TRAN QUANG HAI : Throat Singing vs. Overtone Singing / Tradition vs. Experiment : A Case of Harmonic Singing

Throat Singing vs. Overtone Singing / Tradition vs. Experiment : A Case of Harmonic Singing

Tran Quang Hai

Department of Ethnomusicology
Musee de l’Homme, Paris
tranqhai@mnhn.fr

Abstract
The Western world discovered overtones during the 60’s in Tibetan chanting of the Gyuto monks. Stockhausen, the first ‘German composer, used overtones in his compostion « Stimmung » in 1968. Mongolian throat voice with 6 different styles in the 70’s and Tuvan throat voice with 5 main styles in the 80’s amazed Western singers, composers and researchers in many fields (acoustics, ethnomusicology, phoniatrics).
Throat Singing from Central Asia (Tuva, Mongolia, Bashkiria, Altai, Khakassia) is characterized by soft fundamental (contraction of vocal folds), loud overtones (suppression of undesired harmonics), and numerous specific styles, while overtone singing from the Western world (Europe / America) is focused on strong fundamental (relaxation of vocal folds), soft overtones (presence of many undesired harmonics) , and only one style.
In Central Asia, throat singing is sung by one person (mostly male) or sometimes a quartet without or with an accompaniment of an instrument (lute, fiddle, flute, drum), and sung melodic overtones in oral tradition. In Western world, overtone singing is sung by one person (male or female very often for healing voice) or by an ensemble ( the Harmonic Choir with David Hykes in New York created in 1975, and the Oberton-Chor Dusseldorf with Christian Bollmann in Germany founded in 1985), without or with an accompaniment of an instrument (Indian lute tampura, Australian trump didjeridu, Tibetan bowls), and polyphonic fundamentals and overtones in written tradition. In South Africa, Xhosa women have the throat singing discovered in 1980 . In New Guinea, the Dani tribe possesses throat singing with three simultaneous levels. Experimental overtone research carried out for 30 years by the author of this paper will show new aspects of overtones and undertones never heard before.
Spectral analyses , sound documents and live demonstration of different experimental examples of overtones/undertones will accompany this paper .

Introduction

The Western world discovered overtones during the 60’s in Tibetan chanting of the Gyuto monks. K.Stockhausen, the first German composer, used overtones in his composition “Stimmung” in 1968.
Mongolian throat voice with 6 different styles in the 70’s and Tuvan throat voice with 5 main styles in the 80’s amazed Western singers, composers, and researchers in many fields (acoustics, ethnomusicology, phoniatrics, contemporary music).

Khomei Styles

KHOMEI comprises three major Thorat singing styles called Khomei, Kargyraa and Sygyt, two main sub styles called Borgangnadyr and Ezengileer and other sub styles
Khomei means “throat” or “pharynx” is a general term for throat singing and also a particular style of singing. Khomei is the easiest technique to learn and the most practised in the West. It produces clear and mild harmonics with a fundamental usually within the medium range of the singer’s voice. Technically the stomach remains relaxed and there is a low level tension on larynx and ventricular bands. The tongue remains seated flatly between the lower teeth as in the single cavity technique or raises and moves as in the two cavities technique . The selection of the wanted harmonics is the result of a combination of different lips, tongue and throat movements .
SYGYT means “whistle” and sounds like a flute . This style creates strong harmonics .Sygyt is sung with the tip of the tongue under the middle of the roof of the palate . Either the the tongue moves under the roof and is fixed while the lips move to change harmonic pitches .To produce a flute like overtones, one must learn how to filter out the fundamental and lower harmonic components. A very strong pressure from the abdomen acting as a bellows to push the air through the throat . Significant tension is required in the throat as well, to bring the arytenoids near the root of the epiglottis. The fundamental and the lower harmonics are consequently attenuated to be softly audible .
KARGYRAA (means “hoars voice”) style emits a very low fundamental; Overtones are amplified by varying the shape of the mouth cavity and is linked to vowel productions. The supraglottal structures begin to vibrate with the vocal folds, but at a half rate . The arytenoids also can vibrate touching the root of the epiglottis , hiding the vocal folds and formoing a second “glottic” source . The perceived pitch is one octave lower than normal, but also one octave and a 5th lower . In my voice’s case, the fibroendoscopy reveals the vibration and the strong constriction of the arytenoids that hide completely the vocal folds
Tibetan Buddhist prayer of Yang style (Gyuto and Gyume schools of Gelugpa monastery) is produced with the vocal folds relaxed completely, and without any supraglottal vibration .The men’s voices are pitched so low that one wonders if this can really be human beings singing. In terms of the Western scale, the pitches sung by the performers fall within the range of an octave with the lowest note situated at A two octaves and a third below middle C. In the Western bel canto tradition, the lowest pitch in the bass tessitura is generally considered to be the E an octave and a sixth below middle C. However, the lowest pitch sung out so resplendently by these Tibetan monks is a full fifth below this. The technique of singing at such subterranean pitches is not one acquired overnight. The monks undergo rigorous vocal training which involves going down to the banks of surging river and producing extremely loud sounds which can be heard above the roar of the water..The use of vowell O is very important. It enables the monks to produce the harmonic 10 The research of harmonic10 (major third of 3 octaves higher than the fundamental) is intentional. Only the vowell O can get the harmonic.Only the monks of the Gyuto and Gyume monasteries could practise the overtones in their prayers.
Borbangnadyr and Ezengileer are a combination of effects applied to one of the three styles mentioned above .

Recent Researches in the West

In the recent years, some researches have been carried out on the analyses of Khomei and more on Overtone Singing. The focus on these researches has been on the effort to discover exactly how overtone melodies are produced. Hypotheses as to the mechanics of Overtone singing range from ideas as to the necessary physical stance and posture used by the singer during a performance, to the actual physical formation of the mouth cavity in producing the overtones .
Acoustically, a vowel is distinctive because of its formant structure. In Overtone Singing, the diphonic formant is reduced to one or a few harmonics, often with surrounding harmonics attenuated as much as possible (filtered vocal style).
In the Western world, the Overtone singing style has suddenly become very popular starting with new ideas in contemporary compositions and later on with meditation, relaxation, music therapy, voice healing. Karlheinz Stockhausen was the first in the West using simple overtones in his composition “Stimmung” (1968), followed by the EVTE (Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble) group at the San Diego University in 1972, Roberto Laneri and his Prima Materia group in 1973, Tran Quang Hai with his electro-acoustical composition (1975) “Vê Nguôn” (Return to the Sources, in collaboration with Nguyen Van Tuong), Michael Vetter in 1976, Demetrio Stratos in 1977, Meredith Monk in 1980, David Hykes and his Harmonic Choir in 1983 with the famous LP “A
l’ecoute du vent solaire” (Hearing the Solar Wind) in 1983, Joan La Barbara in 1985, Christian Bollman in 1985, Noah Pikes in 1985, Michael Reimann in 1986, Tamia in 1987, Bodjo Pinek in 1987, Josephine Truman in 1987, Quatuor Nomad in 1989, Iegor Reznikoff in 1989, Valentin Clastrier in 1990, Rollin Rachelle in 1990, Thomas Clements in 1990, Sarah Hopkins in 1990, Bernard Dubreuil in 1990, Steve Sklar in 1995, Mark Van Tongeren in 1995, Leo Tadagawa in 1995, Todoriki Masahiko in 1996, Les Voix Diphoniques in 1997 .The most renowned overtone singer of this type of singing is David Hykes . He experimented with numerous innovations including changing the fundamental (moveable drone) and keeping fixed the diphonic formant , introducing text, glissando effects, in many musical works with his Harmonic Choir .
Western overtone singers often use soft overtones with combination of polyphonic system, and additional musical instruments (tempura, didjeridu, Jew’s harp, Tibetan bowls) with different purposes (relaxation, meditation, healing, contemporary musical creations) while traditional Siberian singers exploit the filtered overtone voice with strong pressure at abdomen and throat in order to pruduce strong ,crystalized and flute like harmonics

