Ken-Ichi Sakakibara,Leonardo Fuks,Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama : Growl voice in and pop styles

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31st to April 3rd 2004 (ISMA2004), Nara, Japan

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara , Leonardo Fuks , HiroshiImagawa , Niro Tayama
NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan
Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
School of Music, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
kis@brl.ntt.co.jp leofuks@serv.com.ufrj.br
imagawa@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp ntayama@imcj.hosp.go.jp

Growl voice in ethnic and pop styles

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  • Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
    Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Abstract
Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supra-glottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or sub-harmonic co-oscillation. This paper examines growl mechanism using vide-ofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousit-cal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simu-lation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, includ-ing the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

1. Introduction

The term growl is originally referred to as low-pitched
sounds uttered by animals, such as dogs, or similar
sounds by humans, and therefore is mainly described
by auditory-perceptual impression. Growl is widely ob-
served in singing as well as in shouting and aroused
speech.
The growl phonation has been also referred to as the
phonation observed in some singing styles, such as the
jazz singing style of Louis Armstrong 1and Cab Cal-
loway, [2, 3]. Many jazz, blues, and gospel singers often
use growl in a similar manner. Besides such pop musics
from North America, growl styles are widely found in
pop music of other areas: in Brazil, samba singers, par-
ticularly in carnival lead voices, pop star Elza Soares, and
country singing duoBruno& Marrone; in Japan, Enka (a
popular emotive style) singers, such as Harumi Miyako,
employ it frequently. Some singers use growl extensively
through a song, while others use it as a vocal effect for
expressive emphasis.
In ethnic music, one of the most prominent use of
growl is found in umngqokolo, which is a vocal tradition
of the Xhosa people in South Africa [11]. In Japanese
theatre, Noh percussionist’s voice, Kakegoe, may present
growl at the beginning of phonation.
Growl may have perceptual similarities with the
rough or harsh voice. In terms of phonetics, growl
is sometimes described as the voiced aryepiglottic trill
[3]. However, there is no clear evidence of its produc-
tion mechanism, such as physiological observation of the
aryepglottic vibration.
In throat singing (Tyvan khoomei and Mongolian
khoomij), ventricular and vocal fold vibration was ob-
served for the two different laryngeal voices (drone and
kargyraa) [4, 9]. In drone, the basic voice in throat
singing with a whistle-like high overtone, the ventricular
fold vibration is at the same frequency as the vocal fold
vibration. In kargyraa, which usually sounds one octave
(or more) lower than the modal register, the ventricular
folds vibrate at when the vocal folds vibrate at .
Moreover, some singers can do triple-periodic kargyraa
in which the ventricular folds vibrate at .
In this paper, the phonation mode with ventricular and vocal fold
vibration is called VVM (vocal-ventricular mode) [4]. In
growl, there is no clear evidence of the ventricular fold
vibration.

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LEONARDO FUKS’s BIOGRAPHY, BRAZIL

ABOUT LEONARDO FUKS:

leonardo fuks 2.jpg

Associate professor at Rio de Janeiro Federal University School of Music, Leonardo Fuks combines a background in mechanical and acoustical engineering with a 25 years carrier as orchestra oboist and contemporary music performer.
He obtained his doctoral degree at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, with prof. Johan Sundberg, studing acoustical, physiological and perceptual aspects in woodwinds and in Tibetan-type bass phonation.
His main present project deals with the development and production of new instruments for research, education and experimental music. Such instruments and components are usually inexpensive and made of non-conventional materials, such as resins, carbon fiber, pvc and plastic films.
Fuks´workshop has produced more than two thousant professional clarinet and sax mouthpieces, besides flute bocals and baroque oboes.
His lectures and workshops have been presented in several countries: Japan, USA, Mexico, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Switzerland, Italy and Sweden.
Dr Fuks is the founder and director of two contemporary ensembles: Cyclophonica Bike Orchestra and Cellphonica,  a group that employs cell phones as conventional solo and chamber instruments.

