the browser to view them using the QT plugin, as this lets you begin viewing as the files download.

Coming soon: MP3 examples…
Xorekteer means singing with the chest voice… Now, this can be confusing to beginners: What does “chest voice” mean? And why isn’t it the “throat voice?” This term can carry several meanings. It can be used, like khoomei, to mean ALL THROAT-SINGING, in any style. It can also be used as a metaphor for “with feeling,” as in “more heart.” Plus, it can refer both to the feeling of pressure one feels when throat-singing, and also to chest resonance, which is obvious in person but not on recordings.

In its common sonic sense, “Chest voice” has a totally different meaning than the western vocal context, and the two should not be confused. Those familiar with Tuvan music have noticed that often entire songs are sung with this voice. It usually serves as the springboard to launch into khoomei style and sygyt. Here is an excellent example in MP3 format, the song, Kombu* This solo by Kaigal-ool of Huun-Huur-Tu (accompanying himself on doshpuluur) demonstrates perfectly the characteristic sound of the Xorekteer voice, with its hard, bright tone, and he uses it as a launching pad to sing khoomei, sygyt, and kargyraa.

Khoomei is not only the generic name given to all throat-singing styles, but also to a particular style of singing. Khoomei is a soft-sounding style, with clear but diffused-sounding harmonics above a fundamental usually within the low-mid to midrange of the singer’s voice. In Khoomei style, there are 2 or more notes clearly audible.

Compared to Xovu Kargyraa or sygyt (see below), the stomach remains fairly relaxed, and there is less laryngeal tension than harder-sounding Sygyt. The tongue remains seated quietly between the lower teeth. The pitch of the melodic harmonic is selected by moving the root of the tongue and the attached epiglottis as in my “Yuh!” technique (see Lesson 1). On the upper illustration below, the epiglottis is seen as the light-colored projection rising from the root of the tongue. It is to the right of the hypopharynx, also referred to as the laryngopharynx.

Phrasing and ornamentation come from a combination of throat movements and lip movements. Lips generally form a small “O.” The combination of lip, mouth and throat manipulations make a wide spectrum of tones and effects possible. Video Demonstration: Kaigal-ool Khovalyg

Kargyraa is usually performed low in the singer’s range. There are two major styles of Kargyraa, Mountain (dag) and Steppe (xovu). Both feature an intense croaking tone, very rich in harmonics. This technique is related technically to Tibetan harmonic chanting.

NOTHING feels like Kargyraa; you really feel a “mouthful of sound.” The term refers to all styles of singing which simultaneously use both the vocal and ventricular folds inside the larynx, as dual sound-sources. See the lower illustration below, The Larynx. When the larynx is constricted slightly just above the level of the vocal folds while the vocal folds are engaged, the ventricular folds will usually resonate, producing the second sound source. The ventricular folds’ fundamental vibrates at half the speed of the vocal folds, producing the extra sound one octave lower than the usual voice. The ventricular folds also produce many midrange and upper harmonics. While not yet proved, I suspect that each set of folds produces its own harmonic series, which intereact and are affected by the formants of the vocal system. Careful listeners will note the “constant” sound produced by the vocal folds, and a periodical, pulsating complex of sounds created by the ventricular folds. Kargyraa often sounds more traditional, or authentic, when the vocal folds are in Xorekteer mode, as above, and when the sound is somewhat restrained, rather than freely exiting the mouth.

Kargyraa is the one Tuvan style that I know of that is closely linked to vowel sounds; in addition to various throat manipulations, the mouth varies from a nearly closed “O” shape to nearly wide open. Except for the throat technique, this style is vaguely related to western overtone singing styles that use vowels and mouth shapes to affect the harmonic content. However, unlike most western styles, there is no dependable correlation between the vowel and the pitch. Generally, western overtone singers link pitch to the vowel, so that “ooo” gives the lowest harmonic, and rise in pitch from “ooo” to “o” to “ah” to “a” to “ee,” and so on. In Kargyraa, an “ah” can be higher than “a”, etc.