Personal Experimental Research

My experimental research on overtone/undertone productions has lead me to create new possibilities
1. To use one harmonic as a drone and to create a melody with fundamentals
The fundamentals can be sung from 110 Hz to 220 Hz in the diatonic scale while keeping the same pitch of the selected overtone at 1320 Hz. In order to obtain this result, the tip of the tongue strongly touches the meeting point of the hard palate and the soft palate or velum under the roof of the palate and should not make any movement . In that case, the two buccal cavities obtained by the position of the tongue inside of the mouth have the same volume and get the same overtone pitch in spite of the changing pitch of the fundamentals .
2. To create a parallel between fundamentals and overtones
The overtones are always 3 octaves higher than the fundamentals while singing the ascending and descending diatonic scale with the fundamentals . If the fundamental is at 110 Hz , the overtone will be heard at 880 Hz. If the fundamental is moved up to 220 Hz , the overtone will be at 1760 Hz . For this experiment,, not only the tip of the tongue is hardly pressed against the roof of the palate and moves from the velum to the hard palate when the fundamentals moves from A2 (110 Hz) to A3 (220 Hz) in order to create the same pitched distance of 3 octaves in parallel .
3. To create the opposite direction between overtones and fundamentals
In this experiment , when the fundamental is sung at A2 (110 Hz) the overtone is at H16 (4 octaves above the fundamental). When the fundamental goes up to A3 (220 Hz) , the overtone goes down to H4 (2 octaves above the fundamental). Thus, this creates the opposite movement of fundamentals and overtones . To obtain this result, the position of the tip of the tongue touches near the teeth under the roof of the palate (H16 will be heard) and moves back slowly to the velum (H4) while the fundamentals start with low pitch (A2) and ends with high pitch (A3) of the A tonality
1. To write words with overtones (such words like MINIMUM, WIN )
A certain number of words can be written with overtones . With the same pitch of the fundamental , the written words can be obtained by various overtones at three levels (under 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 3,000 Hz)
2. To create UNDERTONES (F-2, F-3, F-4 while singing a melody)
Some traditional throat voices like Tuvan Kargyraa, Xhosa Umngqokolo from South Africa, the Tenore voice of the Sardinian Quintina (the fusion of 4 main voices creates the virtual fifth overtone voice) use the undertone going down one octave lower than the real fundamental . Leonardo Fuks from Brazil arrived to go down to F-5 (2 octaves and a major third below the fundamental) but he could not sing a tune with that way . I have succeeded in dividing the fundamental pitch into 2, 3, and 4 . With the use of arytenoids inside of my throat , I could sing one octave lower (F-2), one octave and a fifth lower (F-3) and two octaves lower (F-4) than the real fundamental pitch (between 110 Hz and 150 Hz) . It is not possible to create the undertones above 220 Hz .
3. To combine OVERTONES and UNDERTONES while singing a melody
In Tuvan kargyraa, and Xhosa umngqokolo from South Africa, the combination of overtones (melody) and undertones (real fundamental split into two – F-2) can be produced simultaneously . With my experiment, I could sing an overtone melody with the fundamental divided into 3 (F-3) simultaneously . The perception is consequently not the same
4. To create overtones corresponding to 7 chakras in Yoga
In Yoga, there exist 7 chakras corresponding to 7 vowels, 7 sounds or pitches, 7 overtones and 7 points of the human body. I carried out experimen-tal research in the presence of overtones in Yoga. The result of my three-year study was presented at the International Congress of Yoga in France in 2002 .
According to my research, the fundamental of voice should be at 150Hz .
1 Mulâdhâra coccyx H n° 4 U 600Hz
2 Svâdhishthâna genitals H n° 5 O 750Hz
3 Manipûra navel H n° 6 Ö 900Hz
4 Anâhata heart H n° 8 A 1200Hz
5 Vishuddha throat H n° 9 E 1350Hz
6 Ajnâ between eyebrows H n°10 AE 1500Hz
7 Sahasrâra top of head H n°12 I 1800Hz

Conclusion
The phenomenon “overtones/undertones” has been studied by researchers, acousticians, used by music therapists, composers for contemporary music, at meditation lessons. More and more recordings have been made during the last 10 years all over the world . All musical sounds contain overtones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. These overtones create tone color, and enable us to understand the sounds of this peculiar vocal style which is KHOMEI or throat singing or overtone singing . This short presentation cannot be considered as an exhausted study, but as a beginning of the new approach of how to develop overtone/undertone research in general. This is what I intend to show you here about my new attempts in research on experimental aspect of throat singing .
Selective Bibligraphy

Adachi, S., Yamada, M. 1999: “An Acoustical Study of Sound Production in Biphonic Singing, Xöömij”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105: 2920-2932, USA.
Bloothooft G. Bringmann E., van Capellen M., van Luipen J.B., Thoamssen K.P. 1992: “Acoustic and Perception of Overtone Singing”, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, JASA, vol.92, n°4: 1827-1836, USA
Dargie, D. 1993: “Thembu Xhosa umngqokolo overtone singing : the use of the human voice as a type of “musical bow”, paper presented at the ICTM Conference in Berlin. (self publication)
Fuks, L., Hammarberg, B., Sundberg, J. 1998: “A Self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences”, KTH TMH-QPSR 3/1998 : 49-59, Stockholm, Sweden .
Grawunder, S. 2003 : “Der südsibirische Kehlgesang als Gegenstand phonetishcer Untersuchungen“ , in Gegenstandsauffassung und aktuelle phonetische Forschungen der halleschen Sprechwissenschaft :53-91, Eva-Maria Krech/Eberhard Stock (Ed), Peter Lang, Halle, Germany .
Grawunder, S. 2003: „Unusual phonetic and acoustic features in certain Tuvan throat singing styles“, Scientific Center of Research „Xoomei“, Kyzyl, Tuva
Leipp, E. 1971 : “Le probleme acoustique du chant diphonique”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale , no 58 : 1-10, Universite de Paris VI
Leothaud, G. 1989 : « Considerations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant diphonique », Le Chant diphonique, dossier n°1 : 17-43, Institut de la Voix, Limoges, France
Levin, T.C., Edgerton, M.E. 1999 : « The Throat Singers in Tuva », Scientific American : 80-87, USA
Sundberg, Johan 1987 : The Science of the Singing Voice , Northern Illinois University Press, USA
Lindestat, P.-A, Sodersten, M., Merker,B., Granqvist, S. 2001: “Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “Throat Singing” Studied with High-Speed Imaging Technique, Acoustic Spectra, and Inverse Filtering”, J.Voice 15: 75-85.
Sakakibara, K.-I., Adachi, S., Konishi, T., Kondo, K., Murano, E.Z., Kumada, M., Todoriki, M., Imagawa, H., Niimi, S. 2000: “Vocal Fold and False Vocal Fold Vibrations and Synthesis of Khoomei” Proc. Of ICMC :135-138
Tisato G., Cosi, P. 2003: “On the Magic of Overtone Singing”, in Voce, Canto Parlato : 83-100, Unipress (publisher), Padova, Italy
Tongeren , van M. 2002 : Overtone Singing / Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West , 271 pages, Fusica publisher, 1 CD , Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Tran Quang Hai , Guillou D. 1980 : « Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in connection with the Xöömij style of Biphonic Singing “, in Musical Voices of Asia : 163-173, The Japan Foundation (ed), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
Tran Quang Hai , Zemp H., 1991: “Recherches experimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles, 4 (Voix) : 27-68, Ateliers d’Ethnomusicologie, Geneva , Switzerland .
Tran Quang Hai 2002 : « A la decouverte du chant diphonique », in Moyens d’investigation et Pedagogie de la voix chantee : 117-132, with a CD Rom, Guy Cornut (ed), Symetrie publishers, Lyon, France

Filmography

1990 Le chant des harmoniques (The Song of Harmonics), film 16mm and video cassette , 38 minutes, directed by H.Zemp, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Hugo Zemp), CNRS Audio Visuel (prod), France . Contact: Tran Quang Hai, email: tranqhai@mnhn.fr or tranquanghai@hotmail.com

2003 Le chant diphonique (the Diphonic Song), DVD , 27 minutes, directed by C.Beguinet, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Luc Souvet), Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique (CRDP), Saint Denis, Isle of the Reunion, contact: Luc Souvet, email : luc.souvet@wanadoo.fr

Weborama

www.tranquanghaisworldthroatsinging.com
www.tranquanghai.info
www.tranvankhe-tranquanghai.com
http://www.khoomei.com
http://www.oberton.org
www.google.com (type each of these words : overtone singing , throat singing , biphonic singing, diphonic singing, canto difonico, oberton, khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, harmonic singing,)

TRAN QUANG HAI : About the terminology used in overtone/undertone for the throat singing /overtone singing

About the terminology used in overtone/undertone for the throat singing /overtone singing

Tran Quang Hai (UMR 8574, National Center for Scientific Research, France)

“KHOOMEI” or “THROAT SINGING is the name used in Tuva and Mongolia to describe a large family of singing styles and techniques in which a single vocalist simultaneously produces two (or more) distinct tones . The lower one is the usual fundamental tone of the voice and sounds as a sustained drone or a Scottish bagpipe sound . The second corresponds to one of the harmonic partials and is like a resonating whistle in a high, or very high register . We transcribe in the simplest way the Tuvan term, for the lack of agreement between the different authors :
KHOMEI
KHÖÖMII
HO-MI
HÖ-MI
CHÖÖMEJ
CHÖÖMIJ
XÖÖMIJ

Throat Singing has almost entirely been an unknown form of art until rumours about Tuva and the peculiar Tuvan musical culture spread in the West, especially in North America, thanks to Richard Feynman, a distinguished American physicist, who was an ardent devotee of Tuvan matters (today, partly because of Feynman’s influence, there exists a society called „Friends of Tuva“ in California, which circulates news about Tuva in the West.

This singing tradition is mostly practised in the Central Asia regions including Bashkortostan or Bashkiria (near Ural mountains), Altai and Tuva (two autonomous republics of the Russian Federation), Khakassia and Mongolia . But we can find examples worldwide in South Africa between Xhosa women, in the Tibetan Buddhist chanting, in Rajasthan, and also among the Dani tribes in Papu Guinea

The Tuvan people developed numerous different styles . The 5 different techniques are :
Sygyt (like a whistle with a weak fundamental)
Khoomei ( general term for throat singing and a particular style)
Borbangnadyr (similar to Kargyraa with higher fundamental)
Ezengileer ( rercognizable by the quick rhythmical shifts between diphonic harmonics)
Kargyraa (with very low fundamentals obtained by undertones)

In Mongolia, most throat singing styles take the name from the part of the body where they suppose to feel the vibratory resonance
XAMRYN XÖÖMI (nasal XÖÖMI)
BAGALZUURYN XÖÖMI (throat XÖÖMI)
TSEEDZNII XÖÖMI (chest XÖÖMI)
KEVLIIN XÖÖMI (ventral XÖÖMI)
XARKIRAA XÖÖMI (similar to Tuvan Kargyraa)
ISGEREX (rarely used style it sounds like a flute)

The Khakash people practise three types of Throat singing
KARGIRAR like KARGYRAA (Tuva)
KUVEDER or KILENGE like EZENGILEER (Tuva)
SIGIRTIP like SYGYT (Tuva)

The peoples of the Altai Mountains use three terms
KARKIRAA like KARGYRAA (Tuva)
KIOMIOI like KHOOMEI (Tuva)
SIBISKI like SYGYT (Tuva)

The Bashkiria musical tradition uses the throat singing UZLAU similar to Tuvan EZENGILEER) to accompany epic song

The Tibetan GYUTO monks have also a tradition of diphonic chant, related to the religious beliefs of the vibratory reality of the universe . They sing in a very low register in a way that resembles the Tuvan KARGYRAA method . The aim of this tradition is mystical and consists in isolating the 10th harmonic partial of the vocal sound.

