Ungewöhnliche Ursachen einer Biphonation

Ungewöhnliche Ursachen einer Biphonation

1 575 vues•3 déc. 2010 0 0 Partager EnregistrerSpringerVideos 4,79 k abonnés From the Springer article: Ungewöhnliche Ursachen einer Biphonation http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.a… by: Ptok, M.; Video 1 (4449 KB) Journal: HNO Vol. 56 Issue 4 DOI: 10.1007/s00106-008-1700-7 Published: 2008-04-01

Gerrit Bloothooft, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Cappellen, Jolanda B. van Luipen, and Koen P. ThomassenView Affiliations: Acoustics and perception of overtone singing

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Prev Next Published Online: 04 June 1998 Accepted: June 1992

Acoustics and perception of overtone singing

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 92, 1827 (1992); https://doi.org/10.1121/1.403839 Gerrit Bloothooft, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Cappellen, Jolanda B. van Luipen, and Koen P. ThomassenView Affiliations

Abstract

Overtone singing, a technique of Asian origin, is a special type of voice production resulting in a very pronounced, high and separate tone that can be heard over a more or less constant drone. An acoustic analysis is presented of the phenomenon and the results are described in terms of the classical theory of speech production. The overtone sound may be interpreted as the result of an interaction of closely spaced formants. For the lower overtones, these may be the first and second formant, separated from the lower harmonics by a nasal pole‐zero pair, as the result of a nasalized articulation shifting from /c/ to /a/, or, as an alternative, the second formant alone, separated from the first formant by the nasal pole‐zero pair, again as the result of a nasalized articulation around /c/. For overtones with a frequency higher than 800 Hz, the overtone sound can be explained as a combination of the second and third formant as the result of a careful, retroflex, and rounded articulation from /c/, via schwa /E/ to /y/ and /i/ for the highest overtones. The results indicate a firm and relatively long closure of the glottis during overtone phonation. The corresponding short open duration of the glottis introduces a glottal formant that may enhance the amplitude of the intended overtone. Perception experiments showed that listeners categorized the overtone sounds differently from normally sung vowels, which possibly has its basis in an independent perception of the small bandwidth of the resonance underlying the overtone. Their verbal judgments were in agreement with the presented phonetic‐acoustic explanation.

https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.403839

Gerrit Bloothooft, Guus de Krom, Susan Jansen, Allard van der Heijden: Electroglottogram recordings during overtone singing

1994

Electroglottogram recordings during overtone singing

Gerrit Bloothooft, Guus de Krom, Susan Jansen, Allard van der Heijden

Research Institute for Language and Speech (OTS)
Utrecht University
Trans 10, 3512 JK Utrecht, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT

Overtone singing involves careful articulation, resulting in a closely spaced formant pair (F1/F2 or F2/F3) that enhances the amplitude of the intended overtone considerably. Apart from this articulatory explanation it is likely that the glottal sound source plays an important role during overtone singing, but this has never been explicitly investigated so far. To this end we have made electroglottograms (EGG) from an experienced singer from the Tuva Republic and from a Dutch teacher of overtone singing. Khargira and sygyt techniques and some variants were recorded, for the authentic singer during songs, and for the Dutch singer as systematic scales of overtones. Whereas normally sung vowels showed standard shapes of the EGG, the shape of the EGG deviated considerably during overtone singing, for both singers. Instead of a single full wave per period, the EGG showed modulations during a period with higher frequency components. We will present an analysis of these modulations in relation to the frequency of the amplified overtone. A comparison is made between the two singers and the different and comparable overtone singing techniques they recognized.

