Lindestad PA1, Södersten M, Merker B, Granqvist S.: Voice Source Characteristics in Mongolian “Throat Singing” Studied with High-Speed Imaging Technique, Acoustic Spectra, and Inverse Filtering

Lindestad PA1, Södersten M, Merker B, Granqvist S.

Voice Source Characteristics in Mongolian “Throat Singing” Studied with High-Speed Imaging Technique, Acoustic Spectra, and Inverse Filtering

Lindestad PA : Karolinska Institute, Department of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden. per-ake.lindestad@logphon.hs.sll.se

Abstract

Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12269637

 

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara,Leonardo Fuks,Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama : Growl voice in and pop styles

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31st to April 3rd 2004 (ISMA2004), Nara, Japan

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara , Leonardo Fuks , HiroshiImagawa , Niro Tayama
NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan
Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
School of Music, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
kis@brl.ntt.co.jp leofuks@serv.com.ufrj.br
imagawa@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp ntayama@imcj.hosp.go.jp

Growl voice in ethnic and pop styles

Article (PDF Available) · May 2 with 356 Reads

Cite this publication

 

 

 

 

  • Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
    Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Abstract
Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supra-glottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or sub-harmonic co-oscillation. This paper examines growl mechanism using vide-ofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousit-cal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simu-lation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, includ-ing the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

1. Introduction

The term growl is originally referred to as low-pitched
sounds uttered by animals, such as dogs, or similar
sounds by humans, and therefore is mainly described
by auditory-perceptual impression. Growl is widely ob-
served in singing as well as in shouting and aroused
speech.
The growl phonation has been also referred to as the
phonation observed in some singing styles, such as the
jazz singing style of Louis Armstrong 1and Cab Cal-
loway, [2, 3]. Many jazz, blues, and gospel singers often
use growl in a similar manner. Besides such pop musics
from North America, growl styles are widely found in
pop music of other areas: in Brazil, samba singers, par-
ticularly in carnival lead voices, pop star Elza Soares, and
country singing duoBruno& Marrone; in Japan, Enka (a
popular emotive style) singers, such as Harumi Miyako,
employ it frequently. Some singers use growl extensively
through a song, while others use it as a vocal effect for
expressive emphasis.
In ethnic music, one of the most prominent use of
growl is found in umngqokolo, which is a vocal tradition
of the Xhosa people in South Africa [11]. In Japanese
theatre, Noh percussionist’s voice, Kakegoe, may present
growl at the beginning of phonation.
Growl may have perceptual similarities with the
rough or harsh voice. In terms of phonetics, growl
is sometimes described as the voiced aryepiglottic trill
[3]. However, there is no clear evidence of its produc-
tion mechanism, such as physiological observation of the
aryepglottic vibration.
In throat singing (Tyvan khoomei and Mongolian
khoomij), ventricular and vocal fold vibration was ob-
served for the two different laryngeal voices (drone and
kargyraa) [4, 9]. In drone, the basic voice in throat
singing with a whistle-like high overtone, the ventricular
fold vibration is at the same frequency as the vocal fold
vibration. In kargyraa, which usually sounds one octave
(or more) lower than the modal register, the ventricular
folds vibrate at when the vocal folds vibrate at .
Moreover, some singers can do triple-periodic kargyraa
in which the ventricular folds vibrate at .
In this paper, the phonation mode with ventricular and vocal fold
vibration is called VVM (vocal-ventricular mode) [4]. In
growl, there is no clear evidence of the ventricular fold
vibration.

TO READ THE WHOLE ARTICLE , PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228485036_Growl_voice_in_ethnic_and_pop_styles

Robin Öberg : What is throat singing? Bachelor Thesis / Department of Social Anthropology, Lunds Universitet , Sweden 2008

SAN K01Spring 2008 Supervisor: Christer Lindberg
Bachelor Thesis
Department of Social Anthropology

What is throat singing?

Author: Robin Öberg

Abstract

In southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person can create two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon has flowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of persons come in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise from this are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives?