IN THE WESTERN WORLD

There are in the literature many terms to indicate the presence of different perceptible sounds in a single voice. If you have a look at the motor of reaearch (www.google.com ) , you will be astonished by the number of websites linked to throat singing KHOOMEI . I am going to establish a listing of unmbers of sites linked to each term according to GOOGLE motor research (28 December 2003 , date of consultation of GOOGLE)

KHOOMEI 1,710 sites
KARGYRAA 883 sites
SYGYT 673 sites
EZENGILEER 141 sites
BORBANGNADYR 129 sites
THROAT SINGING 8,980 sites
OVERTONE SINGING 2,500 sites
DIPHONIC SINGING 65 sites
BIPHONIC SINGING 121 sites
OVERTONING 615 sites
HARMONIC SINGING 901 sites
FORMANTIC SINGING
HARMONIC CHANT
MULTIPHONIC SINGING 158 sites
BITONALITY
DIPLOPHONIA 190 sites
VOCAL FRY

CANTO DIPLOFONICO 27 sites
CANTO DIFONICO 138 sites

OBERTONSEGANG 256 sites

According to the pioneer work in the domain of the vocal sounds made by the Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble (EVTE) of San Diego University and bearing in mind that there is little agreement regarding classifications, the best distinctive criterion for the diphonia seems to be the characterization of the sound sources that produce the perception of the diphonic or multiphonic sound

Following that principle, we can distinguish between BITONALITY and DIPHONIA

BITONALITY : in this case, there are two distinct sound sources that produce two sounds. The pitches of the two sounds could be or not in harmonic relationship. This category includes DIPLOPHONIA, BITONALITY , and VOCAL FRY

DIPHONIA : the reinforcement of one (or more) harmonic partials produces the splitting of the voice in two (or more) sounds. This category includes KHOMEI, THROAT SINGING, OVERTONE SINGING, DIPHONIC SINGING, BIPHONIC SINGING, OVERTONING, HARMONIIC SINGING, HARMONIC CHANT

BITONALITY

Diplophonia :
The vibration of the vocal folds is asymmetrical. It happens that after a normal oscillatory period, the vibration amplitude that follows is reduced. There is not the splitting of the voice in two sounds, but the pitch goes down one octave lower and the timbre assumes a typical roughness. For example, assuming as fundamental pitch a C3 130.8 Hz, the resulting pitch will be C2 65.4 Hz . If the amplitude reduction happens after two regular vibrations, the actual periodicity triplicates and then the pitch lowers one octave and a 5th. The diplophonic voice is a frequent pathology of the larynx (as in unilateral vocal cord paralysis), but can be also obtained willingly for artistic effects (Demetrio Stratos was an expert of this technique)

Bitonality
The two sound sources are due to the vibration of two different parts of the glottis cleft . This technique requires a strong laryngeal tension . In this case , there is not necessarily a harmonic relationship between the fundamentals of the two sounds. In the Tuvan KARGYRAA style, the second sound is due to the vibration of the supraglottal structures (false folds, aryepiglottic folds that connects the arytenoids and the epiglottis, and the epiglottis root). In this case generally (but not always) there is a 2:1 frequency ratio between the supraglottal closure and vocal folds closure. As in the case of Diplophonia, the pitch goes down on octave lower (or more)

Vocal fry
The second sound is due in this case to the periodic repetition of a glottal pulsation of different frequency . It sounds like the opening of a creaky door (another common designation is “creaky voice”) . The pulse rate of vocal fry can be controlled to produce a range from very slow single clicks to a stream of clicks so rapid to be perceived as a discrete pitch . Therefore vocal fry is a special case of bitonality : the perception of a second sound depends on a pulses train rate and not on the spectral composition of a single sound .

DIPHONIA

Diphonic and Biphonic refer to any singing that sounds like two (or more) simultaneous pitches, regarless of technique. Use of these terms is largely limited to academic sources . In the scientific literature the preferred term to indicated Throat Singing is Diphonic Singing .

Multiphonic Singing indicates a complex cluster of non-harmonically related pitches that sounds like the vocal fry or the creaky voice. The cluster may be produced expiring as normal, or also inhaling the airflow .

Throat Singing is any technique that includes the manipulation of the throat to produce a melody with the harmonics. Generally, this involves applying tension to the region surrounding the vocal folds and the manipulation of the various cavities of the throat, including the ventricular bands, the arytenoids, and the pharynx .

Chant generally refers to religious singing in different traditions (Gregorian, Buddhist, Hindu chant , etc…). As regards the diphonia, it is noteworthy to mention the low singing practised by Tibetan Buddhist monks of the Gyutö sect . As explained before , they reinforce the 10th harmonic partial of the vocal sound for mystical and symbolic purposes . This kind of real diphonia must be distinguished from resonantial effects (enhancement of some uncontrolled overtones) that we can hear in Japanese Shomyo Chant and also in Gregorian Chant .

Harmonic Singing is the term introduced by David Hykes to refer to any technique that reinforces a single harmonic or harmonic cluster. The sound may or may not split into two or mor notes. It is used as a synonym of Overtone Singing, Overtoning, Harmonic Chant and also Throat Singing .

Overtone Singing can be considered to be harmonic singing with an intentional emphasis on the harmonic melody of overtones . This is the name used by Western artists that utilizes vowels, mouth shaping and upper throat manipulations to produce melodies and textures. It is used as a synonym of Harmonic Singing, Overtoning, Harmonic Chant and also Throat Singing .

OVERTONE SINGING IN THE WEST

In the West , the Overtone Singing technique has unexpectedly become very popular, starting into musical contests and turning very soon to mystical, spiritual and also therapeutic applications . The first to make use of a diphonic vocal technique in music was Karlheinz Stockhausen in STIMMUNG . He was followed by numerous artists and amongst them : the EVTE (Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble) group at the San Diego University in 1972, Laneri and his Prima Materia group in 1973, Tran Quang Hai in 1975, Demetrio Stratos in 1977, Meredith Monk in 1980, David Hykes and his Harmonic Choir in 1983 , Joan La Barbara in 1985, Michael Vetter in 1985, Christian Bollmann in 1985, Noah Pikes in 1985, Michael Reimann in 1986, Tamia in 1987, Bodjo Pinek in 1987, Josephine Truman in 1987, Quatuor Nomad in 1989, Iegor Reznikoff in 1989, Valentin Clastrier in 1990, Rollin Rachele in 1990, Thomas Clements in 1990, Sarah Hopkins in 1990, Les Voix Diphoniques in 1997, Mark Van Tongeren in 2000, etc… The most famous proponent of this type of singing is David Hykes . Hykes experimented with numerous innovations including changing the fundamental (moveable drone) and keeping fixed the diphonic formant , introducing text, glissando effects , etc… in numerous works produced with the Harmonic Choir of New York .

CONCLUSION

All these sounds contain overtones or tones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. These overtones create tone color, and help us to differentiate the sounds of different music instruments or one voice and another
Different cultures have unique manifestations of musical traditions , but, what it is quite interesting, is that some of them share at least one aspect in common: the production of overtones in their respective vocal music styles .
The diversity of terminology designating this vocal phenomenon shows us the interest of people in discovering overtones /undertones .The most used term is THROAT SINGING (8980 websites linked according to GOOGLE motor of research) more than OVERTONE SINGING (2500 linked websites). This attitude is understandable because the term “Throat Singing” is the correct translation of the Tuvan and Mongolian terms KHOOMEI which means “pharynx”, or “throat”.

WIKIPEDIA : Theodore Levin (ethnomusicologist)

Theodore Levin (ethnomusicologist)
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Theodore Levin is professor of music at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. He is an ethnomusicologist, earning his undergraduate degree at Amherst College and obtaining his Ph.D. from Princeton University. Levin has focused his research on the people of Central Asia, including a recent research trip to the Altai Mountains to study Tuvan forms of music. Dr. Levin began studying Central Asian forms of music in 1974. Since then, he has written 2 books, including 100,000 Fools of God: Musical Travels in Central Asia (published by Indiana University Press in 1999). He chronicled his journey to Tuva in his most recent book, Where Rivers and Mountains Sing (published by Indiana University Press in 2006).
Books

100,000 Fools of God: Musical Travels in Central Asia- Levin’s first book, this chronicles his return to Central Asia. Levin records information about the peasants; such as the stories they kept alive through music, the actual music itself, how they dealt with Soviet rule, and even the shaman healers that use music to heal the sick. This book has a wealth of information pertaining to Central Asia folk customs and the evolving post-soviet culture.

Where Rivers and Mountains Sing- This is Levin’s second book that takes the reader once again on a journey through Central Asia. Levin begins the volume by chronicling his experiences with a Tuvan throat-singing group. He vividly explains and details the Tuvan people’s ideas about nature and animals, and how their music reproduces the sounds and actions of those animals. The idea of tradition is also brought up frequently, especially in the case of the throat singers. The world is embracing them, and Levin details the effects of the popularity on the performers and the traditions.
Literature

Theodore Levin: The Hundred Thousand Fools of God, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana (USA), 1999, ISBN 0-253-21310-X
Theodore Levin (with Valentina Süzükei): Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana (USA), 2006, ISBN 0-253-34715-7

External links

Smithsonian Folkways: Bukhara: Musical Crossroads of Asia

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This page was last edited on 15 October 2018, at 13:39 (UTC).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Levin_(ethnomusicologist)

KELLY SEAMAN: TED LEVIN’s curriculum vitae

Curriculum Vitae

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On the Silk Road with Professor Ted Levin
levin
The Silk Road, the ancient network of trade routes linking Asia with Europe, winds its way through Dartmouth this winter, thanks to Theodore Levin, chair and professor of music and the Parents Distinguished Research Professor in the Humanities.
levinTed Levin (Photo by Joseph Mehling ’69)
Academic and impresario: Levin, an expert ethnomusicologist who has produced sound and video recordings for the Smithsonian, identifies himself as both. He is also the former executive director of Cellist Yo-Yo Ma’s Silk Road Project, which was created to promote the study of the cultural riches of the Silk Road’s people and places. “I like doing the two together, both scholarship and musical production. The combination is good for my teaching-it brings the world into the classroom,” he says.

