Johanni Curtet avec tous les membres du Jury à Rennes à l’Université de Rennes, France , novembre 13, 2013. Soutenance de thèse sur la musique mongole

Johanni Curtet avec tous les membres du Jury à Rennes à l’Université de Rennes, France , novembre 13, 2013.
Soutenance de thèse sur la musique mongole

JOHANNI CURTET in a picutre with all members of the Jury & Tran Quang Hai after the obtention of the title of Doctor of Ethnomusicology from the University Rennes 2, in Rennes, France, November 12th 2013 .

The title of his dissertation :
La transmission du höömij, un art du timbre vocal :ethnomusicologie et histoire du chant diphonique mongol

The transmission of höömij, an art of vocal timber: ethnomusicology and history of mongolian overtone singing .

Cette thèse est une étude ethnomusicologique à dimension historique portant sur la transmission globale du höömij en Mongolie. Pour expliquer l’évolution de cette technique vocale, sont explorés les légendes, les conceptions autochtones, l’histoire des années 1950 au début des années 2010 et la mise en patrimoine pour l’avenir.
La première partie montre comment le chant diphonique prend forme dans sa culture. Perçu comme un art du timbre par ses détenteurs, il entretient des relations avec la nature, ainsi qu’un ensemble de techniques vocales et instrumentales issues des contextes rituel et pastoral.
Ces fondements du höömij sont ensuite examinés à la lumière de l’histoire de la Mongolie. Entre les périodes soviétique et contemporaine, la deuxième partie brosse les changements survenus dans la pratique, entre la scène et l’enregistrement. À côté de l’usage rural, se développe une nouvelle forme professionnelle. Tous ces apports ont façonné le chant diphonique mongol dans son état actuel.
La troisième partie étudie la transmission à travers l’enseignement et la patrimonialisation. Les maîtres évoluent entre deux pôles : un village de l’Altaï perçu comme le lieu des origines, et une université d’Ulaanbaatar, qui académise la pratique et diffuse son modèle au niveau national. Tout cela participe au processus de patrimonialisation du höömij, de sa constitution en emblème musical sous la période soviétique à son inscription sur la liste du Patrimoine Culturel Immatériel de l’Unesco. Le höömij mongol apparaît dans toute sa contemporanéité.

Sven Grawunder: Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang / Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs, MA degree, Halle,Germany, march 1999

Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang

Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs

Sven Grawunder

Diplomarbeit am Institut f ̧r Sprechwissenschaft und Phonetik der Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg vorgelegt Marz 1999.

Halle/Saale

Vorgelegt 24.03.1999

 

The whole dissertation can be read in this link below:

https://www.eva.mpg.de/fileadmin/content_files/staff/grawunde/bonusmaterial/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf

 

 

 

WU RUNG SHUN : TRADITION ET TRANSFORMATION : le pasi but but, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan, 1996 , thèse de doctorat, Paris

Tradition

et transformation: le pasi but but, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan

Couverture
wu rung shun.jpg
1996 – 952 pages
NOTRE TRAVAIL PORTE SUR UN CHANT RITUEL DESTINE A FAVORISER LA CROISSANCE DU MILLET, NOURRITURE DE BASE POUR LES ABORIGENES DE TAIWAN ET EN PARTICULIER POUR LES BUNUN. CE CHANT, DESIGNE PAR LE TERME PASI BUT BUT REVET UNE FORME POLYPHONIQUE PROPRE QUI LE DISTINGUE PARMI TOUS LES REPERTOIRES DE L’ETHNIE BUNUN. DANS UNE PREMIERE PARTIE, NOUS NOUS SOMMES EFFORCES DE SITUER LE PASI BUT BUT DANS LA SOCIETE, LA CULTURE, ET LA MUSIQUE TRADITIONNELLE DES BUNUN DONT NOUS PRESENTONS BRIEVEMENT LES DIVERS ASPECTS. DANS LA SECONDE PARTIE, LE SUJET PROPRE DE LA THESE EST TRAITE SOUS LES TROIS ANGLES DE LA FONCTION, DE LA STRUCTURE ET DES MUTATIONS OBSERVEES AU COURS DES CINQUANTE DERNIERES ANNEES. EN FAIT CES TROIS FACTEURS S’INTERPENETRENT INEXTRICABLEMENT, MAIS, POUR MIEUX COMPRENDRE LA SIGNIFICATION ET LES CHANGEMENTS SUBIS PAR LE PASI BUT BUT A TRAVERS LE TEMPS ET L’ESPACE, IL S’EST AVERE NECESSAIRE D’EXAMINER SEPAREMENT : 1) LE ROLE ORIGINAL DU PASI BUT BUT DANS LA SOCIETE TRADITIONNELLE BUNUN, TEL QUE LE PRESENTENT LES RECITS DE LA TRADITION ORALE QUE NOUS AVONS RECUEILLIS DANS DIFFERENTS VILLAGE BUNUN. 2) LES CARACTERISTIQUES MUSICALES DES QUINZE VERSIONS ENREGISTREES DU PASI BUT BUT DONT NOUS DISPOSIONS. 3) LA STRUCTURE DE LA POLYPHONIE, TELLE QU’ELLE SE DEGAGE DE LA COMPARAISON DES DIFFERENTES VERSIONS. ENFIN, A PARTIR DE L’ANALYSE DE CES DONNEES, NOUS AVONS TENTE DE COMPRENDRE SELON QUELLES MODALITES LE PASI BUT BUT S’ETAIT ADAPTE A L’ENVIRONNEMENT NOUVEAU DANS LEQUEL SE TROUVAIT PLACEE LA SOCIETE BUNUN ET QUEL NOYAU STABLE PERSISTAIT AUJOURD’HUI DANS CE CHANT POLYPHONIQUE DEVENU EMBLEMATIQUE NON SEULEMENT DES BUNUN, MAIS DANS UNE CERTAINE MESURE, DES ABORIGENES DE TAIWAN.

« Moins

WU RUNG SHUN : Collection : Tradition et transformation : le “pasi but but”, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan [Exemple pour thèse], CREM, FRANCE

Collection : Tradition et transformation : le “pasi but but”, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan [Exemple pour thèse]

29 items (Voir liste)
Titre
Tradition et transformation : le “pasi but but”, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan [Exemple pour thèse]
Déposant / contributeur
Wu, Rung Shun
Statut du document
Inédits
Description
Exemples musicaux accompagnant la thèse “Tradition et transformation. Le “pasi but but”, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan” de Rung Shun Wu. – Nanterre : Université Paris 10, 1996. Directeur de thèse : Mireille Helffer. Ces enregistrements ont été réalisés de 1943 à 1994.
Contexte d’enregistrement
Montage pour diplôme
Période d’enregistrement
1943 – 1994
Type d’accès
Accès partiel aux items
Corpus
Thèses de doctorat et HDR (documents encartés)
Corpus
Wu Rung Shun, enregistrements inédits

Indications géographiques et culturelles

États / nations
Taïwan
Populations / groupes sociaux
Bunun

Mentions légales

Collecteur
Wu, Rung Shun
Éditeur
Montage (accompagnant un diplôme)
Auteur de la notice éditée
Wu, Rung Shun
Références bibliographiques
Tradition et transformation : le “pasi but but”, un chant polyphonique des Bunun de Taiwan / Rung Shun Wu. – Nanterre : Université Paris 10, 1996. Directeur de thèse : Mireille Helffer.
Mémoire consultable à la bibliothèque du CREM, cote MS 240.
Droit d’utilisation
Copie interdite

Média associés

Média Prévisualisation
Titre
Résumé de la thèse de Wu Rung Shun
Description
Notre travail porte sur un chant rituel destine a favoriser la croissance du millet, nourriture de base pour les aborigenes de taiwan et en particulier pour les bunun. Ce chant, designe par le terme pasi but but revet une forme polyphonique propre qui le distingue parmi tous les repertoires de l’ethnie bunun. Dans une premiere partie, nous nous sommes efforces de situer le pasi but but dans la societe, la culture, et la musique traditionnelle des bunun dont nous presentons brievement les divers aspects. Dans la seconde partie, le sujet propre de la these est traite sous les trois angles de la fonction, de la structure et des mutations observees au cours des cinquante dernieres annees. En fait ces trois facteurs s’interpenetrent inextricablement, mais, pour mieux comprendre la signification et les changements subis par le pasi but but a travers le temps et l’espace, il s’est avere necessaire d’examiner separement : 1) le role original du pasi but but dans la societe traditionnelle bunun, tel que le presentent les recits de la tradition orale que nous avons recueillis dans differents village bunun. 2) les caracteristiques musicales des quinze versions enregistrees du pasi but but dont nous disposions. 3) la structure de la polyphonie, telle qu’elle se degage de la comparaison des differentes versions. Enfin, a partir de l’analyse de ces donnees, nous avons tente de comprendre selon quelles modalites le pasi but but s’etait adapte a l’environnement nouveau dans lequel se trouvait placee la societe bunun et quel noyau stable persistait aujourd’hui dans ce chant polyphonique devenu emblematique non seulement des bunun, mais dans une certaine mesure, des aborigenes de taiwan.
Consultée le 18 avril 2017.
Crédits
Wu Rung Shun
Titre
Présentation de la thèse de Wu Rung Shun
Description
Consultée le 18 avril 2017.
Crédits
Wu Rung Shun