Dag (Mountain) Kargyraa is usually the lower of the styles in pitch, and often includes nasal effects; this sometimes sounds like oinking! It should feature strong low-chest resonance, and not too much throat tension. Video Demonstration: Alden-ool Sevek

Xovu (Steppe) Kargyraa is usually sung at a higher pitch, with more throat tension and less chest resonance. It also has a generally raspier sound. Video Demonstration (with other styles, see at about :53) Kaigal-ool Khovalyg

Sygyt is usually based on a mid-range fundamental. It is characterized by a strong, even piercing, harmonic or complex of harmonics above the “fundamental,” and can be used to perform complex and very distinct melodies, with a tone similar to a flute. The ideal sound is called “Chistii Zvuk,” Russian for clear sound. Part of achieving this ideal is learning to filter out unwanted harmonic components. Video Demonstration (also with Xorekteer and Borbangnadyr): Gennadi Tumat

For sygyt, you must increase the tension a bit at the same place as in khoomei. The tongue rises and seals tightly all around the gums, just behind the teeth. A small hole is left on one side or the other, back behind the molars, then you direct the sound between the teeth (which produces sharpening effect) and the cheek towards the front of the mouth. With your lips, form a “bell” as in a clarinet or oboe, but not centered; rather off just a bit to the side of your mouth where you direct the sound from that hole in the back. You change pitch with the same technique as khoomei, as in my ‘Yuh!” technique (see Lesson 1), and the rest of the tongue moves slightly to accommodate this action. The raised tongue serves as a filter to remove more of the lower harmonics, and in sygyt, it is possible to nearly remove the fundamental.

Borbangnadyr is not really a style in quite the same sense as sygyt, kargyraa, or khoomei, but rather a combination of effects applied to one of the other styles. The name comes from the Tuvan word for rolling, and this style features highly acrobatic trills and warbles, reminiscent of birds, babbling brooks, etc. While the name Borbangnadyr is currently most often used to describe a warbling applied to sygyt, Sygyttyng Borbangnadyr, it is also applied to some lower-pitched singing styles, especially in older texts. Video Demonstration: Oleg Kuular

Ezengileer comes from a word meaning “stirrup,” and features rhythmic harmonic oscillations intended to mimic the sound of metal stirrups clinking to the beat of a galloping horse. The most common element is the “horse-rhythm” of the harmonics, produced by a rhythmic opening-and-closing of the velum. The velum is the opening between the pharynx and the nasal sinuses. See the upper illustration, The Pharynx. The velum is not named, but is located just to the right of the soft palate, between the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Or, if you prefer, you will recognize it as the location of Postnasal Drip. Video Demonstration: German Kuular

Some other categories include:

Chilandyk is a mixture of Kargyraa and Sygyt. One usually begins with the Kargyraa voice, and then uses Sygyt technique to add a harmonic melody. If one can sing both Kargyraa and Sygyt then Chilandyk is not too difficult; what is challenging is maintaining the base pitch in tune while singing the Sygyt melody. Whew! Chilandyk is named for the Tuvan word meaning “cricket,” and there is a definite cricket-like quality when sung in a high Kargyraa voice.

Dumchuktaar means to sing through the nose (dumchuk). This may mean exclusively nasal with the mouth shut, or may just mean a voice exhibiting an obvious nasal sound. This is especially common in Ezengileer and some forms of dag (mountain) kargyraa, and some singers always sing this way, regardless of style. Video Demonstration (Dag Kargyraa): Gen-Dos

Nasal singing is common among western overtone singers. It is commonly believed that the directing sound through the nasal sinuses enhances the high harmonics. However, my observations indicate that the increased high harmonic components are not the major melodic frequencies in styles such as sygyt and khoomei, and also that open nasal passages provide a passage for some lower frequencies that might be better filtered out.

To control the amount of nasal sound in your voice you must gain control of the velum, as in ezengileer, above. You can feel the velum open when you sing and then close your mouth. The sound will then exit the nose, via the velum and sinuses. To feel the velum closing, sing a sustained note with your mouth closed. Try to stop the sound without moving your tongue (keep it down in the back of the mouth and don’t jam it back into the upper throat to stop the sound. And don’t pinch-off your nose! If you can stop the sound, you will have isolated the velum. When closing it while sounding, you may feel it push up by the airflow. Once you’ve isolated the velum, work on developing its use. Practice opening and closing it rhythmically, even practicing, say, triplets or dotted eighth notes. Also, experiment with opening it in degrees, not just opened-and-closed.