Levin’s syllabus for his winter term course “The Silk Road” includes guest lecturers from Dartmouth’s departments of anthropology, geography, history, religion, theater, and Asian and Middle Eastern languages and literatures (DAMELL). The course, says Levin, considers the Silk Road and its cultural legacy from a profoundly interdisciplinary perspective.

An activist as well: A consultant and advisor to both the Aga Khan Music Initiative in Central Asia and the Soros Foundations’ Open Society Institute, Levin champions the role music and musicians can have in preserving and revitalizing traditional cultures. He continues to be instrumental in bringing musical artists to Dartmouth, including Brooklyn Rider, a string quartet that grew out of the Silk Road Project and that often collaborates with “world music” musicians. Among them is Japanese shakuhachi virtuoso and composer Kojiro Umezaki, a 1993 graduate of Dartmouth’s M.A. program in digital musics. Brooklyn Rider and Umezaki are artists-in-residence at the College in February, and premiered a Dartmouth-commissioned piece by Umezaki.

silkroad.jpg
silk roadStudents in Levin’s course “The Silk Road” remove bandhani cloth from indigo dye. Master dyer Joan Morris (foreground) of the theater department guided the students through this ancient Indian method of textile patterning. “They are getting, literally, a hands-on experience of the sort of goods traded along the Silk Road,” she says. From left: Elizabeth Kemp ’11(hidden), Evelyn Fisher ’11, Emma Frankel ’12, and Samantha Kaplan ’09. (Photo by Joseph Mehling ’69)

Digital revolution: The impact of the digital revolution on the world’s music, says Levin, is on two fronts. First, the Internet is transforming accessibility; listeners now have access to music from anywhere in the world. Equally important, musicians can have access to an enormous potential audience. Second, digital tools empower creative work in sound, “giving access to musical creativity,” Levin observes, “without the need for arduous training. Dartmouth’s music department is poised at the cutting edge of these changes. We’re forging links not just with digital movements in the humanities, but also with engineering, computer science, psychology, and cognitive neuroscience.”

By KELLY SEAMAN
https://www.dartmouth.edu/~dartlife/archives/19-1/levin.html

ACADEMIA : Tuvan Throat Singing, a series of articles

Tuvan Throat Singing
49 Followers

Papers
People

C’era una volta il fiume Höömey: leggendarie origini del canto armonico tuvino-mongolo. In: Costantini, V. & Kappler, M. (eds.), Sûzişât-i mü’ellefe. Contaminazioni e spigolature turcologiche. Scritti in onore di Giampiero Bellingeri. Crocetta del Montello (TV): Terra Ferma. 313-317, 2010.

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by Elisabetta Ragagnin

34

3
Folklore, Tuvan Throat Singing, Siberian Turkic languages

Монгол дахь хѳѳмийн ѳвлүүлэлт / La transmission du khöömii en Mongolie / The Transmission of Khöömii in Mongolia
2018. « Mongol dakhi khöömiin övluulelt » (La transmission du khöömii en Mongolie), Chinggis Khaan Sudlal 27, Ulaanbaatar : Université Chinggis Khaan, p. 141-146.

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by Johanni Curtet

27

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Anthropology of Music, Ethnomusicology, Historical Ethnomusicology, Mongolian Studies

Voyage en Diphonie / Journey in Diphonia
English: Since 2010, the Mongolian Traditional Art of Khöömii (throat singing) has been inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, and the research of Johanni Curtet and his spouse,… more

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by Johanni Curtet

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Visual Anthropology, Ethnomusicology, Film Music And Sound, Film Analysis

Archaic Oirat substratum of the “circa-Altai musical Kulturkreis” in Tuva / Архаичный ойратский субстрат среднеалтайского культурного круга в Туве
Worldwide fame for Tuvan music is now immovable. The vocal phenomenon xöömei or Tuvan throat-singing, in particular, attracts music fans around the world. On the other hand, so called “overtone-singing” or “throat-singing,” the vocal… more

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by Masahiko Todoriki

1.2
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Tuvan Throat Singing, Tuvan music, Tuvan history

An Anthology of Mongolian Khöömii – Монгол Хөөмийн Сонгомол
An additional 12 videos playlist to the record An Anthology of Mongolian Khöömii Монгол Хөөмийн Сонгомол цомгийн нэмэлт видео Audiovisual recording : Johanni Curtet, 2015. Editing : Jean-François Castell, Les Films du Rocher, 2016. Дуу,… more

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by Johanni Curtet

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Visual Anthropology, Ethnomusicology, Mongolian Studies, Traditional Music

3 questions à J. Curtet, Sh. Nomindari et un musicien du groupe Khusugtun autour de l’Anthologie du khöömii mongol
Conférence en ligne (enregistrement audio). 8 décembre 2016: avec Pierre Bois et Nomindari Shagdarsuren, « 3 questions à J. Curtet, Sh. Nomindari et un musicien de Khusugtun autour de l’Anthologie du khöömii mongol», panel “Inscriptions… more

by Johanni Curtet and +1

8

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Ethnomusicology, Cultural Heritage, Ethnography, Mongolian Studies

An Anthology of Mongolian Khöömii / Une Anthologie du khöömii mongol / Монгол Хөөмийн Сонгомол
Double CD / Хос цомог Livret 47 p. / 47 p. Booklet / 47 хуудас товхимол Français / English / Монгол English: Through 43 tracks, including 28 previously unreleased, this double disc gathers the essentials of Mongolian khöömii, from early… more

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by Johanni Curtet and +1

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Ethnomusicology, Film Music And Sound, Fieldwork in Anthropology, Historical Ethnomusicology

Khömmei Vocal Techniques in a Study of the Bard Tradition in Mongolia/Istanbul Technical University

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by Volkan Çağlayan

13

7
Anthropology of Music, Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism, Tuvan Throat Singing, Anthropology of Music and Sound

History, Memory, and Landscape in Post-Soviet Tyva’s Xöömei Scenes
Presented in the Department of Music and Center for Russian and Eastern European Studies at the University of Pittsburgh (2015) This lecture, which flows from ten years of dissertation research, explores a theory of musical sensibility… more

by Robert O Beahrs

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Ecology, Post-Soviet Studies, Collective Memory, Russia

Post-Soviet Tuvan Throat-Singing (Xöömei) and the Circulation of Nomadic Sensibility
Guttural singing practices in the Sayan-Altai region of south-central Siberia have been historically framed as possessing “nomadic” qualities linked with pastoral population groups indigenous to the region. As these singing practices were… more

by Robert O Beahrs

33

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Embodiment, Sound studies, Ecology, Post-Soviet Studies

Khömmei Vocal Techniques in a Study of the Bard Tradition in Mongolia (Full Paper)
This article aims to explain and exemplify the bard’s identity and the functions of khömmei –a special vocal technique sometimes called overtone singing or throat-singing among nomadic, hunter-herder communities of Mongolia, Tuva and… more

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by Volkan Çağlayan

25

9
Historical Ethnomusicology, Mongolian Studies, Religious Syncretism, Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism

A HISTORY AND PERFORMANCE GUIDE OF A CONCERTO FOR TRUMPET AND CHAMBER ENSEMBLE: FANFARES FOR THE APOCALYPSE BY KEN UENO
Music for trumpet has seen a great expansion over the past fifty years. The importance of this development to the trumpet and music world cannot be overstated. The purpose of this study is to explain the process of commissioning,… more

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by Philippe Brunet

14

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Music, Collaboration, Contemporary Music, Trumpet

Contemporary ethnosocial processes in Tuva
“The New Research of Tuva” is delighted to invite you to join the special edition #2, 2016 (to be released on June, 2016). This edition will be dedicated to “Contemporary ethnosocial processes in Tuva”. Doctor of Philosophy, professor Yu…. more

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by Chimiza Lamazhaa

57

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Ethnography, Central Asian Studies, Central Asia, Tuvan Throat Singing

Tuvinovedenie: novye gorizonty [Tuvinology: the new horizons]
В данном сборнике подведены некоторые итоги работы электронного журнала «Новые исследования Тувы», главным редактором которого является автор книги. Особенность данной работы заключается в том, что Ч.К. Ламажаа предлагает свой взгляд на… more

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by Chimiza Lamazhaa

6

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Indigenous Peoples, Tuvan Throat Singing, Tuvan, Tuva Central Asia

Review of Kuznetsova, U. K., 2008, The Dictionary of Tuvan Culture: Angloiazychnyi slovar’ tuvinskoi kul’tury. Kyzyl: Tyvinskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet. In Sibirica: Interdisciplinary Journal of Siberian Studies. 10(1):100-102.

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by Alexander D King

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Cultural Studies, Cross-Cultural Studies, Siberia, Cross-Cultural Communication

Los cantores diafónicos de Tuva.
Sometiendo a prueba los límites de su capacidad vocal, los cantores diplofónicos crean sonidos inigualables. Mantiene dos notas a la vez o sintonizan con una cascada

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by Michael Edgerton

30

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Acoustics, Music, Musicology, Ethnomusicology

Die Obertonsänger von Tuwa
Sie loten die Grenzbereiche der stimmlichen Fähigkeiten aus: Obertonsänger erzeugen Klänge, die weder der Sprechsprache noch dem Gesang gleichen. Sie singen sogar mehrstimmig und bringen ihren Gesang in Einklang mit Naturgeräuschen.

