Gorge Profonde et Relaxation instantanée (chant diphonique)

Gorge Profonde et Relaxation instantanée (chant diphonique)

Ajoutée le 23 mai 2019

#chant #diphonique #mongolie Bonjour à tous Evidemment il s’agit bien de chant diphonique ^^ Je ne sais pas trop si cela va vous relaxer mais je voulais faire cette vidéo depuis longtemps maintenant. A vous de me dire. J’attends vos commentaires. Voici le lien d’un projet pour la Mongolie. La vidéo est a la fin de celle ci . Merci par avance à tous ceux qui le soutiendront. Je ne vous décevrais pas. Pour y contribuer : Voici le lien, merci d’avance https://paypal.me/pools/c/8eNIm9nMHz J’attends vos commentaires. Rappel ^^ Mon Instagram https://www.instagram.com/lechuchoteu… Appli Periscope : @chuchoteurASMR Twitter https://twitter.com/ChuchoteurASMR Facebook http://www.facebook.com/Asmrlechuchoteur lien Tipeee https://www.tipeee.com/lechuchoteurasmr


The Phenomenon of Throat-Singing


Below is definitely one of the more memorable videos from class and my previous blog.  As unique as the performance is, the Inuit are not the only groups with this throat-singing tradition.

Click here to view the embedded video.


The Basics


Throat-singing is a “guttural style of singing or chanting” and “one of the world’s oldest forms of music” according to a Smithsonian Folkways webpage about the culture surrounding it (http://www.folkways.si.edu/explore_folkways/throat_singing.aspx).  In the Western world, most people only hear or imagine singers to be singing one note at a time, however we have multiple vocal chords that can actually produce different pitches simultaneously. Throat-singing is most often seen in the countries of Central Asia—especially among the Tuvans on the Southern Russia/Northern Mongolian border. However there are two other groups, the Xhosa people of southeastern South Africa and the Inuit of Northern Canada, who also practice throat-singing in different settings and among different groups of performers. Throat-singing even has a place in popular music and television—we shall see some examples later in this post.

The Smithsonian Folkways article goes into more detail about these groups. Let us take a look at the three primary practicing groups of throat-singing:


The Tuvans


Tuva is a predominantly rural region of Russia located northwest of Mongolia. They call throat-singing Khoomei. Khoomei performers are primarily male due to a superstition that throat-singing women will have fertility problems. They are also taught to throat sing from a young age. The Khoomei throat-singers use a form of circular breathing which allows them to sustain singular notes for longer periods of time. The Tuvans originate from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and the sounds they make, such as the Tuvan singing group Huun Huur Tu playing in the style of “Sygyt” (or “whistle”) below at a Philadelphia Folk Festival in 2006, are very reminiscent of the nature that surrounds them:


Click here to view the embedded video.


According to the article “Overtone Singing Music” on National Geographic’s Music webpage, the Tuvans separate various overtone styles into 3 categories based on what part of nature they imitate:  Sygyt, which imitates birds and breezes/gentle winds. Xoomei alludes to stronger winds, and kargyraa is meant to portray storms (http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/overtone_singing_763/en_US).


While not raised in the Tuvan culture, a YouTuber named Alex Glenfield has taught himself how to master several types of overtone singing.  In the video below he demonstrates 7 styles: the classic Khoomei style at :10, Sygyt at 1:08, Dag Kargyraa at 2:11, Steppe Kargyraa at 3:12, Ezenggileer at 4:05, Khoomei Borbangnadyr at 4:47, and the Chylandyyk at 5:35:


Click here to view the embedded video.


The Inuit


The Inuit are the indigenous native people of northern Canada. In contrast to the throat-singing of the Tuvans, Inuit throat-singing (also called katajjaq) is almost always performed by females.  It is often performed in groups of two or more women, and the techniques used are reliant upon staccato, rhythmic inhalations and exhalations of the breath. The tradition with Inuit folksinging originated as a competition or a game among female friends while the males were out hunting for the families. Over a century ago Inuit throat-singing was condemned by local Christian priests, but it is gaining a recent revival among the youth of Canada. Performers even submit throat-singing audition tapes to be shown at the Winter Olympic games.


The clip shown below is of two Inuit women, Janet Aglukkaq and Kathy Keknek, filming a throat-singing audition tape for the 2008 Winter Olympic Games:


Click here to view the embedded video.


The Xhosa


The Xhosa people of Bantu origins live and thrive in southeastern South Africa. Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu are famous Xhosas. Their style of deep throat-singing, called eefing, is composed of singing two notes that are only a step apart accompanying much higher notes simultaneously. The singing accompanies traditional call-and-response (antiphony) or group songs. The Xhosa often use these songs for joyful occasions such as parties and dances.


Shown below is a clip of Xhosa women practicing eefing:

Click here to view the embedded video.


Here is another clip. The blonde woman is Kendall, the assistant producer of a play called “MoLoRa” that is based in Johannesburg, South Africa. She enlists this Xhosa group of women, called Ngqoko, to help provide musical clips for her play. In her interview with them around 2:31, they begin harmonizing together:


Click here to view the embedded video.


Throat-Singing in the Western World/Culture:


Chances are if you have heard of throat-singing prior to this blog, you are a watcher of The Big Bang Theory, a well-known American sitcom series. In the episode “The Large Hadron Collision” one of the main characters Sheldon, a quirky but highly intelligent man, demonstrated his skill of Tuvan throat-singing:


Click here to view the embedded video.


The substyle of Tuvan throatsinging Sheldon performs above is Dag Kargyraa.


Throat-Singing has been sampled throughout a few popular Western artists’ songs as well. New-age and folk-tunes singer Bjork enlisted the help of Inuit throat-singer Tanya Tagaq in her song “Isobel” (Tanya Tagaq can be clearly heard starting around 2:30):


Click here to view the embedded video.


A blind blues guitarist named Paul Pena, who wrote the 1970’s Steve Miller Band hit “Jet Airliner” and was the former sideman to famous blues artists B.B. King and John Hooker, was listening and messing with the wires of his radio in 1984. He accidentally tuned into a station featuring the Khoomei throat-singing styles of Tuva, and was stunned. This occurrence started him into an 11-year journey to study throat-singing, and eventually he was able to master several styles and starred in a documentary called “Genghis Blues” (“Genghis” from the belief that many Tuvans were descendants of the infamous leader Genghis Khan.) The article about Paul Pena can be found on genghisblues.com under the article “Blind U.S. bluesman masters throat-singing of Tuva”.


Quick Summary:


To summarize this post, while throat-singing may not be extremely popular in the Western music and popular culture world, it is certainly not a new style by any means. I believe more artists (particularly new-age, country and blues artists) will begin to learn these techniques. I hope you have learned many new facts and have a new appreciation for this unique vocal style. Thanks for reading my final blog!


Works Cited:

Alex Glenfield. ” Seven Styles of Overtone Singing (Tuvan Throat Singing).”Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 April 2013.

Ari Vineberg. ” Inuit throat-singers from Nunavik.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 08 Feb. 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

“Blind U.S. bluesman masters throat-singing of Tuva.” Wadi Rum Productions. Genghis Blues, 1999. Web. 28 April 2013.

Cultureproject. ” “We can even teach you.” – Ngqoko Cultural Group.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 15 July 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

FrancesWindward. ” Inuit Throat Singing: Kathy Keknek and Janet Aglukkaq (long).” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 13 Dec. 2007. Web. 28 April 2013.

Kevinambjork. ” Björk-Isobel-Live at Belgium 2001-With Tanya Tagaq -Isobel-Live at Belgium 2001-With Tanya Tagaq.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 26 Sep. 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

Matias Martinez. ” Sheldon Cooper Throat Singing.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 09 Feb. 2010. Web. 28 April 2013.

“Overtone Singing Music.” Bruce Miller. National Geographic Music, n.d. Web. 28 April 2013.

QuangHai Tran. “OVERTONE SINGING UMNGQOKOLO by Xhosa women from SOUTH AFRICA .” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 16 May 2012. Web. 28 April 2013.

Smithsonian Folkways. “Throat Singing:A unique vocalization from three cultures.” Smithsonian Folkways by the Smithsonian Institution (2013): n. pag. Web. 28 April 2013.