On the first illustration below, the velum, unmarked, is located between the nasopharynx and oropharynx, just to the right of the soft palate.

Tibetan Chant

The low multiphonic chordal of the Tibetan monk’s chanting style is related to kargyraa, with a low fundamental often in the 80 Hz range. The sound is produced by the combination of the vocal and ventricular folds. The larynx is typically held low in the throat, conducive to low tone due partially due to extendind the air column. The lips are extended and nearly closed, also lengthening the air column and serving as a filter to remove the upper overtones. Other fine details vary among individuals, as well as, to a degree, different monastic traditions. The monks most widely known for their multiphonic chanting, known by various names such as Yang, Dzho-Kay, and others, are the Gyume and Gyuto. I have heard others, too, such as the Drepung Loseling monks and others.

It can be difficult finding reliable information regarding more specific details about the monks’ chanting styles. In fact, in my experience, there is more disinformation regarding this cultural variety than any other. If you hear stories about developing this type of voice, and they sound bizarre, and some do, ignore them and don’t try them. Also, while there are often claims cited by outsiders regarding the need to attain certain high levels of spiritual attainment, the evidence in my experience casts doubts. Of course, I cannot deny the possibility that some such spritual development might lead someone to subsequntly aquire the voice. Tran Quang Hai has an interesting piece on Tibetan Chant. Video Demonstration: Myself, with Drepung-Loseling monks

Other Types of Throat-Singing and Overtone Singing

Throat singing is found in other parts of the world. Some are very similar to Tuvan styles, and others are not. Here are some of them:

Mongolia Besides Tuva, Mongolia is the most active center of throat-singing. Many styles, very related to Tuvan singing. Try Michael Ormiston’s site, with lots of info

Khakassia: Just northwest from Tuva, the art is called Khai (or Xai). There are 2 videos of Khai singers at the khoomei.com video page.

Altai This republic directly west of Tuva is home to Kai singing. Here’s an MP3 by the group, AltKai.

Bashkortostan In this southern Ural Mountain republic, the regional throat-singing is called Uzlyau. I have a recording of uzlyau performer Robert Zigritdinov, which I’ll eventually digitize. He does appear on van Tongeren’s book/CD. The performers sometimes simultaneously play flute and sing, as in Mongolia. This is an unusual tradition, as several researchers mention that performers often don’t know any other performers, or teachers. The means of transmission is therefore quite vague.

Umngqokolo Umqang This Xhosa variant is perfomed by women, and sounds very deep and unique. There is very little documentation available, but I have seen a video by South African Ethnomusicologist David Dargie which if I recall correctly, mentioned shamanic connections. Here’s a MP3

Inuit “throat-singing” is a very different vocal art than the others included here, and is not multiphonic. However, it does sometimes use similar vocal timbres which often include the use of both the vocal and ventricular folds (I believe). And, as in the case of the Tibetan monks, it is not true “singing.” It sometimes involve the unsual technique of vocalizing on alternating inhalation/exhalations. Here is an article with an interview with Inuit throat-singer Evie Mark, and a video sample of Evie and Sarah Beaulne. I’m not sure if this tradition extends to other areas of the Arctic.

From Widipedia: The Ainu of Japan had throat singing, called rekkukara, until 1976 when the last practitioner died. It resembled more the Inuit variety than the Mongolian. If this technique of singing emerged only once and then in the Old World, the move from Siberia to northern Canada must have been over Bering Strait land bridge some 12,000 years ago.

Inuit Throat Singing: When the men are away on a hunting trip, the women left at home entertain themselves with games, which may involve throat singing. Two women face each other usually in a standing position. One singer leads by setting a short rhythmic pattern, which she repeats leaving brief silent intervals between each repetition. The other singer fills in the gap with another rhythmic pattern. Usually thecompetition lasts up to three minutes until one of the singers starts to laugh or is left breathless. At one time the lips of the two women almost touched, so that one singer used the mouth cavity of the other as a resonator, but this isn’t so common today. Often the singing is accompanied by a shuffling in rhythm from one foot to the other. The sounds may be actual words or nonsense syllables or created during exhalation.