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by Michael Edgerton

26

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Music, Musicology, Ethnomusicology, Ethnography

La transmission du höömij, un art du timbre vocal: ethnomusicologie et histoire du chant diphonique mongol (texte intégral/full text)

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by Johanni Curtet

743

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Anthropology of Music, Ethnomusicology, Learning and Teaching, Historical Ethnomusicology

Johanni CURTET : La transmission du höömij, un art du timbre vocal : ethnomusicologie et histoire du chant diphonique mongol
Résumé de thèse.
PhD abstract.

by Johanni Curtet

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Anthropology of Music, Ethnomusicology, Cultural Heritage, Historical Ethnomusicology

De l’art du timbre vocal: au cœur du khöömii en Mongolie
Émission “Carnet de Voyage” présentée par Edouard Fouré Caul-Futy sur France Musique, diffusé le 31 mai 2015. Disponible en podcast sur le site de l’émission. “Ce soir, nous partons aux confins de l’asie centrale, dans cette partie de… more

by Johanni Curtet

8
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Ethnomusicology, Historical Ethnomu

http://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Tuvan_Throat_Singing

THROAT PLAYING PRACTICES OF HONAMLI YORUKS IN GEDİKLİ VILLAGE, ISPARTA

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by Turna Ezgi Toros

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Tuvan Throat Singing, Yoruks (The Nomads) of West Anatolian

Randy-Raine Reusch
A chapter of work-in-progress on Randy Raine-Reusch, Canadian composer for/player of Asian instruments. See links under “Files” tab….

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by Michael Heffley

65

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Music, Improvisation, Chinese Music, Free Improvisation

Roomful of Teeth performance program
Dumbarton Oaks celebrates the completion of its new Fellowship House with a concert by the Grammy Award-winning Roomful of Teeth, including Caroline Shaw, this year’s inaugural Early-Career Musician-in-Residence. Sunday, October 5 and… more

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by Jan Ziolkowski

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Interdisciplinarity, Contemporary Art, Poetry, Composition (Music)

Dumbarton Oaks Fêtes New Programs and Spaces
Today is a special day. I decided not to have the formality of a ribbon-cutting or dedication ceremony, but instead to celebrate the positive change of new cultural programming and of a new building by insisting upon perfect fall weather… more

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by Jan Ziolkowski

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Musical Composition, Interdisciplinarity, Innovation statistics, Landscape Architecture

Tuva Cumhuriyeti

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by Ekrem Arıkoğlu

653

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Tuvan Throat Singing, Tuvan Language, Tuvan Shamanism, Tuva Central Asia

Tuva Müziği

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by Ekrem Arıkoğlu

648

Tuvan Throat Singing

Theodore LEVIN et Valentina SÜZÜKEJ: Where Rivers and Mountains Sing. Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Bloomington & Indianapolis: …
Intitulé The Hundred Thousand Fools of God (1996), le premier livre de Theodore Levin est rapidement devenu une référence pour tout chercheur travaillant sur les musiques d'Asie centrale. Aboutissement de plus de vingt années de… more

by Frederic Leotar

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Folklore, Ethnomusicology, Ethnography, Central Asian Studies

Sainkho Namchylak
Jarrod Cagwin is a serious percussion voice (most of what he plays here sounds like a shaman’s frame drum) on the New York world/improvised/experimental music scene, by way of his American heartland home state of Iowa.. Those roots swell… more

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by Michael Heffley

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Religion, Buddhism, Parapsychology, Music

Anett C. Oelschlägel 2012: Die Tyva, ein Turkvolk in Südsibirien. URL: http://plural-world-interpretations.org/home/die-tyva-suedsibiriens.html (letzter Zugriff: 05.12.2012)

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:Anna Liesowska & Derek Lambie : Secrets of throat singing revealed by scientific research into the unusual sounds

Secrets of throat singing revealed by scientific research into the unusual sounds
By Anna Liesowska & Derek Lambie
22 December 2014

Unique physiology of people in Altai mountain region means only they can perform the melodies that date back centuries.
secret 1

Shor female shaman performs the rite. Picture: Maxim Kiselyov

It is a unique and distinctive form of singing only found in one small part of the world. Now scientific research has finally discovered why the unusual sounds of throat singing have never spread out from the isolated steppes of the Altai and Sayan mountains.

Simply put, the people of Tuva and southern Siberia have different vocal cords to the rest of the planet and are the only ones with the capability to master the art.

Experts from the Institute of Philology, at the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, have found that Turks’ vocal cords are slightly wider and the larynx is not as extended, allowing them to make the unique sounds required.

Throat singing produces a unique pitch and sound that comes from deep within the throat and it is said to date back centuries.

inside_Throat singing-Tuva-Choduraa Tumat-tuvaonline.jpg SECRET 2

Throat singing secrets
inside_altai_boy_playing.jpg SECRET 3
Throat singing secrets

Tuvan singer Choduraa Tumat. Altai boy playing khomus. Pictures: Tuva Online, Altai Komus

According to a March 2006 edition of Newsweek magazine, throat singing is described as coming from a ‘human bagpipe, a person who could sing a sustained low note while humming an eerie whistle-like melody’.

The article added: ‘For good measure, toss in a thrumming rhythm similar to that of a jaw harp, but produced vocally by the same person, at the same time.’

It is thought that it originated from Mongolian men who utilised the wide open landscape to make the sounds carry a great distance. Indeed, singers often travel far into the countryside looking for the right river or mountainside in which to create the proper environment.

Over time it now looks as if the way the singing was performed altered the physiology of the throats of people living in the Altai region.

Two residents of the Tashtagolsky district, in Kemerovo, took part in the Institute of Philogy research in Novosibirsk using modern methods to study the physiology of their speech.

Both TV journalist Raisa Sanzhenakova and culture worker Maria Idigesheva, who is head of the Taglyk Shor public organisation, are excellent native speakers of Turkic Shor. The language is spoken by only about 2,800 people in the Kemerovo province in south central Siberia, with many of its roots borrowed from Mongolian.

The experiment was filmed and a documentary on the results will be broadcast in January on local television.

However, one of the main conclusions is that the different throats of the people in the region help them to make the distinctive sounds in a way that people in Europe, for instance, would be unable to.
inside_shors_girls_must credit_r-19.ru.jpg SECRET 4
Throat singing secrets
inside_maria_idigisheva.jpg SECRET 5.jpg
Throat singing secrets

Shor music group ‘Ot Ene’. Maria Idigesheva, head of the Taglyk Shor public organisation. Pictures: r-19.ru, Maria Idigesheva

Raisa Sanzhenakova said: ‘For three days we talked with Novosibirsk scientists. Our speech using the Shor language was recorded with special equipment and was examined for the articular parameters of speech.

‘Digital radiography and magnetic resonance imaging studied our vocal apparatus and brain.’

The research took place in the laboratory of experimental phonetic studies, which was established in the late 1960s and is the only one of its kinds in Russia.

Since its creation, researchers have described the phonetics and phonology of more than 40 languages, dialects and sub-dialects.

https://siberiantimes.com/science/others/news/0070-secrets-of-throat-singing-revealed-by-scientific-research-into-the-unusual-sounds/

PHYLLIS FREE : THROAT SINGING

PHYLLIS FREE : THROAT SINGING
THROAT-SINGING
by PHYLLIS FREE
D503-A Geographic Appreciation of Music
Peter Galvin & Sid King
Indiana University Southeast
FALL 2000
INTRODUCTION:
Listening samples:
The Power of Overtones and Chants by Don Campbell
Songs of the Inuit (Canada)
INUIT THROAT-SINGING (Katajjaq)
• Technique: 4 methods of producing sound

• Tradition: women standing face-to-face,
using each other’s mouth as resonator
competitions, teams, entertainment
• Roots: imitation of sounds in nature, especially animals
survival? excercise? warmth?
shamanic traditions based in spiritual animism?
(more on this later)

* EXERCISE (participatory): Inuit Style — try it
TUVAN THROAT-SINGING (Khomeii & variations)
Listening sample: Where Young Grass Grows by Huun-Huur-Tu
• Techniques: various styles/techniques characterized by
simultaneous pitches, amplifying overtones,
nasal tones plus manipulation of oral cavity
rhythmic harmonic melodies over fundamental tones
sometimes extended pauses between breaths

• Tradition: functional communication, nomadic herdsmen
incorporated into songs with popular themes
(horses, life on the land, emotional relationships)
gender: equality in ancient traditions, later became
taboo for women, now some women practicing

• Roots: spiritual animism, sounds from nature imbued with spiritual significance
(including geographic features–rivers, mountains, etc.)
harmonics project over expanse of Central Asian steppes
surrounded by mountains which echo sounds

* EXERCISE–try it
HARMONIC TONING, OVERTONE SINGING
(TIBETAN & MONGOLIAN STYLE CHANTING)
• Techniques: “Asian-style”, same as described for Tuvan
• Traditions: spiritual practices, meditation, healing
• Roots: ancient spiritual practices
tribal shamans, Buddist monks, etc.
Listening sample: Om Namaha Shivaya
BACK TO THE INUIT: WHAT & WHY IS MUSIC?
Viewing sample: The Nature of Music