Tantsev. ” Huun Huur Tu at Philadelphia Folk Festival, August 2006.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 15 Sep. 2006. Web. 28 April 2013.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia : Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region[1]
Chinese: 内蒙古自治区
Mongolian: Mongolian:ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ
Cyrillic: Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese Simplified: 内蒙古自治区
Traditional: 內蒙古自治區
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
 • Abbreviation NM
Simplified: 内蒙 or 内蒙古[2]
Traditional: 內蒙 or 內蒙古
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měng or Nèi Měnggǔ
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Méng or Nèi Ménggǔ
Map showing the location of Inner Mongolia

Map showing the location of Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 44°N 113°ECoordinates: 44°N 113°E
Named for From the Mongolian öbür monggol, where öbür means the front, sunny side of a barrier (a mountain, mountain range, lake, desert, clothes etc…)
Capital Hohhot
Largest city Baotou
Divisions 12 prefectures, 101 counties, 1425 townships

 • Secretary Li Jiheng
 • Chairwoman Bu Xiaolin

 • Total 1,183,000 km2 (457,000 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Highest elevation

(Main Peak, Helan Mountains[4])
3,556 m (11,667 ft)

 • Total 24,706,321
 • Estimate

(31 December 2014)[6]
 • Rank 23rd
 • Density 20.2/km2 (52/sq mi)
 • Density rank 28th

 • Ethnic composition Han – 79%
Mongol – 17%
Manchu – 2%
Hui – 0.9%
Daur – 0.3%
 • Languages and dialects Mandarin (official),[7] Mongolian (official), Oirat, Buryat, Dagur, Evenki, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-NM
GDP (2017 [8]) CNY 1.61 trillion
USD 238.50 billion (22nd)
 – per capita CNY 81,791
USD 12,156 (7th)
HDI (2017) 0.771[9](high) (7th)
Website http://www.nmg.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Inner Mongolia
Great Wall in Inner Mongolia.JPG

Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 内蒙古
Traditional Chinese 內蒙古
Hanyu Pinyin PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ
Literal meaning Inner Mongolia
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Өвөр Монгол
(Övör Mongol)
Mongolian script ᠦᠪᠦᠷ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᠣᡵᡤᡳ
Romanization Dorgi monggo
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 内蒙古自治区
Traditional Chinese 內蒙古自治區
Hanyu Pinyin PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
Literal meaning Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон
(Övör Mongolyn Öörtöö Zasakh Oron)
Mongolian script ᠦᠪᠦᠷ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ‍‍ᠤᠨ

Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Oburmonggul.svg Öbür Monggol, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол[1] Övör Mongol /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/; simplified Chinese: 内蒙古; traditional Chinese: 內蒙古; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Měnggǔ, ROC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Ménggǔ), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (NMAR), is a Mongolic autonomous region in Northern China. Its border includes most of the length of China’s border with Mongolia (Dornogovi, Sükhbaatar, Ömnögovi, Bayankhongor, Govi-Altai, Dornod Provinces). The rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province and a small section of China’s border with Russia (Zabaykalsky Krai).[a] Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, and Ordos.

The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China provinces of Suiyuan, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing’an, along with the northern parts of Gansu and Ningxia.

Its area makes it the third largest Chinese subdivision, constituting approximately 1,200,000 km2 (463,000 sq mi) and 12% of China’s total land area. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China‘s total population. Inner Mongolia is the country’s 23rd most populous province-level division.[10] The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of which is written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, which is used in the state of Mongolia (formerly often described in the West as “Outer Mongolia“).


In Chinese, the region is known as “Inner Mongolia”, where the terms of “Inner/Outer” are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi (cf. Mongolian dotugadu/gadagadu). Inner Mongolia is distinct from Outer Mongolia, which was a term used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva in Russia. The term Inner (Nei) referred to the Nei Fan 内藩 (Inner Tributary), i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan who granted the title khan (king) in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained.


Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists.

Early history

Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove that this culture related to the Proto-Mongols.[11]

During the Zhou dynasty, central and western Inner Mongolia (the Hetao region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu, and , while eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region. After destroying the state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the Yunzhong Commandery near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao also built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shi Huang created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian to drive the Xiongnu from the region, and incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China. He also maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong and moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned.[12]

During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year, he established the commanderies of Shuofang and Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would, later on, eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence.

During the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD), Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu and Xianbei) regimes.

The Sui dynasty (581–618) and Tang dynasty (618–907) re-established a unified Chinese empire, and like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao (along with the rest of what now consists Inner Mongolia) was then taken over by the Khitan Empire (Liao dynasty), founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people originally from what is now the southern part of Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. They were followed by the Western Xia of the Tanguts, who took control of what is now the western part of Inner Mongolia (including western Hetao). The Khitans were later replaced by the Jurchens, precursors to the modern Manchus, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria and northern China.

Mongol and Ming periods

The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent

After Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes in 1206 and founded the Mongol Empire, the Tangut Western Xia empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the Jurchen Jin dynasty fell in 1234. In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan’s summer capital Shangdu (aka Xanadu) was located near present-day Dolonnor. During that time Ongud and Khunggirad peoples dominated the area of what is now Inner Mongolia. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led Ming dynasty in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia including Shangdu and Yingchang. The Ming rebuilt the Great Wall of China at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (though it deviates significantly at the Hebei-Inner Mongolia border). The Ming established the Three Guards composed of the Mongols there. Soon after the Tumu incident in 1449, when the Oirat ruler Esen taishi captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols flooded south from Outer Mongolia to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia was the political and cultural center of the Mongols during the Northern Yuan dynasty.[13]

Qing period

The eastern Mongol tribes near and in Manchuria, particularly the Khorchin and Southern Khalkha in today’s Inner Mongolia intermarried, formed alliances with, and fought against the Jurchen tribes until Nurhaci, the founder of the new Jin dynasty, consolidated his control over all groups in the area in 1593.[14] The Manchus gained far-reaching control of the Inner Mongolian tribes in 1635, when Ligden Khan‘s son surrendered the Chakhar Mongol tribes to the Manchus. The Manchus subsequently invaded Ming China in 1644, bringing it under the control of their newly established Qing dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), Greater Mongolia was administered in a different way for each region:

Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
  • “Outer Mongolia”: This region corresponds to the modern state of Mongolia, plus the Russian-administered region of Tannu Uriankhai, and a part of northern Xinjiang. It included the four leagues (aimag) of the Khalkha Mongols north of the Gobi, as well as the Tannu Uriankhai and Khovd regions in northwestern Mongolia, which were overseen by the General of Uliastai from the city of Uliastai.
  • “Inner Mongolia”: This region corresponded to most of modern Inner Mongolia and some neighboring areas in Liaoning and Jilin provinces. The banners and tribes in this region came under six leagues (chuulghan): Jirim, Juuuda, Josutu, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Yekejuu.
  • “Taoxi Mongolia”: The Alashan Öölüd and Ejine Torghuud banners were separate from the aimags of Outer Mongolia and the chuulghans of Inner Mongolia. This territory is equivalent to modern-day Alxa League, the westernmost part of what is now Inner Mongolia.
  • The Chahar Banners were controlled by the military commander of Chahar (now Zhangjiakou). Their extent corresponded to southern Ulanqab and Bayannur in modern Inner Mongolia, plus the region around Zhangjiakou in Hebei province. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Zhili and Shanxi provinces also belonged to this region.
  • The Guihua Tümed banner was controlled by the military commander of Suiyuan (now Hohhot). This corresponds to the vicinities of the modern city of Hohhot. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of modern Shanxi province also belonged to this region.
  • The Hulunbuir region in what is now northeastern Inner Mongolia was part of the jurisdiction of the General of Heilongjiang, one of the three generals of Manchuria.

The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and was given the title of Prince (親王; qīn wáng), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor, unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on the Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s.[15]

Ordinary Mongols were not allowed to travel outside their own leagues. Mongols were forbidden by the Qing from crossing the borders of their banners, even into other Mongol Banners and from crossing into neidi (the Han Chinese 18 provinces) and were given serious punishments if they did in order to keep the Mongols divided against each other to benefit the Qing.[16] Mongol pilgrims wanting to leave their banner’s borders for religious reasons such as pilgrimage had to apply for passports to give them permission.[17]

During the eighteenth century, growing numbers of Han Chinese settlers had illegally begun to move into the Inner Mongolian steppe. By 1791 there had been so many Han Chinese settlers in the Front Gorlos Banner that the jasak had petitioned the Qing government to legalize the status of the peasants who had already settled there.[18]

During the nineteenth century, the Manchus were becoming increasingly sinicized and faced with the Russian threat, they began to encourage Han Chinese farmers to settle in both Mongolia and Manchuria. This policy was followed by subsequent governments. The railroads that were being built in these regions were especially useful to the Han Chinese settlers. Land was either sold by Mongol Princes, or leased to Han Chinese farmers, or simply taken away from the nomads and given to Han Chinese farmers.