This study begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing the important terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showing phenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and then concluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing.  In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual.

With a phenomenological method of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as this before, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throat singing.

Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,

Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, Ethnomusicology

 

Table of contents

1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1

Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2

Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1

Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83

Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3

What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4

Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194

Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2

The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1

Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2

Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1398235&fileOId=1398239

 

 

 

SAN K01Spring 2008Supervisor: Christer LindbergBachelor ThesisDepartment of Social AnthropologyWhat is throat singing?Author: Robin Öberg

AbstractIn southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person cancreate two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon hasflowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of personscome in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise fromthis are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives? Thisstudy begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing theimportant terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showingphenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and thenconcluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing. In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual. With a phenomenologicalmethod of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as thisbefore, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throatsinging.Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, EthnomusicologyAuthor: Robin Öberg

Table of contents1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1 Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2 Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1 Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83 Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3 What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4 Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194 Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2 The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1 Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2 Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

SAN K01Spring 2008Supervisor: Christer LindbergBachelor ThesisDepartment of Social AnthropologyWhat is throat singing?Author: Robin Öberg

AbstractIn southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person cancreate two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon hasflowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of personscome in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise fromthis are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives? Thisstudy begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing theimportant terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showingphenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and thenconcluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing. In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual. With a phenomenologicalmethod of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as thisbefore, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throatsinging.Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, EthnomusicologyAuthor: Robin Öberg

Table of contents1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1 Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2 Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1 Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83 Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3 What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4 Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194 Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2 The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1 Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2 Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

1 IntroductionThis study will demonstrate that the being of throat singing is, among other things; being usedaround Altai Mountains in Siberia, being used to heal the earth, being used to create music, andbeing used to learn to throat sing together with others. This will be done by looking at how a groupof persons create meaning towards throat singing by their individual way of using and thinkingabout it.1.1 Short background to throat singingThe Tuva1 region in southern Siberia have always had natural barriers, like mountains, desert andrivers, that have for a long time made the country more or less inaccessible by outside visitors.During the larger part of the twentieth century Tuva was also willingly a part of the Soviet union,which created political barriers for visitors from the other side of the iron curtain. (Humphrey1980:1-4) Towards the latter part of the twentieth century Tuva was changed into an autonomousrepublic in Russia. This came to open to the borders internationally, both for tuvinians and foreignvisitors. (Leighton 1992:214-219) In Tuva there is a strong tradition of throat singing2, a phenomenon where the listener can heartwo different controlled tones at the same time, coming from one singer. Tuva is a small country inthe Altai mountains, where throat singing has thrived, but since throat singing nomads do not stayin one place, geographical and political borders can not show where there are throat singers andwhere there are not. (Levin 2006:71) Throat singing was traditionally used in different ways in the everyday life of nomad life aroundthe Altai mountains, from throat singing to lull a baby to sleep to throat singing to call yaks on themountains. (Pegg 2001:60) Throat singing was usually sung outside because the majority of throatsingers were herders, hunters, craftsmen and tradesmen. (Tongeren 2004:56) It was also highlytaboo of women to throat sing, “Because throat-singing makes women barren!” (Levin 2006:199) Throat singing as a phenomenon has gone from being the passtime of local nomads to thecharacteristics of internationally known tuvinians, from the shamans of the steppe to persons alloverthe world through the internet. Regional competitions in throat singing have become internationallyknown. Throat singing as a phenomenon has become known by persons who do not come fromTuva, and is being taught by persons who do not come from Tuva.1Tuva is a republic in Russia, in the South of Siberia, to the borders Northwest of Mongolia. There are 300.000persons living in Tuva, half of them live in urban areas, and the average age for a person in Tuva is 25 years old.(http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2007/0301/barom04.php 2008) There are two major ethnicities in Tuva, 77-80%Tuvans and ~20% Russians. The only other calculable group is barely 1%, the Khalkhas.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuva 2008)2As the locus of inquiry in this study is based on the Tuvan style of throat singing, whenever the term “throatsinging” is used it refers to tuvan style throat singing. When other styles of throat singing are mentioned, it will sayso in the text, like so “Mongolian throat singing” or so “Inuit throat singing”.1 Introductionpage 1