New World Terms: The name for throat singing in Canada varies with the geography:

• Northern Quebec – katajjaq
• Baffin Island – pirkusirtuk
• Nunavut – nipaquhiit

The Indians in Alaska have lost the art and those in Greenland evidently never developed it.

Rajasthan, India This is a very interesting example of a unique, peculiar and non-traditional development, as there is no such custom here. The anonymous singer learned to overtone sing by imitating the local double-flutes. MP3

USA – 1920s – The legendary and obscure Arthur Miles was an American cowboy singer who, apparently, also independently developed his own overtone singing style. He also sang in normal voice, yodeled, and played guitar. Almost nothing is know of him or his influences, but the dates of his recordings, believed to be about 1928-29, make him one of the earliest overtone singers ever recorded! Lonely Cowboy Part 1 Lonely Cowboy Part 2 Thanks to John (quaern from the Yahoo group)

You can find more info on some of these in Mark van Tongeren’s Overtone Singing
Videos

This video identifies some parts of the interior larynx.

Ever wonder how videos of the inside of the larynx are made? See this video about fibroscopy, used to make endoscopic videos.
Some Throat-Singing Tips:

• Go easy! When learning you’ll be using your anatomy in new ways. Don’t sing too loud, too long, or too often; use common sense!

• Dry throat? Here’s the cure that I developed: All of us suffer from time to time the effects of dry throat. Whatever the cause, whether dry climate, air conditioning or heat, colds, allergies, medications, or nerves, it can be difficult to remedy. The usual “remedy” is to drink some water. This will help to moisten the mouth, but the water will be directed by the epiglottis away from the larynx and respiratory system. Drinking lots of water may offer some help, due to general rehydration of the body, but often will fail to adequately hydrate the vocal system’s mucus membranes. Here’s a technique I developed to remedy this problem, which for some reason some of my students call “The Human Bong Trick:”

1. Take a good mouthful of water.

2. Extend the lips to a point.

3. Leaving a small hole, face the floor and inhale through the water. The air will bubble through the water, becoming moist, and deliver this moisture to the surface of the interior of the larynx, trachea, and lungs in an effective and non-irritating manner. (Editors note: Try this next time you are on an airplane. It is a great antidote to dry cabin air. Just be careful not to suck water into your lungs.)

4. Do this for a minute or two, and you will feel a great improvement in both comfort and voice!”

I’ll try do produce a video demonstrating this hydrating technique. Stay tuned!

• Musical Tip: Remember that any technique or action that changes any sonic parameter, including pitch, tone, texture, etc., can be manipulated in time to produce rhthyms.

• If you attempt to learn kargyraa too low in your vocal range, you have nowhere to go. You need to start in your low midrange, and when you correctly engage both sets of folds the sound will “drop an octave.”

• If you are having trouble getting the basic kargyraa voice, try singing it with your mouth shut. The velum will open, allowing you to sing through your nose. The smaller outlet produces back-pressure, which helps many folks to get the sound.

• To strengthen the kargyraa sound, and to make it easier to “get fresh” each time, practice alternating the sound like flipping a switch: With the vocal folds engaged producing a sustained tone, repeatedly engage and release the ventricular folds.

• Make sure that your mouth is open at least enough that you can hear what you’re doing in your throat! Also, too much constriction in the larynx or elsewhere will kill the sound. Just enough for a good sound, and no more!

• As in many endeavors, the tendency is to OVERDO. To use too much tension, airflow, volume, intensity. More often than not, the answer is to back off. Use only as much effort as necessary, only where it is needed. Too much pressure can also damage your vascular system; there are many stories of Mongolian singers who used too much pressure and broke blood vessels. Don’t blow a gasket!!!

• Avoid hurting your throat. There is a simple equation at work here: Pressure (airflow, powered beneath the diaphragm) meets constriction in the larynx. Too much airflow meeting this constriction will stress the throat. Try this: Close your mouth, and blow hard. Your cheeks will puff out and eventually your lips will give out. Imagine doing this with more delicate, sensitive membranes as in your throat. Don’t do this!