A group of Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty called “Mongol followers” immigrated to Inner Mongolia who worked as servants for Mongols and Mongol princes and married Mongol women. Their descendants continued to marry Mongol women and changed their ethnicity to Mongol as they assimilated into the Mongol people, an example of this were the ancestors of Li Shouxin. They distinguished themselves apart from “true Mongols” 真蒙古.[19][20][21]

Republic of China and the Second World War periods

Mongols stand in front of the yurt,1912

Outer Mongolia gained independence from the Qing dynasty in 1911, when the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu of the Khalkha was declared the Bogd Khan of Mongolia. Although almost all banners of Inner Mongolia recognized the Bogd Khan as the supreme ruler of Mongols, the internal strife within the region prevented a full reunification. The Mongol rebellions in Inner Mongolia were counterbalanced by princes who hoped to see a restored Qing dynasty in Manchuria and Mongolia, as they considered the theocratic rule of the Bogd Khan would be against their modernizing objectives for Mongolia.[22] Eventually, the newly formed Republic of China promised a new nation of five races (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan and Uyghur),[23] and suppressed the Mongol rebellions in the area,[24][25] forcing the Inner Mongolian princes to recognize the Republic of China.

The Republic of China reorganized Inner Mongolia into provinces:

  • Rehe province was created to include the Juuuda and Josutu leagues, plus the Chengde area in what is now northern Hebei.
  • Chahar province was created to include Xilingol league as well as much of the former territory of the Eight Banners.
  • Suiyuan province was created to include Ulanqab league, Yekejuu league, and the Hetao region (former Guihua Tümed territory).
  • Hulunbuir stayed within Heilongjiang in Manchuria, which had become a province.
  • Most of Jirim league came under the new province of Fengtian in southern Manchuria.
  • Taoxi Mongolia, i.e. Alashan and Ejine leagues, was incorporated into neighbouring Gansu province. Later on Ningxia province was split out of northern Gansu, and Taoxi Mongolia became part of Ningxia.

Some Republic of China maps still show this structure.

The history of Inner Mongolia during the Second World War is complicated, with Japanese invasion and different kinds of resistance movements. In 1931, Manchuria came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, taking some Mongol areas in the Manchurian provinces (i.e. Hulunbuir and Jirim leagues) along. Rehe was also incorporated into Manchukuo in 1933, taking Juu Uda and Josutu leagues along with it. These areas were occupied by Manchukuo until the end of World War II in 1945.

In 1937, the Empire of Japan openly and fully invaded Republic of China by war. On December 8, 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as “De Wang”) declared an independence of the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia (i.e. the Suiyuan and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed an agreements with Manchukuo and Japan. Its capital was established at Zhangbei (now in Hebei province), with the Japanese puppet government’s control extending as far west as the Hohhot region. The Japanese advanced was defeated by Hui Muslim General Ma Hongbin at the Battle of West Suiyuan and Battle of Wuyuan. After 1945, Inner Mongolia has remained part of China.

The Mongol Ulanhu fought against the Japanese.

Delegates of Inner Mongolia People’s Congress shouting slogans

Ethnic Mongolian guerilla units were created by the Kuomintang Nationalists to fight against the Japanese during the war in the late 30s and early 40s. These Mongol militias were created by the Ejine and Alashaa based commissioner’s offices created by the Kuomintang.[26][27] Prince Demchugdongrob’s Mongols were targeted by Kuomintang Mongols to defect to the Republic of China. The Nationalists recruited 1,700 ethnic minority fighters in Inner Mongolia and created war zones in the Tumet Banner, Ulanchab League, and Ordos Yekejuu League.[26][28]

People’s Republic of China

The Communist movement gradually gained momentum as part of the Third Communist International in Inner Mongolia during the Japanese period. By the end of WWII, the Inner Mongolian faction of the ComIntern had a functional militia and actively opposed the attempts at independence by De Wang’s Chinggisid princes on the grounds of fighting feudalism. Following the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria as well as the Inner Mongolian Communists with decisive Soviet support and established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947. The Comintern army was absorbed into the People’s Liberation Army. Initially, the autonomous region included just the Hulunbuir region. Over the next decade, as the communists established the People’s Republic of China and consolidated control over mainland China, Inner Mongolia was expanded westwards to include five of the six original leagues (except Josutu League, which remains in Liaoning province), the northern part of the Chahar region, by then a league as well (southern Chahar remains in Hebei province), the Hetao region, and the Alashan and Ejine banners. Eventually, near all areas with sizeable Mongol populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia its elongated shape. The leader of Inner Mongolia during that time, as both regional CPC secretary and head of regional government, was Ulanhu.

During the Cultural Revolution, the administration of Ulanhu was purged, and a wave of repressions was initiated against the Mongol population of the autonomous region.[29] In 1969 much of Inner Mongolia was distributed among surrounding provinces, with Hulunbuir divided between Heilongjiang and Jilin, Jirim going to Jilin, Juu Uda to Liaoning, and the Alashan and Ejine region divided among Gansu and Ningxia. This was reversed in 1979.

Inner Mongolia has seen considerable development since Deng Xiaoping instituted Chinese economic reform in 1978. For about ten years since 2000, Inner Mongolia’s GDP growth has been the highest in the country, (along with Guangdong) largely owing to the success of natural resource industries in the region. GDP growth has continually been over 10%, even 15% and connections with the Wolf Economy to the north has helped development. However, growth has come at a cost with huge amounts of pollution and degradation to the grasslands.[30] Attempts to attract ethnic Chinese to migrate from other regions, as well as urbanise those rural nomads and peasants has led to huge amounts of corruption and waste in public spending, such as Ordos City.[31][32] Acute uneven wealth distribution has further exacerbated ethnic tensions, many indigenous Mongolians feeling they are increasingly marginalised in their own homeland, leading to riots in 2011 and 2013.[33][34]


Grasslands in the region

Topography of Inner Mongolia in China

Officially Inner Mongolia is classified as one of the provincial-level divisions of North China, but its great stretch means that parts of it belong to Northeast China and Northwest China as well. It borders eight provincial-level divisions in all three of the aforementioned regions (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, and Gansu), tying with Shaanxi for the greatest number of bordering provincial-level divisions. Most of its international border is with Mongolia,[b] which, in Chinese, is sometimes called “Outer Mongolia“, while a small portion is with Russia’s Zabaykalsky Krai.

Weeping willows (Salix Babylonica) grow tall at the Zhaojun Tomb in Hohhot, reflecting the milder climate there.

Inner Mongolia largely consists of the northern side of the North China Craton, a tilted and sedimented Precambrian block. In the extreme southwest is the edge of the Tibetan Plateau where the autonomous region’s highest peak, Main Peak in the Helan Mountains reaches 3,556 metres (11,670 ft), and is still being pushed up today in short bursts.[4] Most of Inner Mongolia is a plateau averaging around 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) in altitude and covered by extensive loess and sand deposits. The northern part consists of the Mesozoic era Khingan Mountains, and is owing to the cooler climate more forested, chiefly with Manchurian elm, ash, birch, Mongolian oak and a number of pine and spruce species. Where discontinuous permafrost is present north of Hailar District, forests are almost exclusively coniferous. In the south, the natural vegetation is grassland in the east and very sparse in the arid west, and grazing is the dominant economic activity.

Owing to the ancient, weathered rocks lying under its deep sedimentary cover, Inner Mongolia is a major mining district, possessing large reserves of coal, iron ore and rare-earth minerals, which have made it a major industrial region today.


Due to its elongated shape, Inner Mongolia has a four-season monsoon climate with regional variations. The winters in Inner Mongolia are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia has no modern glaciers[4] even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) reached in October in the north and November in the south.