Contact:

Dr Gerrit Bloothooft
Research Institute for Language and Speech (OTS)
Utrecht University
Trans 10, 3512 JK Utrecht, The Netherlands
Phone: +31.30.536042
Fax: +31.30.536000
Email: bloothooft@let.ruu.nl

http://www.gerritbloothooft.nl/Publications/VoiceConference94overtonesEGG.htm

UNIVERSITEIT UTRECHT: overtone singing

singing
overtone singingtuva overtone singing 1tuva overtone singing 2tuva overtone singing 3tuva overtone singing 4
 overtone singing
This is a demonstration of overtone singing. Overtone singing is an articulatory technique in which a certain overtone is amplified. You will hear a whistle over the drone of the fundamental and lower harmonics.
The first fragment demonstrates a technique which is especially used in the Western countries. The tongue is very slowly moved from the position of the vowel /O/ to the position of the vowel /i:/, resulting in a special scale of overtones. The fundamental remains the same in all cases! The careful somewhat retroflex articulation brings the second and third formant together, which amplifies the nearby overtone. The overtones 5-16 can be heard. To produce the overtones 3-5, one has to make a nasal sound and articulate from /o:/ to /a:/. The overtone is then amplified by the first formant, while the nasal anti-resonance creates the acoustic distinction between the amplified overtone and the lowest harmonics.
In the subsequent demonstrations, we hear song fragments containing overtone singing, from the Tuva Republic in Mongolia. The technique is not essentially different from the Western technique, but glottal adducation is much higher (almost pressed singing). The Tuva people know a number of techniques, which are related to the fundamental frequency. In these fragments you will hear Sygyt which is typically produced with a pitch of 150-200 Hz. An other technique is Kargyra, with a characteristic low pitch of less than 60 Hz. More information:
Bloothooft, G., Bringmann, E., van Cappellen, M., van Luipen, J.M., and Thomassen, K.P. (1992). Acoustics and perception of overtone singing, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 1827-1836. Levin, Theodore C., and Edgerton, Michael E. (1999). The Throat Singers of Tuva, Scientific American, Sept.1999. www.harmonx.com [19 Jul 2001] with sound clips!


listen to demonstration listen
technical details technical
text/transcript text/transcript


overtone singing
Keeping a constant pitch of about 130 Hz, a professional Western performer sings a scale of the overtones 4 to 16. The narrow-band spectrogram shows the amplification of the successive overtones. The lowest overtones are amplified by the first formant, the stepwise increasing resonance is the combination of second and third formant. Higher formants are also visible.


File size505246 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 1
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size363058 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 2
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size329092 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 3
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size398652 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 4
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size407606 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing

http://audiufon.hum.uu.nl/data/e_boventoon.html

Hefele, Anna-Maria; Eklund, Robert; McAllister, Anita: Polyphonic overtone singing: An acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of a unique mode of singing

June 10, 2019 Conference paper Open Access

Polyphonic overtone singing: An acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of a unique mode of singing

Anna Maria Hefele

Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 2019

Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physio-logical (MRI) analysis and a first -person description of a unique mode of singing

Anna-Maria Hefele1, Robert Eklund2, Anita McAllister3

1 http://www.anna-maria-hefele.com

2 Department of Culture and Communication, Linköping University, Sweden

3 Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

ama@anna-maria-hefele.com, robert@roberteklund.info, anita.mcallister@ki.se

Abstract This paper describes a unique singing mode, tentatively labeled “polyphonic overtone singing”. In overtone singing the vocal harmonics of a stabile fundamental frequency are filtered by the singer in such a way that specific upper harmonics are amplified, and heard clear ly, as a second musical voice. In the “throat singing” of Tuva (Mongolia) moving overtones usually occur over a stable drone. In polyphonic overtone singing not only the pitch of the overtones are changed and moving, but also the fundamental which results in two-voice singing.

Introduction

The historical records of overtone sing-ing (OTS) are fairly scarce. It is used in different ethnic traditions and musical styles. A well -known example is the “Tuvan throat-singing” (Levin & Edger-ton, 1999), which mainly occurs in Mongolia and Tibetan temples (Smith, Stevens & Tomlinson, 1967). Singers in these regions employ a variety of throat-singing styles, referred to as sygyt, chöömej and kargyraa (Grawunder, 1999:22). Chöömej is also used as an umbrella term for all central Asian techniques. In the west, the tradition of OT is not as strong, and the development of the technique began during the last century.