More coming soon…
The Pharynx, Mouth, and Sinuses
pharynx

larynx

.

Rear-View Coronal Section of Larynx
Links – Voice, vocal anatomy, etc.

Structures of the larynx Good site from Mythos Anatomy/Webmed, with interactive anatomy figures.

Singing and Anatomy Two articles on voice production

The Singing Voice: Anatomy More good info on the vocal anatomy. Lots of useful graphics, videos, and links. Don’t miss the section on Castrati, and remember that it may improve sygyt but at the expense of a good, deep kargyraa. Act accordingly.

Lots of cool links about the voice

A Basic Overview of Voice Production by Ronald C. Scherer, Ph.D. Lots off good definitions of vocal terms.

How the Larynx (Voice Box) Works Charles R. Larson, Ph.D. Good article with good graphics.

Google Search: “singing” and “larynx” Can’t get enough, now, can you?

Last Updated 11-21-05
https://khoomei.com/types.htm

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4 concerts this week (NL/PL)
15/11/2013Artistic Research, People, ProjectsAMSTERDAM, Audio Art, Audio Art Festival, Bram Stadhouders, concerts, Daphne van Tongeren, Echokamer, Het Poortgebouw, improvisation, Krakow, Marek Cholonewksi, Mark Alban Lotz, Mark van Tongeren, Mediamatic, music, Oorbeek, oorsprong curator series, Overtone Singing, Rollin Rachele, sound-art, Superstringtrio, Voice

dear listeners,

I’d like to announce a couple of concerts in The Netherlands and in Poland in the coming week:

IMG_3788

Monday 18 november, AMSTERDAM, Het Poortgebouw, 1st Floor, Tolhuisweg 2: Oorsprong Curator Series, start at 20 o’ clock. Free-improvisation with flutist Mark Alban Lotz and guitarist Bram Stadhouders and vocalist Mark van Tongeren, and several other exciting music/dance impro-combinations in two other sets that same night.
Link: http://oorsprong.wordpress.com/

Thursday 21 November, AMSTERDAM, Mediamatic/Fabriek – Echokamer, 20:30, Superstringtrio (Rollin Rachele, Mark van Tongeren) and Daphne van Tongeren (light/performance).
Echokamer is a series of events during which composers, musicians and other sound-makers experiment with sound at, and with the sound of, Mediamatic Fabriek. The giant industrial hall reverberates and erodes, and produces quite a bit of sound all by itself. The perfect place for noisy experiments. Read more details about Superstringtrio’s sonic excursion next Thursday on this link: http://www.mediamatic.net/357851/en/echokamer-12-superstringtrio

Sunday 24 November, KRAKOW (Poland), Audio Art Festival/Bunkier Sztuki, 19 o’clock, Superstringtrio. We have been invited by Marek Choloniewski, founder of Audio Art Festival, one of the most long-standing festivals dedicated to Sound Art in all its beautiful, radical and weird manifestations, to join the ranks of many artists who have performed there in past decades. Superstringtrio will present an updated version of its performance Incognito Ergo Sum, premiered in Amsterdam earlier this year at the occasion of the PhD-defense of Mark van Tongeren’s Thresholds of the Audible- thesis at Leiden University. See a short clips of it on Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/64866998. For the full program of the festival, which has already started yesterday and continues next week, check this link: http://www.audio.art.pl/
(with our thanks to Horst Rickels, who gives a workshop and concert in Krakow tomorrow with his Lesley-speakersystem, together with Robert Pravda).

In a couple of hours I am leaving Taiwan. If all goes well I might join Oorbeek tomorrow, Saturday 16 November at the opening of The New Institute in ROTTERDAM. Set 1 at 17 o’ clock, set 2 at 17:45. 6th floor, Museumpark 25, 3015 CB Rotterdam,
Link: http://www.hetnieuweinstituut.nl/nieuwnew

Hope to see you somewhere!

Best wishes,

mark van tongeren
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About me:
I was raised artistically with The Silo Theatre of Amsterdam in the 1990s, make improvised music with Oorbeek, compose and improvise with my own Parafonia crew, and have some solo musical and non-musical alter ego’s.