Officially, most of Inner Mongolia is classified as either a cold arid or steppe regime (Köppen BWk, BSk, respectively). The small portion besides these are classified as humid continental (Köppen Dwb) in the northeast, or subarctic (Köppen Dwc) in the far north near Hulunbuir.[35]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Inner Mongolia of China
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Baotou 29.6/17.1 85.3/62.8 –4.1/–16.8 24.7/1.8
Bayannur 30.7/17.9 87.3/64.2 –3.3/–15.1 26.1/4.8
Hohhot 28.5/16.4 83.3/61.5 –5/–16.9 23/1.6
Ordos 26.7/15.8 80.1/60.4 –4.8/–14.7 23.4/5.5
Ulanqab 25.4/13.6 77.7/56.5 –6.1/–18.5 21/–1.3

Administrative divisions

Inner Mongolia is divided into twelve prefecture-level divisions. Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia’s prefectural regions were known as Leagues (Chinese: ), a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the Qing dynasty. Similarly, county-level divisions are often known as Banners (Chinese: ). Since the 1990s, numerous Leagues have converted into prefecture-level cities, although Banners remain. The restructuring led to the conversion of primate cities in most leagues to convert to districts administratively (i.e.: Hailar, Jining and Dongsheng). Some newly founded prefecture-level cities have chosen to retain the original name of League (i.e.: Hulunbuir, Bayannur and Ulanqab), some have adopted the Chinese name of their primate city (Chifeng, Tongliao), and one League (Yekejuu) simply renamed itself Ordos. Despite these recent administrative changes, there is no indication that the Alxa, Hinggan, and Xilingol Leagues will convert to prefecture-level cities in the near future.

Administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia
Nei Mongol prfc map.png     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities
Division code[36] Division Area in km2[37] Population 2010[38] Seat Divisions[39]
Districts Counties Banners Aut. banners CL cities
150000 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 1183000.00 24,706,321 Hohhot city 23 66 3 11
6 150100 Hohhot city 17186.10 2,866,615 Xincheng District 4 5
5 150200 Baotou city 27768.00 2,650,364 Jiuyuan District 6 3
3 150300 Wuhai city 1754.00 532,902 Haibowan District 3
9 150400 Chifeng city 90021.00 4,341,245 Songshan District 3 9
10 150500 Tongliao city 59535.00 3,139,153 Horqin District 1 6 1
4 150600 Ordos city 86881.61 1,940,653 Hia’bagx District 2 7
12 150700 Hulunbuir city 254003.79 2,549,278 Hailar District 2 4 3 5
2 150800 Bayannur city 65755.47 1,669,915 Linhe District 1 6
7 150900 Ulanqab city 54447.72 2,143,590 Jining District 1 9 1
11 152200 Hinggan League 59806.00 1,613,250 Ulanhot city 4 2
8 152500 Xilingol League 202580.00 1,028,022 Xilinhot city 10 2
1 152900 Alxa League 267574.00 231,334 Alxa Left Banner 3

The twelve prefecture-level divisions of Inner Mongolia are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions, including 22 districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1425 township-level divisions, including 532 towns, 407 townships, 277 sumu, eighteen ethnic townships, one ethnic sumu, and 190 subdistricts. At the end of 2017, the total population of Inner-Mongolia is 25.29 million.[1]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[40] District area[40] City proper[40] Census date
1 Baotou 1,900,373 2,096,851 2,650,364 2010-11-01
2 Hohhot 1,497,110 1,980,774 2,866,615 2010-11-01
3 Chifeng 902,285 1,333,526 4,341,245 2010-11-01
4 Tongliao 540,338 898,895 3,139,153 2010-11-01
5 Ordos[i] 510,242 582,544 1,940,653 2010-11-01
6 Wuhai 502,704 532,902 532,902 2010-11-01
7 Bayannur 354,507 541,721 1,669,915 2010-11-01
8 Yakeshi 338,275 352,173 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
9 Hulunbuir[ii] 327,384 344,934 2,549,252 2010-11-01
(9) Hulunbuir (new district)[ii] 99,960 99,960 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
10 Ulanqab 319,723 356,135 2,143,590 2010-11-01
11 Ulanhot 276,406 327,081 part of Hinggan League 2010-11-01
12 Xilinhot 214,382 245,886 part of Xilingol League 2010-11-01
13 Zalantun 167,493 366,323 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
14 Manzhouli 148,460 149,512 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
15 Fengzhen 123,811 245,608 see Ulanqab 2010-11-01
16 Holingol 101,496 102,214 see Tongliao 2010-11-01
17 Genhe 89,194 110,438 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
18 Erenhot 71,455 74,179 part of Xilingol League 2010-11-01
19 Arxan 55,770 68,311 part of Hinggan League 2010-11-01
20 Ergun 55,076 76,667 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01


  • New district established after census: Kangbashi from a part of Dongsheng. The new district is included in the urban area & district area count.


  1. New district established after census: Zhalainuo’er from a part of Manzhouli CLC. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.


Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry and hunting are somewhat important in the Greater Khingan ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks in the Evenk Autonomous Banner. More recently, growing grapes and winemaking have become an economic factor in the Wuhai area.

Theater in Hohhot

Inner Mongolia has an abundance of resources especially coal, cashmere, natural gas, rare-earth elements, and has more deposits of naturally occurring niobium, zirconium and beryllium than any other province-level region in China. However, in the past, the exploitation and utilisation of resources were rather inefficient, which resulted in poor returns from rich resources. Inner Mongolia is also an important coal production base, with more than a quarter of the world’s coal reserves located in the province.[41] It plans to double annual coal output by 2010 (from the 2005 volume of 260 million tons) to 500 million tons of coal a year.[42]

Inner Mongolia Gymnasium

Industry in Inner Mongolia has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and related industries. Inner Mongolia now encourages six competitive industries: energy, chemicals, metallurgy, equipment manufacturing, processing of farm (including dairy) produce, and high technology. Well-known Inner Mongolian enterprises include companies such as ERDOS, Yili, and Mengniu.

The nominal GDP of Inner Mongolia in 2015 was 1.8 trillion yuan (US$272.1 billion), with an average annual increase of 10% from the period 2010-2015. Its per capita GDP reached US$11,500 in 2015, ranking No.4th among all the 31 provinces of China, only after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin.[43]

As with much of China, economic growth has led to a boom in construction, including new commercial development and large apartment complexes.

In addition to its large reserves of natural resources, Inner Mongolia also has the largest usable wind power capacity in China[41] thanks to strong winds which develop in the province’s grasslands. Some private companies have set up wind parks in parts of Inner Mongolia such as Bailingmiao, Hutengliang and Zhouzi.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Baotou National Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[44]
  • Erenhot Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone

Hohhot Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002, by the State Council, which is located in the west of the Hohhot, with a planning area of 2.2 km2 (0.85 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the export processing zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Food/Beverage Processing, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry.[45]

Government and politics

Under the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, articles 112-122, autonomous regions have limited autonomy in both the political and economic arena. Autonomous regions have more discretion in administering economic policy in the region in accordance with national guidelines. Structurally, the Chairman—who legally must be an ethnic minority and is usually ethnic Mongolian—is always kept in check by the Communist Party Regional Committee Secretary, who is usually from a different part of China (to reduce corruption) and Han Chinese. As of August 2016, the current party secretary is Li Jiheng. The Inner Mongolian government and its subsidiaries follow roughly the same structure as that of a Chinese province. With regards to economic policy, as a part of increased federalism characteristics in China, Inner Mongolia has become more independent in implementing its own economic roadmap.

The position of Chairman of Inner Mongolia alternates between Khorchin Mongols in the east and the Tumed Mongols in the west. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, this convention has not been broken. The family of Ulanhu has retained influence in regional politics ever since the founding the People’s Republic. His son Buhe and granddaughter Bu Xiaolin both served as Chairman of the region.


Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1954[46] 6,100,104
1964[47] 12,348,638 +7.31%
1982[48] 19,274,279 +2.50%
1990[49] 21,456,798 +1.35%
2000[50] 23,323,347 +0.84%
2010[5] 24,706,321 +0.58%
Established in 1947 from dissolution of Xing’an Province, Qahar Province, parts of Rehe Province, and Suiyuan Province; parts of Ningxia Province were incorporated into Inner Mongolia AR.