The earliest existing recording of western OTS is from 1929, sung by an Amer-ican country singer, Arthur Miles. However, Miles did not leave any marked traces in musical history, although he was a local celebrity and even released an album (Tongeren, 2004:161). Also in America, La Monte Young began to experiment with vocal overtones and started to use it as a musical parameter, although it was not yet mature overtone singing (Tongeren, 2004:166).

In 1968 Karlheinz Stockhausen published Stimmung for six vocalists, which can be considered the first composition in contemporary music with exact, notated vocal overtones, amplified through specific vowels (Saus, 2009:1).

Further, Michael Vetter (Germany), who collaborated with Stockhausen from 1969 (Tongeren, 2004:177), and David Hykes “laid the solid foundations for overtone singing as an independent vocal technique /…/ With their original examples, overtone singing became an art in itself” (Tongeren, 2004:175).

The Greek singer Demetrio Stratos (1945–1979) also belongs to the first generation of experimental western overtone singers, and before his early death he left his album Cantare la Voce(1978) with “vocal sounding overtone noises” (Tongeren, 2004:175).

Trân Quang Hai (1944–), a Vietnamese musician and researcher living in Paris, got in contact with Mongol overtone singing in 1969 and he “collaborated in one of the first compositions and public performances of OTS in Europe after Stockhausen .

Apart from his activities as a performer, Trân’s main contribution to the field of overtone singing are scientific and educational” (Tongeren, 2004:171).

From 1983 and on OTS became popular also outside the field of experi-mental music and the knowledge about the technique grew. Singing groups and overtone choirs were formed for chanting, singing mantras or practicing overtone singing together, so it was not only performed by professional musicians (Tongeren, 2004:185). So called “World Music” gained popularity in the west, which spurred an interested in overtone singing. Also enhanced by the Tuva Ensemble tours (Tongeren, 2004:187). To-day western overtone singing is used in many different musical genres. From a phonetic perspective, the formant tuning and the adjustments of the articulators during OTS, are of interest both with regard to aspects related to production and pedagogy.

Method and material

The study includes acoustic analysis of OTS performed by the first author (AMH in the following). In all spectrograms the program Overtone Analyzer(https://www.sygyt.com/en) was used.

The MRI recordings were made at Freiburg University Hospital, usinga 3T Siemens Prisma Fit scanner. MRI recordings were completed in collaboration with professor Bernhard Richter, Dr Michael Burdumy and the singer at an earlier date. The MRI-illustrations are provided by the singer AMH. The singerAMH is a classically trained soprano with a wide frequency range of around ~100–2000 Hz. She started with overtone singing in 2005 and now cooperates with several musicians and composers to increase knowledge about the musical possibilities of the technique. AMH is also teaching overtone singing in masterclasses around the world.

The techniques

In the western style of overtone singing a distinction can be made between the so-called one- cavity-technique, where harmonics get amplified through specific vowel shapes and the so-called two -cavity-technique, where the tongue is raised and divides the oral cavity into two resonance chambers. This results in very clear, whistle-like harmonics. The differentiation between these two tech-niques was first performed by the ethno-musicologists Tran Quang Hai and Hugo Zemp, based on physiological research (Jentsch 2007:55). The one-cavity technique enhances the harmonics through changing the vowel shapes, mostly over a stabile fundamental. This is usually the first technical stage to learn in OTS.

Results

Below different possibilities with OTS are explored. As seen in the spectrogram in Figure 1, overtones can be clearly visualized over a stabile fundamental. Note that a drone would have the same func-tion. Below the spectrogram the simulta-neous MRI registrations are shown. Also note the different and peculiar tongue shapes used to enhance the partials. This is especially apparent in the initial frames. The technique used for this anal-ysis is the two-cavity technique. Another possibility within the two-cavity technique is to move overtone and fundamental in parallel, or to leave the harmonics stabile and move the fundamental through the subharmonic series as shown in Figure 2.By alternating the fundamental frequency different overtones can be enhanced as shown in Figure 3. Here two alternating fundamentals and their harmonics are combined using the two-cavity technique.

Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201992Figure 1. Harmonics 4-10 amplified in the two-cavity technique from fundamental C4. Figure 2. A stable harmonic and a moving fundamental.Figure 3. Overtones over two alternating fundamentals.In Figure 4 AMH illustrates how overtones and fundamentals can be moved in opposite directions. This results in creating a musical counterpoint.Thus, simple classical songs or folk melodies can be easily arranged for OTS. In Figure 5 the spectrogram of the first phrase of “Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge” by W.A. Mozart is shown. The fundamental is not moved randomly but rather chosen within the overtone- and subharmonic series and within the singer’s voice range. Within these options harmonics are chosen that deliver a harmony or create a counterpoint move-ment. This provides a harmonic context to the melody in OT. Figure 4. Fundamental and overtones moving in opposite directions, resulting in a musical counterpoint.To result in polyphonic overtone singing, different combinations of movements for overtones and fundamentals are used. In the figure three combinations of movements for the overtones and the fundamentals are displayed.Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201993Figure 5. Three combinations of movements for overtones and fundamentals are shown. In this example it is the first phrase of “Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge” by W.A. Mozart.The physiology of overtone singing .In the one-cavity-technique the vowel transition between /i/ and /u/ is used, as in the slowly spoken words “oui” and “you”. Here only the movement of the second formant is enhancing harmonics, see Figure 6. In the second panel of the figure the same movement was executed but while whispering, to illustrate the ef-fects of the vocal tract.In the two-cavity technique the ele-vation and shape of the tongue creates two separate resonatory chambers. The tongue shape is similar to a / l/ or / ɹ /. The third formant is lowered and brought close to the second by a raised tongue. The 2nd and 3rd formant are coordinated and moved through the spectrum almost at the same frequency (Saus, 2016:450), amplifying the same harmonic. Also the impact of other formants is lowered.In both techniques, the first formantis kept low to improve control and pro-vide a larger range of options in the har-monic scale. In overtone singing melo-dies are created by formant tuning, pri-marily involving the second and third formant (F2, F3). The shape and eleva-tion of the tongue, jaw position, lip rounding and spreading plays key roles in this process. Figure 6. To the left overtones and f0 is shown while moving from /i/ to /u/ in one-cavity technique. To the right the same movement from /i/ to /u/ while whispering, illustrating filtering of the vocal tract.Discussion In the present study OTS produced by one singer using two techniques was an-alysed. Previously the enhancement of harmonics has been attributed to a nar-rowing of pharynx and the velar constriction, adjusting the mouth opening and a tuning of F1 and F2 (Klingholz 1993). In this study we showed that the formant tuning mainly involves F2 and F3 and that several other alterations are involved, such as tongue elevation and shape, lips and jaw position. Also the alterations differ depending on whether a one- or a two-cavity technique was used. Thus, OTS requires precision and timing of the motor control of the articulators and a very accurate pitch perception.

OT singing: A first-person account

When learning OTS , one learns to perceive harmonics as musical notes or pitches, while they are usually perceived as timbre or different vowels. This also leads to a more detailed perception of timbre and vowels, which is useful while learning other singing techniques or working with other singers. An improved perception and more precise control of your sound can lead toincreased blending and enhanced intona-tion. Learning overtone singing increases the ability to control the first 3 formants precisely and autonomously. This could be a useful ability also in Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201994other singing techniques in order to improve specific resonance strategies.

In polyphonic overtone singing not only the harmonics but also the funda-mental is moved within the musical con-text to enlarge the musical possibilities of the technique.When overtones and fundamentals are moved simultaneously a very specific coordination is required. The clos-est analogy for me (AMH) as a singer is that of “juggling”.