I do a PhD in the arts at Leiden University / docARTES in Ghent, entitled “Overtone Singing and the thresholds of audibility.” You’ll find more info on http://www.fusica.nl

Currently, I love philosophy/phenomenology.

And my my kids, who are half Taiwanese.

Instruments:
Jew’s Harp, KaossPad double-nose-flute and an array of Paraphonic instruments

Influences:
The Radiators, The Animals and other environmental sounds

Homepage:
http://www.fusica.nl

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At 2:47pm on September 15, 2011, frderik aldrik hendrik de wolff said…
ha Mark,

Goeie vlucht gehad? Mijn opleiders die ook regelmatig contact hebben in Taiwan zijn benieuwd of je als zij weer een keer daar zijn dan wel in de Volksrepubliek contact mogen zoeken met jou.

Breng straks je boek en cd naar de bieb. Inderdaad bijzondere cd,gaat dwars door het hoofd heen soms.

Ik vond het een erg leuk bezoek aan jou en je zus.

met vriendelijke groet,

Frits de Wolff

At 3:49pm on January 29, 2010, Jens Mügge said…
Hello Mark,

your CD Parafonia is listed now and played since yesterday at woodroot-radio.eu – Wolfhard selected the piece »Dulcet Ingratitude Oblique«

Stay tuned,
Jens

At 9:24am on November 19, 2009, Harold Grandstaff Moses said…
Thanks for the welcome. I am a believer in the healing power of Harmony. For the past 15 years I have experimented with engineering harmonic overtones in order to alter consciousness and effect healing. I invite you to sample these “Harmonics for Health” – I experience this music as a ‘theo-active’ adventure.

Enjoy these Free Downloads:
http://www.hgmoses.com/CDs_Downloads/Free_Music.html

Main Portal: http://www.hgmoses.com

“You are a harmonically unique vibrational signature of the Divine – a chord in the cosmic Harmony.”

At 11:51pm on August 20, 2009, Rowenna said…
Dear Marc, with the dates I ment a facture or the banking adress how to transfer the payment for the CD. I am looking forward listening your musik and wish you a good time and lots of inspiration,
with kind regards
Rowenna

At 2:14pm on August 20, 2009, Rowenna said…
Nice to have you as a friend. Would be interested in your CD. Could you send it to me with the dates for the exchange of money. My adress you find in my homepage: http://www.rowenna.ch

At 1:37am on May 20, 2009, Jens Mügge said…
Hi Mark, your book Overtone Singing Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West is currently unavailable on amazon.com – Can I order it via The Tuva Trader only?
With kind regards,
Jens Mügge

At 9:42am on April 16, 2009, Tran Quang Hai said…
Dear Mark,
Congratulations for your CD . Hope to meet you next summer. I’ll go to South Africa to participate in the ICTM world conference (I am an executive board member, an obligation !) from 28 june till 11 july 2009
Love to you and your family
Tran Quang Hai

At 8:38am on April 16, 2009, Tran Quang Hai said…
Hi Mark,
How are you ? Where are you now ?
I am a retired man now . To morrow , I ‘ll give a workshop of overtone singing in Berlin until Sunday. Then Bach Yen and I shall go to Canada for 2 weeks to give concerts and lectures at Ottawa University from 27 april till 11 may.
How are all members of your family ?
Love,
Tran Quang Hai

At 6:33pm on February 27, 2009, Arjopa said…
Shagaa Bile Dear Mark!!

We wish you & your family a happy, healthy,fruit- & successful
New Year of the Earth Cow!!
May all your wishes & plans come true in thisyear of butter & cream!!

Shagaa Bile!!

Khoomei Throatsinging Country Punk Greetings from Berlin!!

Arjopa & The Master U-like

At 6:29pm on February 12, 2009, Arjopa said…
Dear Mark!!
Thanx a lot for your friendship,here!!
Haven´t seen us for a while – last time at our concert,
Obertonfest, Berlin 2002!!
We still like your work/music!!

Hope you like our Khoomei Throatsinging Country Punk,too!!

Greetings from Berlin!!

Arjopa & The Master U-like

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