There are different ways of categorizing different techniques and styles3 of throat singing, somesimpler then others. Which techniques exist differs between clans and villages. The most simplecategorisation is just three different techniques. These are Kargyraa, Khoomei and Sygyt. Kargyraais the technique which creates most bass-sound, as it takes the normal singing voice down oneoctave. Sygyt is the one with highest pitch, creating an almost whistle-like sound. Khoomei is themost basic technique, having a middle-range character compared to the other two techniques.Together, these three are known as Khoomei. Khoomei is not just a sub-category, but also a wordthat describes all the techniques and styles. (Tongeren 2004:18-19)A translation of the Tuvan words also gives an insight into what technique they represent: Sygytmeans “whistle”, kargyraa means “to roar like a waterfall” or “croak like a black crow”,borbangnadyr means “rolling” and “chylandyk” is an onomatopoetic word describing the soundmade by a type of bird called chylandyk. (Pegg 2001:302, Levin 2006:67,228) The Tuvan word forthroat singing, “khoomei”, is believed to have its origin in the Mongolian word for throat orpharynx, kögemei. (Pegg 1992:31, Lundberg&Ronström 2002:13)Sometimes you can think, “ah, what clear tones that singer is producing”, but this is physicallynot true. A sound produced by a voice contains all the tones in an entire octave, with thefundamental, the lowest tone, being the one with the most volume, usually. Your voice producingapparatus is everything from your abdominal muscles to your lips, and each part of your body inyour voice producing apparatus helps shape the sound you make. In normal speech and singing, onepart, like your jaw, is responsible for shaping the volume of one formant. A formant is a resonantpeak in your voice. A resonant peak is a slightly higher volume on a few bundled harmonics. Andharmonics, in this case, are the tones in your voice that you’re not usually aware of, the tones besideyour fundamental. A specific set of resonant peaks make up the cognitive characteristics for avowel, which is why humans can understand each other even though they have different voices.(Tongeren2004:11-18)3A shared definition on the difference between “styles” and “techniques” within throat singing doesn’t exist. In caseswhere there has to be definition on this, this on is used: Techniques are based on larger physical changes while stylesare personal preferences. As an example: Singing high-pitched and with a faster rythm is a style. Applying increasedconstriction in the throat to make the ventricular folds vibrate is a technique.1 Introductionpage 2Illustration 1: An example of how a tuvan (EmiC) taxonomyof throatsinging can look like,using tuvan words to describe tuvan techniques.Made by the author.KhoomeiBorbangnadyrSygytChylandykKargyraaKhoomei

In throat singing and overtone singing, you combine formants to increase the volume of certainharmonics, to make the overtones more audible. A metaphor that works here is that high4 formantsequals audible overtones. (Lundberg&Ronström 2002:15) But throat singing is primarily asubjective experience, for both the listener and the singer. If you can not distinguish two differenttones coming from one singer, then it is just ordinary singing. This is so even in Tuva, where theylike to focus on the timbre of the voice. (Levin 2006:47-48) Timbre, or colour, being the relationbetween the harmonics.In throat singing, but not in overtone singing, you constrict the airflow trough your throat.(Tongeren 2004:23) This is the basis for tuvan style throat singing, khoomei. If you apply tremoloto your tongue root while singing khoomei, you get the technique borbangnadyr instead ofkhoomei. If you put your tongue tip to the roof of your mouth when singing khoomei, you get thebasic technique sygyt. Sygyt is hard to do, it requires alot of throat constriction and air pressure.(Lundberg&Ronström 2002:15)Illustration 2: Tree arrangement of throat singing, made by the author,using early cognitive anthropology as reference. (Tyler 2004:402)Plus (+) indicates presence of feature,minus (-) indicates absence of feature.VVF is short for Vocal-Ventricular Folds.Kargyraa uses a special kind of vibration of the vocal-ventricular folds, they vibrate half the speedof the normal vocal folds, making the voice drop an entire octave. The vocal-ventricular folds(VVF), sometimes also referred to as false vocal folds, are located above the normal vocal folds. Inall kinds of tuvan throat singing, the VVFs are involved in one way or another, but in kargyraa theymake the voice sound really low. (Sakakibara et al. 2002, Fuks et al. 1998:57-58) This is also how4“High” here meaning both pitch as well as volume.1 Introductionpage 3More then one tone audibleNormal singingThroat constrictionWesternOvertone singing-+VVF’s vibratinghalf the speed of vocal folds+–Sygyt+-+KargyraaChylandyk-+Lip tremoloKhoomeiBorbangnadyrTip of tonguetouching palate-+ByrlangTonguetremolo-+Fast VVF vibrations & Tip of tonguetouching palate