On terminology – what to call it

On the note of terminology the term “polyphonic overtone singing” has been questioned, e.g. by Maxfield and Titze (2015:470), who write: “Ms. Hefele dubs her technique “polyphonic over-tone singing.” In reality, like most over-tone singers, she selectively amplifies overtones to create a melody above a rel-atively stable fundamental frequency (F0). While her F0 does move, it may be questioned whether its movement rise to the level of an independent melody. As such, calling her technique “polyphony” – a musical style with its own rich history – might be a stretch. Stuart Hinds (2005) points out that he and other overtone singers are indeed capable of a style of overtone singing that could justifiably be called polyphonic, but this practice seems to be an extension of the style and not the most common practice”. Ethnomusicologist Carole Pegg notes that English terms for the practice include “biphonic singing,” “split-tone singing,” “Jew’s harp voice,” and “throat sing-ing.” French terms are no less varied, including “chant diphonique,” “voix dé-doublée,” and “voix guimbarde”.While it is (trivially) true that the set of upper harmonics are defined by the fundamental frequency, this does not completely rule out the use of the word “polyphony”. Although composers such as Palestrina (c1525–1594) were free, in theory, to put in any note in the upper voices, he most surely would never had considered going outside of the “true harmony”, making the end result similar to AMH’s singing. Palestrina was considered the “golden standard” of polyphony during his lifetime. This links to the second argumentagainst the term, that the singing tech-nique used by Hefele is not true polyph-ony, since “poly-” means “many”, and OTS can only produce two separate voices (Maxfield and Titze 2015:470).This argument has more merit since many languages make use of a “one, two, many” (singular, dual, plural) grammar. However, the suggested terms “biphonic singing” or “chant diphonique”, while technically accurate, might be somewhat misleading since “biphonic(al)” or the more commonly used term diplophonic phonation is well established in pathological voice production (e.g. Colton, Casper, Leonard, 2011) commonly referring to abnormal vocal fold vibrational patterns (Sveç, 2000) sometimes also including the ventricular folds (Maryn, De Bodt, Van Cauwenberge 2003). The term is also used to describe animal vocalizations (Wilden et al. 1998; Volodin & Vo-lodina, 2012), where it is a common ine.g. African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dholes (Cuon alpinus). Also, and perhaps more importantly, biphonation implies that the sound source are the vo-cal folds vibrating at different frequen-cies or irregularly. This, of course, is very far from the precise control of the fundamental and the harmonics Hefele, and other OT singers use to create their two -part singing.It is evident that OTS, as performed by AMH, is distinct from Tuva throat-singing but what term best describes it is not entirely clear.Overtone singing as a pedagogical tool

Although interesting in and by itself, OTS can also be used in the teaching of general phonetics and acoustic analysis, as tested for years by the second author (RE). Very often it is difficult to make students understand both that there are Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201995


For the comple article, click on the link below:

https://zenodo.org/record/3246011



GILLES LEOTHAUD : Les musiques vocales de tradition orale sous l’angle de la technique d’émission

Les musiques vocales de tradition orale sous l’angle de la technique d’émission

Publié le 3 mars 2006 par stephen0711

Il s’agit de notes prises lors du cours de M Gilles Léothaud. Je tenais à rendre hommage à cet homme exceptionnel, à ce professeur passionné, à ce musicien averti qui a dû captiver plus d’un étudiant. Merci M Léothaud !

La liste des cours en ligne (en format PDF) est disponible à l’adresse suivante :