Discography

RECORDINGS PRESENTED

• OVERTONE SINGING IN HEALING & MEDITATION PRACTICES
The Power of Overtones and Chant by Don Campbell
1991 Institute for Music, Health, and Education
Box 1244, Boulder CO 80306 (CS)
(selected excerpt )
• INUIT THROAT-SINGING
Songs of the Inuit People (Canada)
1994 JVC World Sounds, Canada VICG 5333
JVC Musical Industries, Inc (CD)
Track #: 1. Amma 2. Ihan 3. Amuma
• TUVAN THROAT-SINGING
Where Young Grass Grows by Huun-Huur-Tu;
produced by Niall Macaulay & Sayan Bapa
1999 Shanachie Entertainment Corporation 66018 (CD)
Track #: 3. Deke-Jo
• TIBETAN & MONGOLIAN STYLE OVERTONE CHANTING
Om Namaha Shivaya by Robert Gass and On Wings of Song;
Tenth Anniversary Deluxe Edition;1996 Spring Hill Music 6018.2 (CD)
Track #: 2. Om (Aum)
• INUIT (VIDEO)
The Nature of Music
Produced, written, and directed by Jeremy Marre; Reiner Moritz Associates Ltd.
Public Media, Home Vision (VHS)
End of Part I: 5 minutes
ADDITIONAL RECORDINGS
THROAT-SINGING
• Back Tuva Future by Kongar-Ol Ondar (Warner Brothers Records)
• Sprouts (Young Voices of ancient TUVA ) by O”zum (SUM 90 008)
• Voices from the Distant Steppe by Shu-De (Realworld/Carol 2339-2)
• Cho”o”mej–Throat-Singing from the Center of Asia by Tuvinian Singers(WDR 55.838)
• TUVA: Echoes from the Spirit World (PAN 2013 CD)
• TUVA: Voices from the Land of the Eagles (PAN 2005 CD)
• Mongolie by Ensemble Mandukhai (Playasound – PS 65115)
• Mongolian Songs (KICC 5133)
• Mongolia (Mongolie ) (UNESCO D8207)
• Uzlyau (Gutteral singing of the peoples of the Sayan, Altai, and Ural Mountains (PAN 2019 CD)
• TUVA: Voices from the Center of Asia (1990 Smithsonian Folkways CD SF 40017)
• 60 Horses in my Herd by Huun-Huur-Tu (S1993 Senachie 64050)
• Hearing Solar Winds by David Hykes and the Harmonic Choir (1994 Ocora ,
distributed in the US by Harmonia Mundi)
• TUVA, Among the Spirits: Sound, Music, and Nature in Sakha and Tuva (1999 Smithsonian Folkways 40452)
Please note: Source document for the first ten recordings listed above is LINGUIST List 5.1422: TuvanThroat-Singing. Source states that these recordings “may be found in local retail music outlets or purchased directly from the publishers” but suggests for readers “to purchase Tuvan CDs from The Tuvan Trader, an updated copy of which is included with each Friends of Tuva (FoT) Newsletter….(Proceeds help fund Friends of TUVA projects.)” The last two listings are from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN : Feature Article: The Throat Singers of Tuva: September 1999. TUVA: Voices… and 60 Horses…were listed by both sources.
The following recordings are available from Sound Photosynthesis (www. photosynthesis.com/music/html):
• David Hykes: A visit with the founder of The Harmonic Choir
Harmonic Choir audio cassette # A294-88
• Huston Smith: Presents the Gyuto Monks multi-phonic choir’s “Music of Tibet”
audio cassette # A171-86
• Tuvan Throat Singers: Harmonic Throat Singing audio cassette #A414-85
• Tuvan Throat Singers: Tuvan Throat Singing in Tuva with Phoebe and Ralph Leighton
video cassette # V198-89
Available from Lark in the Morning (www.larkinam.com):
• Voices of Forgotten Worlds: Traditional Music of Indigenous People

Additional Discography and Review of Mongolian and Tuvinian Music is available on the web @ http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/im/Musik/disds.unx
COMPOSITIONS INFLUENCED BY TRADITIONAL THROAT-SINGING
• ARTIC DREAMS by Michael Colgrass (Centaur Records, CRC 2288)
Performed by the New England Conservatory Wind Ensemble with members of the New England
Conservatory choruses.
• ECKLECTICA by Eckart Seeber (www.mantragroup.com) (www.seebermusic.com/s6.htm)

OVERTONE SINGING IN HEALING & MEDITATION PRACTICES
HEALING YOURSELF WITH YOUR OWN VOICE by Don Campbell
Institute for Music, Health, and Education
Sounds True Recordings, 735 Walnut Street, Boulder CO 80302
Liner notes: ” Ancient culture looked at the human voice as the link between the inner and outer psyches. Healing Yourself with Your Own Voice is about rediscovering the natural power of the human voice, and its role in establishing a balanced, healthful life.”
REFERENCE ARTICLES
(Websites listed in alphabetical order)
http: //www.
apocalypse.org/pub/leadheads/leadheads-mail/09-94/msg00046.html
Throat Singing: Definitions and descriptions of Central Asian style throat-singing
included in e-mail correspondence from Wil Howitt () to leadheads ().
arctictravel.com/chapters/inmusicpage.html
Inuit Music by David Serkoak, with contributions from Ann Meekitjuk Hanson and Peter Ernerk. Includes information on drum dancing, traditional songs, and throat-singing. This article also acknowledges the introdution of Western-European music brought by whalers and traders, the arrival of radio in the region, as well as travel to southern hospitals as significant influences in the development of more contemporary styles of Inuit Music, including the current popularity of country-and-western, bluegrass, and gospel music.
cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/04/ondar.wb/
CNN-WorldBeat Spotlight : “Throaty singers excel in Tuvan art “: June 4, 1999.
Feature artical on Tuvan throat-singer and Warner Brothers recording artist Kongar-Ol Ondar as “Tuva’s musical ambassador to the world”.
danwinter.com/harmonic/index.html
Harmonic Choir: Geometry of Vocal Chords Relax? by Dan Winter of Sacred Geometry master index () with “Hawk Kelly from Adelaide (“Allan Kelly” ). Information regarding harmonic toning– description of physical techniquesof producing multi-harmonic vocal sounds , geometric analyses of sound wave “damping” within the context of “Sacred Geometry” theory, effect s on brain wave patterns, chakras, etc.
emich.edu/~linguist/issues/5/5-1422.html
Linguist : Sum: Tuvan troat-singing by Vern M. Lindblad ().
Summary of queries and replies among educators and researchers in the field of linguistics “regarding various aspects of Tuvan throat-singing, particularly its articulatory phonetics”.
nunatsiaq.com/archives/back-issues/80206.html
Nunatsiaq News, February 6, 1998: “With katajjaq, composer makes footprints in new music” by Dwane Wilkin. Descriptions of compositions by contemporary composers whose works are based on, influenced by, or incorporate traditional Inuit throat-singing.
peyote.com/jonstef/khoomi.htm
Khoomei (author not listed by name): Descriptions of and distinctions between various styles and techniques of traditional Asian-style throat-singing known as Khoomei, also known as Xoomii, Khoomii, Xoomej, etc. in various Asian languages and more contemporary Western techniques and styles. Also includes editorial information on the therapeutic and healing benefits of throat-singing.
purenaturemusic.com/
Source site for contemporary recordings of professional Asian-style throat-singing. Also includes cultural and geographical information about throat-singing traditions in Central Asia.
sciam.com/1999/0999issue/0999levin.html
Scientific American: “The Throat-Singers of Tuva” : Feature article, September, 1999, by Theodore C. Levin and Michael Edgerton. Includes descriptions of techniques, information about cultural legends about the origins of throat-singing
sjansson/throat.htm
On Throat Singing of South Siberia by Sami Jansson. Descriptions of various styles, techniques of sound production, sound physics analyses, and cultural roots of tribal throat-singing traditions in South Siberia/Central Asia.
http://homepages.ius.edu/PGALVIN/music/present/ethnomus/freethroat.htm

SAMI JANSSON : A miraculous method of singing On Throat Singing of South Siberia

SAMI JANSSON : A miraculous method of singing On Throat Singing of South Siberia
A miraculous method of singing

On Throat Singing
of South Siberia

Sami Jansson narrates

Exercised by a number of Central Asian tribes, throat singing is a peculiar vocal art with three basic vocalizing methods and at least four submethods that allow a singer to simultaneously sing with two, indeed, sometimes even with four voices.

A rich throat singing tradition survives in Tuva (this is a republic that today belongs to Russia) and in Western Mongolia. In these areas that are marked by vast grasslands and mountain ranges, throat singing is called “chömei” (“ö” is pronounced like “o” and “e” simultaneously). As a singer elicits a fundamental tone that allows overtones to be extracted, the result is a “chömei-voice”. The singer extracts overtones by varying the shape of his oral parts and pharynx: as a result two, three, or even four distinct tones can be heard. As the fundamental tone remains constant, melodies are sung with the highest overtone, that resembles the sound of a flute.
Tuva is located in Central Asia
sam 1.jpg

What is throat singing and how does it differ from western singing?

Western people commonly think that a single artist cannot simultaneously sing with more than one voice and that consequently several singers are required for a multivocal concert. However, a human voice is never absolutely pure. The reason for this is that voice is blown all the way from the lungs through the windpipe and small chambers in the respiratory tract. Two persons can never have quite identical air chambers; consequently no two human voices exist with exactly similar timbres. The peculiar character of a person’s voice results partly from a fundamental tone formed by the vocal chords, and partly from overtones that resonate in the windpipe and air chambers of the respiratory tract. Siberian singers, however, constrain the part of throat called false vocal chords and vary the shape of their pharynx and tongue to produce miraculous overtones of various kinds. Some of these overtones are nothing but buzzing and sqeaking, others sharp, clear, and beautiful, some of which resemble the sound of a flute. Usually these vocal overtones are not heard as distinct sounds. Instead, they are rather conceived as the characteristic quality of a person’s voice. By the way, it is the overtones that allow us to tell apart different vowels. It is clear that letters a, e, i, o, etc. uttered at the same pitch nevertheless sound different to our ears. However, stronger overtones can be produced with a somewhat stricter voice; that is: with constricted false vocal chords. Their task is to prevent the access of any food or liquid to the vocal chords and windpipe. Throat singers also amplify vocal overtones with their false vocal chords.