Impro i efterklangsrum på DTU, DENMARK

Impro i efterklangsrum på DTU, DENMARK

Ajoutée le 27 juin 2019

It is an interesting experience even thoughthe reverberation room is not designed for beautiful acoustics but to be able to meausure transmission loss of building elements (absorbtion of different materials). It is situated in the Technical University of Denmark, in Lyngby, north of Copenhagen. The surfaces are hard (concrete), and the cones on the floor and walls work as difusers which spread the sound waves and allow an experience of a room much bigger than it actually is.
Under- og overtonesang i et usædvanligt akustisk rum. Flemming Hinnerskov og Skye Løfvander. Se mere på http://www.kortlink.dk/yf8c

My friend Flemming and I were kindly allowed to do recordings, videos, and photos for an article and along the way we caught the moment to do a few vocal improvisations.
We are not throat singers, so you may ask what tempted us to do basso profundo/vocal fry/strohbass.
One of the factors is obviously the dimensions of the room. We didn’t bring a measure tape but knew that its volume is 240 cubic meters, meaning that each side and the height is between 5 and 8 meters.
Using the wave formula this allows us to find some of the prominent resonances.
f x λ = v , where f is the frequency, lambda is the wave length, and the constant v is the speed of sound in air:

f(8 m) = 343 m/s : 8 m = 42,875 Hz (s^-1)
f(5 m) = 343 m/s : 5 m = 68,6 Hz
This roughly corresponds to the interval G1:C2 (‘scientific pitch notation’).
… and it is the tonal depths that Flemming and I for some reason where inspired to delve into.

 

“Ihr Kinderlein, kommet” – Wolfgang Saus – Polyphonic Overtone Singing / Obertongesang

“Ihr Kinderlein, kommet” – Wolfgang Saus – Polyphonic Overtone Singing / Obertongesang

Ajoutée le 24 déc. 2014

German Christmas Carol by J.A.P. Schulz 1794. Find out more and download the scores for free on http://www.oberton.org/?p=1588 Wolfgang Saus sings bass and melody simultaneously with polyphonic overtone singing technique. It’s an easy version, download the scores and music for free and try singin along. Michael Reimann – keyboards – http://www.michaelreimann.de Wolfgang Saus – overtone singing – http://www.oberton.org Video credit: Falling snow by Matt S – http://vimeo.com/mattsfilms – CC BY 3.0 —————————————————————————- Deutsches Weihnachtslied von J.A.P. Schulz 1794. Mehr dazu und kostenlose Noten: http://www.oberton.org/?p=1588 Wolfgang Saus singt Bass und Melodie gleichzeitig mit polyphoner Obertongesang-Technik. Es ist eine einfache Version, lade Dir die Noten kostenlos herunter und versuche mitzusingen. Eine gute Übung für mehrstimmiges Obertonsingen. Michael Reimann – Keyboard – http://www.michaelreimann.de Wolfgang Saus – Obertongesang – http://www.oberton.org Video: Falling snow von Matt S – http://vimeo.com/mattsfilms – CC BY 3.0