http://www.paris4.sorbonne.fr/e-cursus/texte/CEC/Gleothaud/leothaud.htm

Les musiques vocales de tradition orale sous l’angle de la technique d’émission

Le travestissement vocal. Thématique du masque

  • Période magdalénienne (Lascaux –16 000, les 3 frères –12 000). Première figuration d’un instrument de musique dans l’histoire de l’humanité (arc en bouche). Sorcier masqué (tête de cervidé) qui pousse un troupeau de bisons.
  • Caractère quasiment universel
  • Signification. Passif : dissimuler, transfiguration faciale ou à l’ensemble du corps. Aspect tardif et moins important. Actif : outil qui aide ou qui provoque la transmutation (elle est secrète) de la personnalité de celui qui le porte. Il transforme. C’est un médium.
  • Les femmes sont exclues de ce processus car elles crée de enfantes : pas de contacts entre l’être créateur et le monde de l’haut delà.
  • Le masque en matière vocale prend un sens plus métaphorique
  • Cinq groupes de procédé pour masquer sa voix :
  1. Technique vocale (volontaire, dans un état normal)
  2. Absorption de substances (résultat plus ou moins définitif)
  3. Par crise (perte de la volonté directe, transe, possession, extase)
  4. Mutilation, castration
  5. Altération de l’onde sonore déjà émise par la voix. Déformation acoustique

5.1.      Mains

5.2.      Dispositif matériel extérieur au corps

5.2.1.           Masque

5.2.2.           Altérateur de voix

5.2.2.1.      Récipient, contenant

5.2.2.2.      Porte-voix

5.2.2.3.      Casque

5.2.3.           Système excitateur (système producteur de son : exemple : voix + flûte)

5.2.4.           Mirliton : faire vibrer une membrane au moyen d’une onde sonore déjà existante

5.2.5.           Microphone

5.3.      Emission dans un milieu autre que l’aire

5.4.      Choix spécifique d’un lieu à l’acoustique spéciale

5.4.1.           Lieu très réverbérant

5.4.2.           Lieu très assourdissant (voix de statues, voix en terre)

 

 

 

 

Le mixage voco-instrumental

I Mixage voco-instrumental par fusion

 

  1. avec résonateur rapporté

 

  1. avec système excitateur ajouté

Cette technique suit la route de la soie (entre la Chine et l’Occident). La Bachkirie (ancienne république socialiste autonome de Russie), devenue aujourd’hui le Bachkortostan (à l’ouest de l’Oural, à côté du Turkestan, à la frontière de la Sibérie). On utilise dans ce pays une technique de chant dans la flûte très élaborée. Flûte Kurai : tige d’angélique séchée jouée de façon oblique avec la langue enroulée, la mains droite tenant la flûte en supination, la main gauche réalisant le jeu. Utilisation de deux techniques : accompagnant réciproque voix/flûte : inversement de perspective sonore (chant diphonique, bourdon). Chacune des perspectives est utilisée à des fins esthétiques, techniques organisées au sein d’une strophe. Cette technique se trouve aussi ailleurs : Mélanésie, Afrique, très peu en Europe.

 

  1. Avec mirliton
  2. V. + conduit pharyngo-buccal  +             mirliton

Son primaire         +             son vocal                              +             surmodulation

Le mirliton est un surmodulateur : action sur un son qui existe déjà. Dispositif présent :

  • Pour des résonateurs d’instruments à percussion : xylophone à résonateur multiple (sous chaque lame), toms percés d’un trou recouvert d’une membrane qui sert de mirliton
  • Sur instrument à vent : flûte chinoise avec un trou entre k’embouchure et le premier trou d’intonation, recouvert d’une membrane. Plus subtil.
  • Dans le jeu du peigne
  • Dans les violons à mirlitons : en Transylvanie.

è système universellement utilisé, organologiquement classé dans les membranophones soufflés.

La membrane possède plusieurs origines :

  • Aile de chauve-souris
  • Membrane tissée par les araignées pour protéger leur cocon
  • Péritoine de Sibissi (grand rongeur)
  • Feuille de papier à cigarette / soie
  • Pelure d’oignons de nénuphar (flûte chinoise)

En occident : jeu d’enfant, kazoo, instrument profane. Chez les Baoulés de Côte d’Ivoire : connotation très très forte. Os de toucan + enveloppe de cocon d’araignée. Les voix groupées par deux sont jouées en tierces parallèles. La tierce est caractéristique des Baoulés (¹ chant en quartes parallèles des Guéré). Le rituel Baoulé consiste en un dialogue de deux esprits protecteurs. Représentation symbolique des esprits (épidémie, empoisonnement, adultère) : Pondo Kaku (mirliton), Gooli (tambour à friction).