On peoples that exercise throat singing

A centuries-long tradition, throat singing is practised by nomadic tribes of South Siberia, where it is commonly called “chömei”. It is known to many Central Asian tribes like the Chacass, the Tuvinians, the Altaians, the Mongols, etc.
Ancient historians knew the Central Asian nomads as the Scythians. After the period of the Scythians Europe was terrorized by Attila and the Huns – also Siberian nomads. Later large areas of Asia were occupied by the Turcs, who left grave monuments scattered everywhere on the vast grasslands.
In the Middle Ages Chingghis Khan with his heirs collected fierce Mongol armies in the same areas. With his officers Chingghis Khan lead the Mongol armies against many Chinese, Middle Asian, and European cities that they often totally destroyed and killed the inhabitants to the last individual. In those days Europeans used to call these oriental bandits “the Tartars”.
It is believed that traditionally male and female singers had an equal position. Later however, throat singing was not considered suitable for women: and the tradition was long sustained mainly by men. The reason for this might have been a rumour according to which pregnant women would risk a miscarriage while practising throat singing. After the perestroika and the end of the Soviet imperium several minor tribes remained subjects to Russia. And many of them – especially the Tuvinians – recovered their spirit and felt their nation united by the traditional vocal art passed down by their ancestors. As more liberal ways have gradually gained footing, today also women are known to practise chömei.
sam 2.jpg


Tuvinians wearing national costumes

Siberian equitarian herdsmen had little variation in their daily activities and so they would amuse themselves and their families by singing. They could not carry large instruments on horseback wherefore chömei long remained principally a vocal art among them.

However, various instruments were gradually introduced: e.g. the peculiar byzaantzy – a sort of viol – is played with the hairs of the bow threaded between the strings. Consequently, the bow always hangs onto the instrument! A musician holds the byzaantzy on his knee while playing. Although Siberian groups today make use of stringed instruments, drums, and voices in ensembles, the ancient tradition of single vocalists still survives.

sam 3.jpg

Tuvan musicians with instruments. On the left Anatoli Kuular holds a byzaantzy, Radomir Mongush holds a dyngur in the middle, and on the right Kongar-Ool Ondar holds a doshpulur.

On chömei-methods practised by the Tuvinians and their neighbouring tribes: introductory directions

There are three basic Tuvinian throat singing methods: chömei, kargyraa, and sygyt. These are further embellished to at least five submethods.

The word “chömei” means “guttural” in English and this is a general name for Central Asian throat singing, as mentioned above. However, a certain method is also called chömei, and it is a little easier than the rest. This is how you can learn to sing chömei: if you utter a vocalization with constrained false vocal chords (Notice that the vocalization must have power yet be constrained at the same time) and then contract the opening of your lips with open mouth cavity and pharynx, you will have a resonating chamber in the mouth. With different positions of the lips and the tongue you will soon discern flute-like overtones whistling along the borduna (that is, along the fundamental tone). Of course, in the beginning your overtones will be weak or hardly exist. But do not give up. In fact few people can produce a borduna strong enough for clear overtones at their first attempts. But if you practise your voice well every day you will certainly get used to this kind of singing. After a few months of practise you will achieve a valid chömei-voice.

“Sygyt” has its roots in the chömei-method. To practise sygyt you must start with chömei. Sing chömei with a half-open mouth, place the tip of your tongue behind your front teeth as if pronouncing the letter “L”; then press sides of your tongue against the molars. Now you may be puzzled to realize that you no longer can utter a sound. However, if you keep your tongue in the described position you have a resonating chamber in your mouth again. If you now make a little opening to the seal between your tongue and your palate and utter a strong, constrained sound you will hear a clear flute-like overtone – a harmonic of the borduna. This miraculous overtone is actually as clear as the sound heard when a wineglass is clinked! A few people, who are not familiar with this sound, hardly believe that what they hear is a human voice. At your first attempt you will certainly notice that keeping the tongue in that position and simultaneously trying to utter a constrained sound is extremely difficult. However, a constrained voice character is a necessary condition without which you will not be able to utter any distinct overtones. For such a voice contains more material for overtone singing than a soft and ordinary voice.

“Kargyraa” is an extremely low sound: to get an idea of kargyraa imagine a voice that resembles the roaring of a lion, the howling of a wolf, and the croaking of a frog – and all these mixed together. The Tuvinian word “kargyraa” means “hoarse voice”. You can also learn to sing kargyraa: when you start speaking, don’t you often hawk and clear your throat? This is the desired trick: for kargyraa is nothing else than a deep and continuous hawking. This hawking must rise from the deepest part of the windpipe; consequently low tones will start resonating in the chest. Overtones are amplified by varying the shape of the mouth cavity and the position of the tongue. Other methods are derived from the above mentioned.

The Mongolian musical tradition is essentially similar with that of Tuvinian. The Mongolians know throat singing methods that can be identified with the Tuvinian sygyt and kargyraa. Also Tibetan Gyoto monks chant their prayers in a very low register that resembles the Tuvinian kargyraa method. However, the monks have not developed as many variations as Tuvan and Mongolian musicians.


On Tuvan web-pages

With the exception of its native areas, throat singing has almost entirely been an unknown form of art until this decade. Tuva and Mongolia have remained remote and unknown areas to the peoples of the west until the Soviet Imperium came to its end last decade. Due to that event news between the East and the West began to move more freely. Rumours about Tuva and the peculiar Tuvinian musical culture spread in the West and especially in North America thanks to Richard Feynman, a distinguished American physicist, who was an ardent devotee of Tuvan matters. Today, partly because of Feynman’s influence, there exists a society called “Friends of Tuva” in California. Friends of Tuva circulates news about Tuva in the West [among other things; Friends of Tuva was founded by Ralph Leighton, a friend and travelling companion of Richard Feynman].

Anyone with an access to the internet can navigate in the web and see many pictures and find a lot of information about Tuva by using “Tuva” or “Friends of Tuva” as entries. In these pages there are discographies, questions and answers about Tuva (naturally written in English), photographs, and even samples of songs that you can actually listen to if you have a computer with audio equipment! You will also find precepts for learning throat singing. I suggest that, unless you do not use the entries, you first open a page called “Frequently Asked Questions” (that is “http://www.feynman.com/faq/tuva-faq.html”). On that page you will find questions and anwers and some links to pages of related matters.

Acknowledgements

I am most grateful to the distinguished gentlemen Tuomo Pekkanen and Erkki Palmén (University of Jyväskylä, Finland), who read the text throughout and gave me many useful pieces of advice. Honorable Mr. Kerry Yackoboski (University of Manitoba, Canada) kindly permitted me to use his photograps for which favour I am indebted to him. I found the geographical map in the web but have no idea of its origin. I am grateful to the person who composed it, whoever it is! Lady Kaija Virolainen advised me on the use of computers and their programs for which work I am indebted to her as well.

My email address: sjansson@kanto.jyu.fi ;
my URL-address: http://www.jyu.fi/~sjansson/index.html
(where you can find samples of throat singing)

Note of the editors: Unfortunately in our little Melissa there was not enough room to publish the long bibliography added by Sami Jansson; if you want to see it, please write to the author.

http://users.jyu.fi/~sjansson/throat.htm

Tsai, Chen-gia, biography

Tsai, Chen-gia, biography

Chen-gia_Tsai

Tsai, Chen-gia

Assistant professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology, National Taiwan University

PhD (Musikwissenschaft), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Research Interests

Biomusicology, music cognition, vocal fold dynamics, music acoustics, Chinese opera

Courses Opened

Music of local Xiqu; Music acoustics; Music, evolution and the brain; Feeling and representations of love: linguistic and musicological perspectives

Journal Articles

Tsai, C.G. (2010). The song forms in cultures of humpback whales and songbirds: interdisciplinary perspectives of biomusicology (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music (in press)

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.C., Chou, T.L., Chen, J.H. (2010). Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI study. Brain and Cognition 74(2): 123-131. [SCI & SSCI, IF=2.547]

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.L., and Lee, J.W. (2010). Literature soundscape in the museum: on the roles and functions of sound elements in literature exhibitions (in Chinese). Museology Quarterly 24(1):93-115. [THCI]

Tsai, C.G., Wang, L.C., Wang, S.F., Shau, Y.W., Hsiao, T.Y., and Wolfgang Auhagen. (2010). Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: acoustic characteristics, musical implications, and biomechanical mechanisms. Music Perception 27(3):209-221. [SSCI, IF=1.714]

Lu, Y.H., and Tsai, C.G. (2009). Importance of motor imagery for music performance: Evidence from neuroscience (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 11:75-90.

Tsai, C.G., (2009). The Taiwanese horned fiddle: An example of exaptation of musical instruments (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory 2009.4:129-134. [CSSCI]

Tsai, C.G., Chen, J.H., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2009). Dynamic B-mode ultrasound imaging of vocal fold vibration during phonation. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 35(11):1812-1818. [SCI, IF=2.395]

Tsai, C.G. (2009). Impure musical sounds: auditory model and harmonic-to-noise ratio (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 10:113-125.

Tsai, C.G. (2009). From propaganda to dramatic ornaments: arias and divertissements in modern Beijing operas in 1958-1976 (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal 10:113-147. [THCI]

Tsai, C.G. (2008). String vibration with nonlinear boundary condition: an acoustical study of “blossoming tones” produced by the junhu (in Chinese). Huangzhong-Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory 2008.4:168-173. [CSSCI]

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Madness by romantic identification: Brain diseases in Xiqu (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 161:83-133. [TSSCI]

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., Liu, H.M., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2008). Laryngeal mechanisms during human 4 kHz vocalization studied with CT, videostroboscopy, and color Doppler imaging. Journal of Voice 22(3):275-282. [SCI, IF=1.143]

Tsai, C.G., Lin, Y.Y. (2008). Contributions of epilepsy research to the psychology of music (in Chinese). Journal of Xinghai Conservatory of Music 2008.1:31-37.

Tsai, C.G. (2007). When Beijing Opera actors meet Beiguan Opera: An impartation project for Beiguan Opera by Xiao-Yiao Theater (in Chinese). Journal of Culture Resources 3:75-94.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Disease and composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert (in Chinese). Formosan Journal of Music Research 3:91-106.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Towards the cognitive psychology of Xiqu music: Examples from Xi-Mei-Fong-Yun and Da-Tzei-Men (in Chinese). Performing Arts Journal 12:159-172.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Chaotic behavior of performers’ vocalizations: an interdisciplinary study of growl voices (in Chinese). Taipei Theatre Journal 2:39-62.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Absolute pitch: studies in cognitive psychology (in Chinese). Guandu Music Journal 1:77-92.