When the autonomous region was established in 1947, Han Chinese comprised 83.6% of the population, while the Mongols comprised 14.8% of the population.[51] By 2010, the percentage of Han Chinese had dropped to 79.5%. While the Hetao region along the Yellow River has always alternated between farmers from the south and nomads from the north, the most recent wave of Han Chinese migration began in the early 18th century with encouragement from the Qing dynasty, and continued into the 20th century. Han Chinese live mostly in the Hetao region as well as various population centres in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Over 70% of Mongols are concentrated in less than 18% of Inner Mongolia’s territory (Hinggan League, and the prefectures of Tongliao and Chifeng).

Mongols are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 17.11% of the population as of the 2010 census.[52] They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols in China. In addition to the Manchus, other Tungusic ethnic groups, the Oroqen, and the Evenks also populate parts of northeastern Inner Mongolia.

Many of the traditionally nomadic Mongols have settled in permanent homes as their pastoral economy was collectivized during the Mao Era, and some have taken jobs in cities as migrant labourers; however, some Mongols continue in their nomadic tradition. In practice, highly educated Mongols tend to migrate to big urban centers after which they become essentially indistinct with ethnic Han Chinese populations.

Inter-marriage between Mongol and non-Mongol populations is very common, particularly in areas where Mongols are in regular contact with other groups. There was little cultural stigma within Mongol families for marrying outside the ethnic group, and in urban centers in particular, Mongol men and women married non-Mongols at relatively similar rates. The rates of intermarriage stands in very sharp contrast to ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs in their respective autonomous regions. By the 1980s, for instance, in the former Jirim League, nearly 40% of marriages with at least one Mongol spouse was a mixed Mongol-Han Chinese marriage.[53] However, anecdotal reports have also demonstrated an increase in Mongol-female, Han Chinese-male pairings in which the woman is of a rural background, ostensibly shutting rural Mongol males from the marriage market as the sex ratio in China becomes more skewed with a much higher proportion of men.[54]

There is also a significant number of Hui and Koreans.

Ethnic groups in Inner Mongolia, 2010 census[55]
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 19,650,687 79.54%
Mongol 4,226,093 17.11%
Hui 452,765 1.83%
Daur 121,483 0.90%
Evenks 26,139 0.11%
Oroqen people 8,464 0.07%
Year Population Han Chinese Mongol Manchu
1953[56] 6,100,104 5,119,928 83.9% 888,235 14.6% 18,354 0.3%
1964[56] 12,348,638 10,743,456 87.0% 1,384,535 11.2% 50,960 0.4%
1982[56] 19,274,281 16,277,616 84.4% 2,489,378 12.9% 237,149 1.2%
1990[57] 21,456,500 17,290,000 80.6% 3,379,700 15.8%
2000[58] 23,323,347 18,465,586 79.2% 3,995,349 17.1% 499,911 2.3%
2010[59] 24,706,321 19,650,687 79.5% 4,226,093 17.1% 452,765 1.83%
Territories with Mongol majorities and near-majorities[60][61]
Name of banner Mongol population Percentage
Horqin Right Middle Banner, Hinggan (2009) 222,410 84.1%
New Barag Right Banner, Hulunbuir (2009) 28,369 82.2%
Horqin Left Back Banner, Tongliao 284,000 75%
New Barag Left Banner, Hulunbuir (2009) 31,531 74.9%
Horqin Left Middle Banner, Tongliao 395,000 73.5%
East Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol (2009) 43,394 72.5%
West Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol 57,000 65%
Sonid Left Banner, Xilingol (2006) 20,987 62.6%
Bordered Yellow Banner, Xilingol 19,000 62%
Hure Banner, Tongliao 93,000 56%
Jarud Banner, Tongliao 144,000 48%
Horqin Right Front Banner, Hinggan 162,000 45%
Old Barag Banner, Hulunbuir (2006) 25,903 43.6%
Jalaid Banner, Hinggan 158,000 39%
Ar Khorchin Banner, Chifeng (2002) 108,000 36.6%

Population numbers exclude members of the People’s Liberation Army in active service based in Inner Mongolia.

Language and culture

A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian

Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870

Alongside Chinese, Mongolian is the official provincial language of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols.[62] Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country’s 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate)[63] However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country’s citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012.[64] However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia’s urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities.[65] The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language.[66][67] Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols.[63][68] The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols.[69]

By law, all street signs, commercial outlets, and government documents must be bilingual, written in both Mongolian and Chinese. There are three Mongolian TV channels in the Inner Mongolia Satellite TV network. In public transportation, all announcements are to be bilingual.

Mongols in Inner Mongolia speak Mongolian dialects such as Chakhar, Xilingol, Baarin, Khorchin and Kharchin Mongolian and, depending on definition and analysis, further dialects[70] or closely related independent Central Mongolic languages[71] such as Ordos, Khamnigan, Barghu Buryat and the arguably Oirat dialect Alasha. The standard pronunciation of Mongolian in China is based on the Chakhar dialect of the Plain Blue Banner, located in central Inner Mongolia, while the grammar is based on all Southern Mongolian dialects.[72] This is different from the Mongolian state, where the standard pronunciation is based on the closely related Khalkha dialect. There are a number of independent languages spoken in Hulunbuir such as the somewhat more distant Mongolic language Dagur and the Tungusic language Evenki. Officially, even the Evenki dialect Oroqin is considered a language.[73]

The Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia speak a variety of dialects, depending on the region. Those in the eastern parts tend to speak Northeastern Mandarin, which belongs to the Mandarin group of dialects; those in the central parts, such as the Yellow River valley, speak varieties of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, due to its proximity to other Jin-speaking areas in China such as the Shanxi province. Cities such as Hohhot and Baotou both have their unique brand of Jin Chinese such as the Zhangjiakou–Hohhot dialect which are sometimes incomprehensible with dialects spoken in northeastern regions such as Hailar.

The vast grasslands have long symbolised Inner Mongolia. Mongolian art often depicts the grassland in an uplifting fashion and emphasizes Mongolian nomadic traditions. The Mongols of Inner Mongolia still practice their traditional arts. Inner Mongolian cuisine has Mongol roots and consists of dairy-related products and hand-held lamb (手扒肉). In recent years, franchises based on Hot pot have appeared in Inner Mongolia, the best known of which is Xiaofeiyang. Notable Inner Mongolian commercial brand names include Mengniu and Yili, both of which began as dairy product and ice cream producers.

Among the Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia, Jinju (晋剧) or Shanxi Opera is a popular traditional form of entertainment. See also: Shanxi. A popular career in Inner Mongolia is circus acrobatics. The internationally known Inner Mongolia Acrobatic Troupe travels and performs with the renowned Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus.


Religion in Inner Mongolia (2005-2010)
Chinese and Mongolian folk religion
(worship of Heaven and ovoo/aobao)
Tibetan Buddhism
Chinese ancestral religion

Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.[c]

According to a survey held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China, about 80% of the population of the region practice the worship of Heaven (that is named Tian in the Chinese tradition and Tenger in the Mongolian tradition) and of ovoo/aobao.[74]

Official statistics report that 12.1% of the population (3 million people) are members of Tibetan Buddhist groups.[75] According to the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007 and the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christianity is the religious identity of 2% of the population of the region; and Chinese ancestral religion the professed belonging of 2.36%,[76] while a demographic analysis of the year 2010 reported that Muslims comprise the 0.91%.[77]

The cult of Genghis Khan, present in the form of various Genghis Khan temples, is a tradition of Mongolian shamanism, in which he is considered a cultural hero and divine ancestor, an embodiment of the Tenger (Heaven, God of Heaven).[78] His worship in special temples, greatly developed in Inner Mongolia since the 1980s, is also shared by the Han Chinese, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.[79]

Tibetan Buddhism (Mongolian Buddhism, locally also known as “Yellow Buddhism”) is the dominant form of Buddhism in Inner Mongolia, also practiced by many Han Chinese. Another form of Buddhism, practiced by the Chinese, are the schools of Chinese Buddhism.