 

LEONARDO FUKS : Computer-aided musical analysis of extended vocal techniques for compositional applications

Computer-aided musical analysis of extended vocal techniques for compositional applications
compmus.ime.usp.br
Leonardo  Fuks
leonardo fuks

Leonardo Fuks

To read the whole article , please click on the link below:

Computer-aided_musical_analysis_of_exten

 

https://www.academia.edu/30880857/Computer-aided_musical_analysis_of_extended_vocal_techniques_for_compositional_applications

 

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara, Leonardo Fuks, Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama: Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles

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Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara (1 2), Leonardo Fuks (3), Hiroshi Imagawa(4), Niro Tayama(5)

1NTTCommunication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan

2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan School of Music,

3Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

4Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan

5International Medical Center of Japan, Japan

Abstract

Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supraglottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or subharmonic co-oscillation.

This paper examines growl mechanism using videofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousitcal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simulation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, including the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

Leonardo FUKS , Britta HAMMARBERG, Johan SUNDBERG : A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences

A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences

Authors
Leonardo Fuks, Britta Hammarberg, Johan Sundberg
Publication date
1998/3
Journal
KTH TMH-QPSR
Volume
3
Issue
1998
Pages
49-59
Description
This investigation describes various characteristics of a particular phonation mode, vocal-ventricular mode (VVM), as produced by a healthy, musically-trained subject. This phonation mode was judged as perceptually identical to that used in the Tibetan chant tradition. VVM covered a range close to an octave, starting at about 50 Hz. High-speed glottography revealed that the ventricular folds oscillated at half the frequency of the vocal folds thus yielding a frequency of f/2. Phonation at f/3 was also possible. Presumably, aerodynamic forces produced by the glottal flow pulses sustained the vibrations of the ventricular folds. Complementary aspects of this type of phonation were compared to phonation in modal and pulse registers by acoustical analysis of the audio signal, by inverse filtering of the flow signal and by electroglottography (EGG). In addition, oesophageal pressures were measured. These analyses …
Total citations
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LEONARDO FUKS : Sundry Sounds produced by Leonardo Fuks and other examples

VVM phonation mode, physical model (by L.Fuks)


This is a simplified physical model proposed by me for the larynx during VVM phonation mode, which produces similar sounds to those from the Tibetan Chant tradition. Below, the vocal folds (m1,m2) and above, the false or ventricular folds (m3). In this example, vocal folds oscillate at a frequency which is twice as that of the ventricular folds. The letters m stand for mass, k for stiffness, and r for damping coefficient. Indexes r-l stand for left and right sides, respectively.

Sundry Sounds produced by Leonardo Fuks and other examples

During my research work in music acoustics I created/recorded/processed some gigabytes of sound files, most of them of no musical interest for the listener.
However, a few of them might be listened by tolerant and attentive ears. They are presented below.
The first group of sound files refers to Paper VI of my thesis, which are identified with the Tibetan Chant voice, and other extended vocal effects investigated in the paper.

FILES IN REAL AUDIO FORMAT

Vocal-ventricular sounds (used in Tibetan and Mongolian “undertone” singing):
0.Original sounds from the Gyuto Monastery, Tibet

1.Fixed fundamental and sweeping overtones
2.f0/2 and f0/3 VVM
3. An imitation of a Tibetan Chant context (rather similar to 0, above)

4. Popeye the Saylor used VVM !! (an original recording from a William Costello’s version)
5. VVM and flute improvisation
6. Overtone singing in VVM mode, melody of “Oh, Susanah” (see the spectrogram)

Periodic pulse register , see Paper VI
7. Alternation between pulse register (“fry”) and modal voice
8. “Vocal fry” at fo/1,fo/2, fo/3, f0/4, fo/5 & back to 1

Vocal Growl (co-oscillation of vocal folds and epiglottis)-similar to the mechanism used by Louis Armstrong

9. Periodic Growl, in f0/2 and fo/3, with overtone singing

Tarogato (wooden saxophone from Hungary)
10.Tarogato(from the theme of Ravel’s La Valse)

A piece for OBOE called “My Six Marigaux 10499’s”, recorded in 6 channels
11.6oboes

All recordings, excepted by numbers 0 (Gyuto Monks, Tibet) and 4 (Popeye, W. Costello) are performed by Leonardo Fuks

To the THESIS INTRODUCTION – FROM AIR TO MUSIC: Acoustical, Physiological and Perceptual Aspects of Reed Wind Instrument Playing and Vocal-Ventricular Fold Phonation

http://www.speech.kth.se/music/publications/leofuks/leosounds.html

HTML by Leonardo Fuks

Last update 98.12.30