Tsai, C.G. (2000). Fu-Lu Sheng-Qiang of Taiwanese Luan-Tan-Xi belongs to Luan-Tan-Qiang system: evidence from tunes and repertory (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 123:43-88.

Tsai, C.G. (1997). A comparison of Chinese Nan-Xi and opera comique: the structure of He-To and vaudeville final (in Chinese). Arts Review 8:163-185.

Tsai, C.G. (1997). A preliminary study on music of Luan-Tan Xiao-Xi (in Chinese). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 106:1-29.

Conference Papers

Tsai, C.G. (2010). Oral representations of Beijing opera percussion music and jazz drum music: fMRI studies (oral). 「迎向21世紀台灣音樂學:全球化與跨文化」研討會,11月30日至12月2日,國立臺北藝術大學,臺灣

Chen, C.L., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). 〈博物館中的文學風景:台灣文學博物館發展與展示內涵之研究〉(oral). 「博物館展示的景觀」研討會,11月18-19日,國立臺北藝術大學,臺灣

Chen, I.P., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Emotional attributes of music (oral). 「情緒標準刺激與反應常模的基礎研究」99年度計畫研討會,11月6日,國立中正大學,臺灣

Wang, L.C., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Beat Perception through body movements: a case study of Nanguan, Beiguan and western classic music (oral). The 3rd International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology, September13-15, 2010, Cambridge, UK.

Huang, P.L., and Tsai, C.G. (2010). Pitch glide in Chinese small gongs: effects of macrostructure and microstructure. International Symposium on Music Acoustics, 30-31 August, Sydney, Australia.

Tsai, C.G., Bai, M.R. (2010). An acoustical and historical study of the Taiwanese horned fiddle: Exaptation of musical instruments. International Symposium on Music Acoustics, 30-31 August, Sydney, Australia.

Cheng, J.Y., Tsai, C.G. and Lee, S.C. (2010). Bamboos as the material for saxophone reed. 20th International Congress on Acoustics, 23-27 August, Sydney, Australia.

Tsai, C.G., Auhagen, W., and Causse, R. (2009). The nonlinear membrane of Chinese flutes: its impacts on timbre and performance techniques (oral). 5th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM09). October 26-29, Paris, France.

Tsai, C.G. (2009). Possible impact of brain-imaging technology on the psychology of Asian music (oral). CUHK-NTU Music Forum 2009, 2-3 Jan 2009, Hong Kong, China.

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Emotional contents of the growl-like timbre: a study of biomechanics (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2008, Tainan, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., Shau, Y.W., and Wang, S.F. (2008). Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: acoustical features and biomechanical mechanisms (oral). 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, 25-29 August 2008, Sapporo, Japan.

Chen, J.H., Chang, M.D., Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., and Shau, Y.W. (2008). On the application of PIV algorithms to the analysis of ultrasound images of vocal fold tissues during phonation. 13th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Nice, France, July 1-4, 2008.

Tsai, C.G. (2008). Oral transmission of music: roles of the mirror neuron system in humans and humpback whales (oral). Mini-Symposium on Cultural Evolution & Human Ecology, 30 May, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2007). Cognitive mechanisms revealed by some forms of animal song: chunking, working memory, and self-associative memory (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2007, December 14-15, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, J.H., Hsiao, T.Y., and Shau, Y.W. (2007). A seawater-seabed model of vocal fold vibration: in-vivo measurements of amplitude attenuation and phase lag (oral). International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, 9-12 September, Barcelona, Spain.

Tsai, C.G., Chen, C.C., Chen, D.Y., Chou, T.L., Chen, C.H., Lee, C.W. (2007). Musical memes and oral tradition: the role of an auditory mirror system in music transmission and cognition (oral). Music and Evolutionary Thought Conference, June 22-23, Durham, England.

Tsai, C.G. (2006). Inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in Western music and Beijing Opera (oral). 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, 28 November-2 December, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2006). Vocal fold wave velocity in the cover and body layers measured in vivo using dynamic sonography (oral). 7th International Conference on Advances in Quantitative Laryngology, Voice and Speech Research, October 6-7, 2006, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Tsai, C.G., Hsiao, T.Y., Shau, Y.W. and Chen, J.H. (2006). Towards an intermediate water wave model of vocal fold vibration: Evidence from vocal-fold dynamic sonography (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, July 12-14 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Disease and composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, Schubert (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology 2005, November 11-12, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G., Auhagen, W. (2005). Intonation, tone range and timbre of the Chinese flute (dizi): a Duffing oscillator model of the dizi membrane (oral). Symposium on Traditional Musical Instruments, September 10-11, 2005, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2005). Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing (oral). International Symposium on Body & Cognition, June 4-5, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). The timbre space of the Chinese membrane flute (dizi): physical and psychoacoustical effects (invited). 148th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, November 15-19, San Diego.

Tsai, C.G., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y. (2004). False vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a hypothesis (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, August 18-20, Marseille, France.

Chen, J.H., and Tsai, C.G. (2004). Experimental research of the flow field in a brass mouthpiece-like channel using Particle Image Velocimetry (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Auditory grouping in the perception of roughness induced by subharmonics: empirical findings and a qualitative model (oral). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2004). Helmholtz’s nasality revisited: physics and perception of sounds with predominance of upper odd-numbered harmonics (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

Tsai, C.G. (2003). Relating the harmonic-rich sound of the Chinese flute (dizi) to the cubic nonlinearity of its membrane (poster). Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2003, August 6-9, Stockholm, Sweden.

[Blog / Chinese version]

http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/

TSAI Chen-Gia, Ph.D. Acoustics, Taiwan, selectec publications

TSAI Chen-Gia, Ph.D. Acoustics, Taiwan

Chen-gia_Tsai

Vocal fold vibration and singing

* Ultrasonic imaging of vocal folds
* Vocal fold vibration as sea waves on a porous seabed
* Overtone singing & high-frequency vocalization
* Growl voice & spine stability

Chen-Gia Tsai
Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology
National Taiwan University, Taipei, TAIWAN

Ph.D., Musikwissenschaft
Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany
Research Interests
Mechanics of the Chinese membrane flute

* Acoustic effects of the dizi membrane
* Linear effects of the membrane: impedance
* Nonlinear effects of the membrane I: jump phenomena and wrinkles in the membrane
* Nonlinear effects of the membrane II: spectral features

Perception of musical sounds

* Brightness and spatial effects
* Helmholtz’s hollowness and nasality
* Roughness induced by subharmonics

Vocal fold vibration and singing

* Ultrasonic imaging of vocal folds
* Vocal fold vibration as sea waves on a porous seabed
* Overtone singing & high-frequency vocalization
* Growl voice & spine stability

Biomusicology

* Absolute pitch
* Music & biological motor system
* Chinese opera music & memetics

Selected Publications
Journal papers

C.G. Tsai (2004) Absolute pitch: studies in cognitive psychology. Guandu Music Journal 1, 77-92.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Chaotic behavior of performer’s vocalizations: an interdisciplinary study of growl voices. Taipei Theatre Journal 2, 39-62.

C.G. Tsai (2006) Disease and Composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert. Formosan Journal of Music Research 3, 91-106.

Chen-Gia Tsai, Yio-Wha Shau, Hon-Man Liu, and Tzu-Yu Hsiao. Laryngeal mechanisms during human 4 kHz vocalization studied with CT, videostroboscopy, and color Doppler imaging (accepted by Journal of Voice)
Conference papers

C.G. Tsai (2003) Relating the harmonic-rich sound of the Chinese flute (dizi) to the cubic nonlinearity of its membrane (poster). Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2003, August 6-9.

C.G. Tsai (2004) Helmholtz’s nasality revisited: physics and perception of sounds with predominance of upper odd-numbered harmonics (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

C.G. Tsai (2004) Auditory grouping in the perception of roughness induced by subharmonics: empirical findings and a qualitative model (oral). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

J.H. Chen, and C.G. Tsai (2004) Experimental research of the flow field in a brass mouthpiece-like channel using Particle Image Velocimetry (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

C.G. Tsai, Y.W. Shau, and T.Y. Hsiao (2004) False vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a hypothesis (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, August 18-20, Marseille, France.

C.G. Tsai (2004) The timbre space of the Chinese membrane flute (dizi): physical and psychoacoustical effects (invited). 148th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, November 15-19, San Diego.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing (oral). International Symposium on Body & Cognition, June 4-5, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai, W. Auhagen (2005) Intonation, tone range and timbre of the Chinese flute (dizi): a Duffing oscillator model of the dizi membrane (oral). Conference on Traditional Music Instruments, September 10-11, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Disease and composing: syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology, November 11-12, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai, T.Y. Hsiao, Y.W. Shau, and J.H. Chen (2006) Towards an intermediate water wave model of vocal fold vibration: Evidence from vocal-fold dynamic sonography (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, July 12-14 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

C.G. Tsai, Y.W. Shau, and T.Y. Hsiao (2006) Vocal fold wave velocity in the cover and body layers measured in vivo using dynamic sonography (oral). 7th International Conference on Advances in Quantitative Laryngology, Voice and Speech Research, October 6-7, 2006, Groningen, the Netherlands.

C.G. Tsai (2006) Inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in Western music and Beijing opera (oral). 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, 28 November-2 December, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
Links

* Music Acoustics Laboratory at UNSW (impedance measurements of the dizi were performed there)
* Mitzi Meyerson’s homepage (my favorite harpsichordist)
* Introduction to the Qin
* Learn traditional Chinese painting
* Liu Fang’s pipa and guzheng music world

[Chinese version]
Latest update: 12/2006

http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~gim/gia/index.html