In the capital city Hohhot:

Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia:

  • The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the cenotaph of Genghis Khan, is located in Ordos City.
  • Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.
  • The Arshihaty Stone Forest in Hexigten Global Geopark has magnificent granite rock formations formed from natural erosion.
  • Xiangshawan, or “singing sands gorge”, is located in the Gobi Desert and contains numerous tourist attractions including sand sledding and camel rides.
  • Remains of Zhongjing (Central Capital) built in 1003 by Emperor Shengzong of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Ningcheng County.
  • Remains of Shangjing (Upper Capital) built in 918 by Yelu Abaoji the 1st emperor of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907-1125). Also called Huangdu it was one of the five capitals of the Liao dynasty.
  • Zuling Mausoleum of Abaoji Khan. It was built in 926 for Abaoji the 1st Emperor of the Liao dynasty. Located north-west of Shifangzi village.
  • Tablets of Juyan. Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) inscriptions on wood and bamboo. In 1930 Folke Bergman of the Sino-Swedish expedition first discovered 10,000 tablets at Ejin Khoshuu in the Gobi Desert.
  • Ruins of Shangdu (Xanadu) the Summer Capital of the Mongol Yuan dynasty built in 1256 by Kublai Khan.
  • White pagoda of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) in Kailu County, Tongliao. It is still well preserved.
  • Ruins of Chagan Khoto (查干浩特) capital of the last Mongol Great Khan Ligden (1588–1634). Located in Ar Horqin Banner.

Image gallery

Chinese space program

One of China’s space vehicle launch facilities, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, is located in the extreme west of Inner Mongolia, in the Alxa League‘s Ejin Banner. It was founded in 1958, making it the PRC’s first launch facility. More Chinese launches have occurred at Jiuquan than anywhere else. As with all Chinese launch facilities, it is remote and generally closed to the public. It is named as such since Jiuquan is the nearest urban center, although Jiuquan is in the nearby province of Gansu. Many space vehicles have also made their touchdowns in Inner Mongolia. For example, the crew of Shenzhou 6 landed in Siziwang Banner, near Hohhot.


Colleges and universities

All of the above are under the authority of the autonomous region government. Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

See also




  1. The White Sulde (White Spirit) is one of the two spirits of Genghis Khan (the other being the Black Sulde), represented either as his white or yellow horse or as a fierce warrior riding this horse. In its interior, the temple enshrines a statue of Genghis Khan (at the center) and four of his men on each side (the total making nine, a symbolic number in Mongolian culture), there is an altar where offerings to the godly men are made, and three white suldes made with white horse hair. From the central sulde there are strings which hold tied light blue pieces of cloth with a few white ones. The wall is covered with all the names of the Mongol kins. The Chinese worship Genghis as the ancestral god of the Yuan dynasty.




  1. John Man. Genghis Khan. Bantam, 2005. ISBN 0553814982. p. 23.

Further reading

External links

TRAN QUANG HAI’s workshop of the overtone singing, saturday 13 july 2019, from 17:00 – 18:30 , room BRK 614 / 45th ICTM WORLD CONFERENCE in BANGKOK, THAILAND, from 11-17 July 2019


TRAN QUANG HAI’s workshop of the overtone singing, saturday 13 july 2019, from 17:00 – 18:30 , room BRK 614

a workshop of throat singing : theory and practice .During the workshop participants can obtain the basic technique of Mongolian & Tuvin throat singing . The use of the software “Overtone Analyzer”will help everyone to understand the use of overtones to create a melody . A survey of throat singing from the Inuit style in Canada, to the Xhosa in South Africa, and the deep voice of Tibetan monks



Khoomei: The Overtone Singing Style of Tuva and Mongolia

Khoomei: The Overtone Singing Style of Tuva and Mongolia

This unique style of music, often referred to as “throat singing”, is a central element of both Mongolian and Tuvan culture.




Origins of Khoomei

Khoomei is practiced primarily in Tuva and many parts of Mongolia. Tuva is a small republic within the Russian Federation, and is located in southeastern Siberia on the Northwestern border of Mongolia. The Mountains regions and the massive Mongolian Steppe provides an acoustic environment uniquely suited for the overtone singing style.


Scholars are not certain as to exactly when Khoomei was developed, but the style has been around for multiple centuries and it a central element to both Tuvan and Mongolian culture.

The Sounds of the Mountains and the Steppe

Ethnomusicologists strongly believe that the development of Khoomei in Mongolia and Tuva was largely affected by the regions unique geography. Around 80% of Tuva, located in southeastern Siberia, is made up of Mountains while Mongolia is a unique combination of Steppe (grasslands) and large mountain ranges.


Throat singers in Mongolia and Tuva work to mimic the sounds of nature and combine them with human sounds in order to promote a sense of harmony between the two. Khoomei is the outward expression of these cultures’ reverence for their natural surroundings. The deep undertone heard in the music of any practitioner of Khoomei is meant to reverberate and carry over long distances in these awe-inspiring landscapes.

Styles of Khoomei: Sygyt

One of the three basic styles of Khoomei is called Sygyt. This style is the highest pitched of all the styles. In this style, the singer creates whistle tones with the throat in order to mimic the birds and the natural sounds found in the mountains and in the Steppe.

Styles of Khoomei: Kargyraa

Kargyraa is different from Sygyt  standard Khoomei because it focuses on extremely low pitches, with the sound being a full octave lower than the initial bass tone. This style is meant meant to mimic the deep “roar of waterfalls” and the “croaking” of a cow. This style sounds more grounded than other styles because of how low it is in the voice.

The Igil

The Igil a two-stringed instrument strummed with a bow and it is often used to accompany throat singers. The instrument, like the singer, also mimics nature. The steady strumming of the Igil is meant to mimic the sounds of a horse. Riding on horseback is a major element of Tuvan and, especially, of Mongol culture.




Kongar ol-Ondar

Kongar ol-Ondar, known as the “People’s Throat Singer of Tuva”, is the most famous figure of Throat Singing in the West. Ondar collaborated with American musical artists such as Willie Nelson and Randy Scruggs. Ondar also appeared on Late Night with David Letterman in 1999 (shown here). With a number of albums including Echoes of Tuva and the cleverly titled Back Tuva Future: The Adventure Continues, Ondar spread his work throughout the West.


Ondar became such an integral cultural figure in Tuva that the government paid him a living wage to continue his work as a musician. Ondar played until he passed away in 2013 after complications following a brain hemorrhage. He was 51 years old.


Women Throat Singers

Typically, Khoomei is performed by men. This trend is linked to the widespread belief throughout Tuvan and Mongolian culture that Throat Singing poses great heath risks for women. Many believe that the practice can cause a woman to become infertile.


In recent years, however, more women have begun to pursue Khoomei. Famous female throat singers include Choldak Kara-Oyun and Shonchalai Oojak-Choodu among others.

Khoomei in Pop Culture

Khoomei has begun to make more subtle, but noticeable, appearances in pop culture. The Netflix Series Marco Polo, which is about the famous explorer’s interactions with the Mongol Empire, features throat singing tracks in its intro soundtrack. Also, in the last episode of the first season, the main characters gather around a campfire and throat sing before battle.


Khoomei and Mongolian Pop Music

Current Mongolian musical artists often incorporate throat singing into their work, often blending Khoomei with Rap, Hip-Hop and Techno music. Musicians like Ethnic Zorigoo (shown here), blend Western music styles with Khoomei 


Khoomei: Geography’s Influence on Art

The development of Khoomei provides an ideal example of how geography affects all aspects of culture, including music. The mimicry of natural sounds and the sense of awe-inspiring wonder found within Khoomei provides the listener with a unique look into the fascinating cultures of both the Tuvans and the Mongolians.


Just as art reflects life, the incredible sounds produced by Throat Singers reflects the majesty of the the Altai Mountains and vast expanse of the Eurasian steppe. Throat Singers provide harmony between human made sounds and those of nature; this art form is the ultimate expression gratitude and appreciation of one’s environment.