Mixage voco-instrumental par décalage temporel

Alternance tellement rapide qu’elle est perçue comme voix unitaire. è technique du hoquet voco-instrumental.

Hoquet simple ou monodique. Réalisé par un seul individu : pygmées de la forêt équatoriale M’Benzele. Dispositif : simple rameau de 7 à 8 cm de long, creux, ouvert aux deux bouts, utilisé comme un sifflet (hindewou), qui alterne avec la voix (voix de fausset). Aussi chez les pygmées Aka avec le sifflet Mobeke

Publié dans ETHNOMUSICOLOGIE

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GILLES LEOTHAUD : Cours de DEUG 2ème année: Théorie de la phonation

Cours de DEUG 2e annéeDMU3D1B

Année universitaire 2004-2005

Emmanuelle Trinquesse |  11 novembre 2015 |  ,

J’ai eu la chance il y a une grosse dizaine d’années, lorsque je faisais mes études de musicologie et mon Master sur le Belting à la Sorbonne, d’avoir comme professeur Gilles Léothaud. Ses cours étaient tout simplement passionnants et il a confirmé mon envie de m’intéresser beaucoup, beaucoup, beaucoup à la voix !

Avec générosité il avait à l’époque mis en ligne son cours intitulé « théorie de la phonation ». Je vous propose donc de le consulter ici :

Théorie de la phonation par Gilles Léothaud

Je vous souhaite une agréable lecture !

gilles leothaud tran quang hai 2013

GILLES LEOTHAUD & TRAN QUANG HAI

GILLES LEOTHAUD

SOMMAIRESOMMAIRE………………………………………………………………………………………………2Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………..6ChapitreI…………………………………………………………………………………………………10Anatomie du système phonatoire………………………………………………………………….101.L’appareil vocal………………………………………………………………………………….102.Le larynx…………………………………………………………………………………………..122.1.Les cartilages du larynx…………………………………………………………………122.2.Les muscles du larynx……………………………………………………………………122.2.1. Muscles intrinsèques……………………………………………………………….132.2.2. Muscles extrinsèques……………………………………………………………….142.3.Membranes et ligaments du larynx…………………………………………………..152.4.Situation du larynx………………………………………………………………………..152.5.Action des muscles du larynx………………………………………………………….162.5.1. Action des crico-thyroïdiens……………………………………………………..162.5.2. Action des thyro-aryténoïdiens………………………………………………….172.5.3. Les configurations glottiques…………………………………………………….183.Le corps sonore………………………………………………………………………………….193.1.Le pharynx et la cavité nasale…………………………………………………………203.2.Les cavités buccales et labiales……………………………………………………….204.Le système articulateur………………………………………………………………………..20ChapitreII………………………………………………………………………………………………..22La respiration……………………………………………………………………………………………221.Les différents volumes respiratoires……………………………………………………….222.La mécanique respiratoire…………………………………………………………………….232.1.L’inspiration………………………………………………………………………………..232.2.L’expiration…………………………………………………………………………………242.3.La respiration phonatoire……………………………………………………………….253.Les muscles de la respiration………………………………………………………………..253.1.Muscles de l’inspiration…………………………………………………………………253.2.Muscles de l’expiration………………………………………………………………….264.Typologie de la respiration…………………………………………………………………..274.1.Le type thoracique supérieur…………………………………………………………..284.2.Le type thoracique inférieur……………………………………………………………284.3.Le type abdominal………………………………………………………………………..284.4.Le type vertébral…………………………………………………………………………..28ChapitreIII……………………………………………………………………………………………….29Physiologie de la phonation…………………………………………………………………………291.Survol historique………………………………………………………………………………..291.1.Époque ancienne…………………………………………………………………………..291.2.Époque moderne…………………………………………………………………………..291.3.Les moyens d’investigation…………………………………………………………….302.Les théories de la phonation………………………………………………………………….33

 

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