Beethoven “Ode to Joy” with Overtone Singing (MRI) by Wolfgang Saus – see what happens inside the mouth,

Beethoven “Ode to Joy” with Overtone Singing (MRI) – see what happens inside the mouth

Ajoutée le 19 mai 2016

The famous Ode to Joy (Freude schöner Götterfunken) in occidental throat singing style (western overtone singing) by Wolfgang Saus, https://www.oberton.org. What you see in this amazing dynamic MRI (MRT) is the tongue movement building up double resonances along the melody line of Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy”. Overtone singing is based on bringing together the second and third resonance frequency of the vocal trakt (also referred to as “formants”) on one frequency to enhance the loudness of a single overtone in the vocal sound spectrum. The second formant is controlled by the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis. The third formant is ruled by the space under the tongue, which is bigger than it seems in the video. Overtone singing is a constantly fine adjustment of the two resonance cavities. You hear the original sound recorded in the extremely noisy environment of the MRI scanner. Recording sound with MRI is tricky. The team in Freiburg developed highly specialized equipment for recording and filtering. Nevertheless, the sound is of course not HiFi. MRI footage with kind permission and many thanks to: University Medical Center Freiburg Medical Physics Dept. of Radiology & Institut for Musicians’ Medicine http://fim.mh-freiburg.de/ Prof. Dr. Bernhard Richter Prof. Dr. Dr. Jürgen Hennig Prof. Dr. Matthias Echternach 2015

Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge (Mozart) – Anna-Maria Hefele

Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge (Mozart) – Anna-Maria Hefele

Ajoutée le 27 avr. 2017

MRT- Aufnahmen: Prof. Dr. med. Bernhard Richter & Dr.-Ing. Michael Burdumy http://www.mh-freiburg.de/fim Anna-Maria Hefele: Gesang, Obertongesang, Harfe | http://www.anna-maria-hefele.com/ Thomas Radlwimmer: Video | http://www.radlwimmer.at/ Musik: “Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge” von Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart What you see in this dynamic MRI-recording is the tongue movement in the vocal tract while doing overtone singing and normal singing. The positions of the tongue forms the resoncance cavities which delete all not-wanted overtones in the sound of the voice at a certain point in time, and then amplify a single overtone that is left, which can be heard as a seperate note above the fundamental. The MRI recordings were made by Prof. Dr. Bernhard Richter, Prof. Dr. Matthias Echternach and Dr.- Ing. Michael Burdumy in the University Medical Center Freiburg, Institute for Musician’s Medicine. http://www.mh-freiburg.de/fim – thank you so much for the kind permission to use the MRI-footage in order to share this fascinating singing-insight with the world! The team of doctors in Freiburg developed a highly specialized equipment for recording and and also filtering sound in the MRI-machine. This recording is made while using a pre-produced playback on headphones in the really loud MRI-machine while lying on the back. A lot of more of very interesting MRI- and endoscopy- recordings of various singers and vocalists (classical singers, overtone singers, yodellers, beatboxers….) will be published on a DVD about end of April 2017 @ Helbling. TITLE: “Die Stimme: Einblicke in die physiologischen Vorgänge biem Singen und Sprechen” ENGLISH: “The Voice: Physiological Insights in Singing and Speaking” If you want to get INFORMED ABOUT THE RELEASE of this extraordinary DVD please SIGN UP to this mailing list: http://eepurl.com/cAYDyj in order to keep UPDATED about my activities please like my FB-page: https://www.facebook.com/amoberton and sign up for my NEWSLETTER here: http://bit.ly/1TdxQty This video is under copyright. Please feel free to repost and embedd the video while using its original YouTube-Link: https://youtu.be/d6cyHGOht58. No download & re-uploading on other websites, social networks or channels. If you want to get a license for the video or parts of it please contact me (via http://anna-maria-hefele.com/contact….) AND the copyright owners of the MRI-footage at the Institute for Musicians Medicine Freiburg (http://www.mh-freiburg.de/fim). Thanks for showing respect to the creative artist of your choice!!!

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara, Leonardo Fuks, Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama: Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles



Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara (1 2), Leonardo Fuks (3), Hiroshi Imagawa(4), Niro Tayama(5)

1NTTCommunication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan

2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan School of Music,

3Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

4Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan

5International Medical Center of Japan, Japan


Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supraglottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or subharmonic co-oscillation.

This paper examines growl mechanism using videofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousitcal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simulation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, including the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

Ken-ichi Sakakibara, Hiroshi Imagawa, Seiji Niimi: Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing and synthesis of khoomei



Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing and synthesis of khoomei
  • 2 Files
Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing andsynthesis of kh¨omei
Ken-Ichi Sakakibara
, Hiroshi Imagawa
,Tomoko Konishi, Kazumasa Kondo,Emi Zuiki Murano
, Masanobu Kumada
, and Seiji Niimi
NTT Communication Science Laboratories,
The University of Tokyo,
National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled,
International University of Health and Welfare
We observed laryngeal movements in throat singing using physiological methods: the simultaneous recording of singing sounds, EGG, and high-speed digital images. We observed vocal fold and false vocal fold vibration and estimated the vibration patterns. We also estimated the laryngeal voices by using an inverse filtering method and simulated the vibration pattern using a new physical model:
-mass model. From these observations, we propose a laryngeal voice model for throat singing and synthesis system of throat singing.
1 Introduction
Throat singing is a traditional singing style of peo-ple who live around the Altai mountains. Kh¨omeiin Tyva and Kh¨omij in Mongolia are representa-tive styles of throat singing. Throat singing is some-times called biphonic singing, multiphonic singing,overtone singing, or harmonic singing because two ormore distinct pitches (musical lines) are produced si-multaneously in one tone. One is a low sustainedfundamental pitch, called a drone, and the secondone is a whistle-like harmonic that resonates high (inthe range from 1 kHz to 3 kHz) above the drone.Many variations of singing styles in throat singingare classified according to singers and regions. How-ever, it is possible to objectively classify these varia-tions in the terms of a source-filter model in speechproduction.The laryngeal voices of throat singing can be clas-sified into (i) a pressed voice and (ii) a kargyraa voicebased on listener’s impression, acoustical character-istics, and the singer’s personal observation on voiceproduction. The pressed voice is the basic laryngealvoice in throat singing and used as drone. The kar-gyraa voice is a very low pitched voice that rangesout of the modal register.The production of the high pitched overtone ismainly due to the pipe resonance of the cavity fromthe larynx to the point of articulation in the vo-cal tract [1]. In Tyvan kh¨omei, sygit is a stylewhere singers articulate by touching the tongue tothe palate and kh¨omei is one where they articulateby pursing the lips.We have physiologically observed two different la-ryngeal voices and estimated the patterns of the vo-cal fold and false vocal fold vibrations [6]. We havealso simulated the vibration patterns by a physicalmodeling of the larynx: 2
2-mass model. Basedon the physiological observations and the simulation,we propose a new laryngealvoice model and synthesissystem for throat singing.
2 Physiological observations
2.1 Methods
We observed laryngeal movements in throat singingdirectly and indirectly by simultaneous recording of high-speed digital images, EGG (Electroglottogra-phy) waveforms, and sound waveforms (Fig. 1). Thehigh-speed digital images were captured through afiberscope inserted into the nose cavity of a singerat 4501 frames/s. Sound and EGG waveforms weresampled at 12 b/s and 18 kHz sf [4]. Two singers,who are normal, participated as subjects. One stud-ied kh¨omei in Tyva and the other studied kh¨omij in Mongolia.
Fig.1: High-speed digital image system.
2.2 Results
Common laryngeal movements are observed amongtwo singers for each of the two laryngeal voices.
contact: K.-I. Sakakibara,
, NTT Communication Science Labs, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, 243-0198, Japan
Pressed voice
In pressed-voice production, the following features of the laryngeal movements were observed. (1) Overallconstriction of the supra-structures of the glottis wasobserved, thus it was difficult to directly observe vi-brations of vocal folds (VFs). (2) Vibration of thesupra-structures of the glottis, whose edges are pre-sumably false vocal folds (FVFs), was observed indigital high-speed images. (3) The period of FVFsvibrations was almost equal to the period of the EGGwaveform. (4) The slope of the EGG curve changedin the beginning of the closed phase of the FVFs, theimpedance of the EGG reached the maximal valuewhen the FVFs were open, and reached the minimalvalue when they were closed (Fig. 2). The graph atthe bottom of Fig. 2 depicts the locus of the edge of FVFs. The upper line (the lower line) is the locus of the left (right, respectively) edges of FVFs.
Kargyraa voice
In kargyraa-voice production, the following featuresof the laryngeal movement were observed. (1) Over-all constriction at the supra-structures of the glottiswas observed. (2) The constriction was looser thanthat in the case of the pressed voice. (3) Vibrationof the supra-structures of the glottis, whose edges arepresumably FVFs. (4) The phases of FVF vibrationsare observed to alternate between almost completelyclosed and open. (5) Vibration of the VFs was ob-served during the open period of the FVFs. (6) Thedouble period of vibration of the FVFs were equalto the period of the sound waveform. (7) When theFVFs almost completely closed, the power of soundbecame weaker. (8) In the EGG waveform, two dif-ferent shapes alternated, and the period of the EGGwaveform was equal to that of the sound waveform(Fig. 3).
Fig. 2: Pressed voice(from above, sound, EGG, edges of FVF).Fig. 3: Kargyraa voice(from above, sound, EGG, edges of FVF).
2.3 Discussion
Two common features were observed among themechanisms of the two different laryngeal voice pro-ductions: (1) Overall constriction of the supra-structures of the glottis and (2) vibration of thesupra-structures of the glottis, which presumably areFVFs. These features are not observed in vowel pro-duction in ordinary speech. The differences amongthe two different laryngeal voice productions are (1)narrowness of the constriction and (2) the manner of FVF vibration.The EGG waveforms for the pressed voice andkarygraa voice represent the contact area of thesupra-structures of the glottis as well as that of theVFs. However, taking into account the high-speeddigital images and sound waveforms, the EGG wave-forms can be assumed to mainly represent the contactarea of VFs. Thus, we can conclude that VF vibra-tions and FVF vibrations have the opposite phase inthe pressed-voice case . In the kargyraa voice, theFVFs can be assumed to close once for every two pe-riods of closure of the VFs, and this closing blocksairflow and contributes to the generation of the sub-harmonic tone of kargyraa.In a previous study, the open quotient (OQ) inthroat singing was estimated to be smaller from theacoustical feature [2]. However, for both the pressedand kargyraa voice, our physiological observationsuggests that the OQ is difficult to estimate becauseof the contribution of the supra-structuresof the glot-tis. Therefore the OQ was not estimated.In the synthesis of the throat singing sounds, aspointed out in [1], glottal source modeling is neededfor reproduction of the timber. Our physiological ob-servations suggests that the glottal source model of throat singing should include the FVF vibrations aswell as the VF vibrations [7].
3 Laryngeal voice model of throat singing
In this paper, we define the glottal airflow as the air-flow through glottis to the area between FVFs andthe laryngeal airflow as the airflow through the areabetween FVFs to the pharynx.
Glottal airflow estimation
From recorded sounds, we estimated laryngealairflowusing the inverse filtering technique. In the pressedvoice, the estimated laryngeal airflow curve had asmall notch just after the curve reached a peak, andthe closing of the VFs was apparently not complete
(Fig. 4). In the kargyraa voice, the estimated la-ryngeal airflow curve has two peaks in each period.From our physiological observation, the VFs vibratetwice in each period of the FVF vibration, and theestimated laryngeal airflow curve showed that in oneof the two vibrations of VFs, the closing of VFs werenot completed (Fig. 5).
Fig. 4: Inverse filtered laryngeal airflow of pressedvoices for two singers.
Fig. 5: Inverse filtered laryngeal airflow of kargyraavoices for two singers.
All the power spectra of the estimated glottal air-flows showed an increase of power in the range from1 to 3 kHz, which is where the second formant fre-quency which corresponds the whistle-like overtoneappears in throat singing (Fig. 6–8).
Fig. 6: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of normal voicefor two singers.Fig. 7: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of pressed voicefor two singers.Fig. 8: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of karygraavoice for two singers.
A 2
2-mass model
For a physical simulation of the VF and FVF vi-brations, we propose a 2
2-mass model as a self-oscillating model of VF and FVF vibrations (Fig.9). This model was devised by introducing a two-mass model for the FVFs to the ordinary two-massmodel for the VFs. The mechanical transmission of vibrations between the VFs and FVFs were not con-sidered. The laryngeal ventricle is a cylinder whosesectional area is uniformally 5 cm
and height is 16 cmand not deformed. In the simulation the 2
2-massmodel oscillated stably. The simulation of laryngealmovements using the 2
2-mass model agreed withthe above assumptions for the two laryngeal move-ment patterns of throat singing for both the pressedand kargyraa voices (Fig. 10). The 2
2-mass modelcan simulate ordinary glottal source in the same wayas the two-mass model by setting suitable model pa-rameters [3].
VocalfoldsFalsevocalfoldsLaryngealVentricleVocal tractTrachea
Fig. 9: 2
2-mass model for the VFs and FVFs.
Sound waveformLaryngeal airflow
1000 cc/s
Fig. 10: Laryngeal airflow obtained by using 2
2-massmodel(left: pressed voice, right: kargyraa voice).
Laryngeal voice model
From the physiological observations and estimatedlaryngeal voices, we assume (1) in pressed-voice pro-duction, VFs and FVFs vibrate in almost oppositephase; (2) in karygraa-voice production, two closed
phases of the VFs appeared in one period of a glottalvolume flow waveform, and VFs were incompletelyclosed at one of the two closed phases. Under theseassumptions, we propose a laryngeal voice model forthroat singing and synthesized throat singing sounds.Our proposed laryngeal voice model is obtainedas follows: We generate almost sine-shaped glottalairflow, because the glottal flow of the throat singingmust be symmetric from Fig. 4 (Step 1). The glottalairflow is modulated by the vibration of the FVFs(Step 2). Turbulent noise is added according to theopen width of the FVFs (Step 3). The output is con-voluted with the transfer function of the laryngealventricle (Step 4)[3].
Laryngeal ventricle resonanceglottal airflowAg: glottal areaFalse glottalareaLaryngealairflow
Fig. 11: Block diagram for laryngeal voice model.
4 Synthesis of throat singing
Based on a Klatt synthesizer [5], we propose synthe-sis model for throat singing, which has the proposedlaryngeal voice model as source and time-varying for-mants obtained from recorded throat singing soundsas resonating filters (Fig. 12). Compared with an or-dinary glottal airflow model, some improvements of the timbre were observed.
We observed the laryngeal movements in throatsinging. The VF and FVF vibrations were observed.The FVF vibrations contribute to production of boththe two laryngeal voices of throat singing. We also es-timated the laryngeal voice source and simulated thelaryngeal movements by using a 2
2-mass model.Based on these observations, we proposed a laryn-geal source model and synthesis model for throatsinging. These models can also simulate the normalvoice. Consequently, all the power spectrum of thesimulated glottal airflows showed the increase of thepower on the range less than 3 kHz where the secondformant frequency which corresponds the whistle-likeovertone in throat singing. Our study indicates theglottal source also contributes the whistle-like over-tone production as well as the articulation of thetongue and lips.
Fig. 12: Block diagram of kh¨o¨omei synthesizer.Fig. 13: Synthesized laryngeal airflows, synthesizedsounds by kh¨omei synthesis system, and power spectraof sythesized souds (left: pressed voice, right: kargyraavoice).
We wish to thank Seiji Adachi, Zoya Kyrgys,Koichi Makigami, Naotoshi Osaka, Yoshinao Shiraki,and Masahiko Todoriki for their help and useful dis-cussion.
[1] S. Adachi and M. Yamada. An acoustical study of soundproduction in biphonic singing x¨omij.
 J. Acoust. Soc.Am.
, 105(5):2920–2932, 1999.[2] G. Bloothooft, E. Bringmann, M. van Cappellen, J. B. vanLuipen, and K. P. Thomassen. Acoustics and perceptionof overtone singing.
 J. Acoust. Soc. Am 
, 92(4):1827–1836,1992.[3] H. Imagawa, K.-I. Sakakibara, T. Konishi, E. Z. Murano,and S. Niimi. Throat singing synthesis by a laryngealvoice model based on vocal fold and false vocal fold vi-brations.
 Tech. Rep. IECE 
, SP2000-140:71–78, Feb. 2001.in Japanese.[4] S. Kiritani, H. Imagawa, and H. Hirose. Vocal cord vibra-tion in the production of consonants-observation by meansof high-speed digital imaging using a fiberscope.
 J. Acoust.Soc. Jpn. (E)
, 17:1–8, 1996.[5] D. H. Klatt. Software for a cascade/parallel formant syn-thesizer.
 J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
, 67(3):971–995, 1980.[6] T. C. Levin and M. E. Edgerton. The throat singers of tuva.
 Scientific America 
, (Sep.1999):80–87, 1999.[7] K.-I. Sakakibara, S. Adachi, T. Konishi, K. Kondo, E. Z.Murano, M. Kumada, M. Todoriki, H. Imagawa, and S. Ni-imi. Observation of vocal fold vibrations in tyvan and mon-golian throat singing.
 Tech. Rep. Musical Acoust., Acoust.Soc. Jpn 
, 19-4:41–48, Sep. 2000. in Japanese.
Ken-ichi Sakakibara
Seiji Niimi