Items

Titre Numérisé Collecteur Lieu Année d’enregistrement Cote
d Chant rituel – chant de chasse au têtes :01-01 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1989 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_01
d Chant de travail “masi lumah” :01-02 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_02
d Chant nostalgique “pisdaidaz” :01-03 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_03
d Chant d’enfant “tinunuan takur” :01-04 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1988 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_04
d Chant d’enfant “ahk ahk” :01-05 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_05
d Chant d’enfant “tama tina ” :01-06 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_06
d Chant de transmission des pouvoirs de chamane :01-07 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 – 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_07
d Chant de rite des lances avant la chasse :01-08 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 – 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_08
d La guimbarde “pis-haunghaung” :01-09 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1943 – 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_09
d Le sistre “pis-lahlah” :01-10 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_10
d L’arc musical “la-tuktuk” :01-11 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1943 – 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_11
d la cithare à 5 cordes “banhir la-tuktuk” :01-12 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1988 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_12
d Les bâtons pilonnants “ma-turtur” :01-13 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1995 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_13
d Le simandre “ki-pahpah” :01-14 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1943 – 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_14
d “Pasi but but” :01-15 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_15
d “pasi but but” :01-16 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_16
d “Pasi but but”, LU Ping-Chang :01-17 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1967 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_17
d “Pasi but but” :01-18 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1987 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_18
d “Pasi but but” :01-19 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_19
d “Pasi but but” :01-20 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_20
d “Pasi but but” KUROSAWA :01-21 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1943 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_21
d “Pasi but but” :01-22 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1986 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_22
d “Pasi but but” :01-23 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1988 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_23
d “Pasi but but” :01-24 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_24
d “Pasi but but” :01-25 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1986 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_25
d “Pasi but but” (Maison des Cultures du Monde) :01-26 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1988 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_26
d “Pasi but but” :01-27 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_27
d “Pasi but but” :01-28 d Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_28
“Pasi but but” :01-29 Wu, Rung Shun Taïwan 1994 CNRSMH_I_1996_010_001_29

Robin Öberg : What is throat singing? Bachelor Thesis / Department of Social Anthropology, Lunds Universitet , Sweden 2008

SAN K01Spring 2008 Supervisor: Christer Lindberg
Bachelor Thesis
Department of Social Anthropology

What is throat singing?

Author: Robin Öberg

Abstract

In southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person can create two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon has flowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of persons come in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise from this are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives?

This study begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing the important terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showing phenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and then concluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing.  In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual.

With a phenomenological method of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as this before, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throat singing.

Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,

Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, Ethnomusicology

 

Table of contents

1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1

Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2

Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1

Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83

Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3

What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4

Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194

Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2

The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1

Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2

Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1398235&fileOId=1398239

 

 

 

SAN K01Spring 2008Supervisor: Christer LindbergBachelor ThesisDepartment of Social AnthropologyWhat is throat singing?Author: Robin Öberg

AbstractIn southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person cancreate two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon hasflowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of personscome in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise fromthis are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives? Thisstudy begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing theimportant terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showingphenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and thenconcluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing. In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual. With a phenomenologicalmethod of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as thisbefore, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throatsinging.Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, EthnomusicologyAuthor: Robin Öberg

Table of contents1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1 Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2 Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1 Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83 Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3 What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4 Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194 Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2 The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1 Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2 Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

SAN K01Spring 2008Supervisor: Christer LindbergBachelor ThesisDepartment of Social AnthropologyWhat is throat singing?Author: Robin Öberg

AbstractIn southern Siberia there is a culture of throat singing, a singing technique where a person cancreate two different and clearly audible tones at the same time. This throat singing phenomenon hasflowed from the Tuvan republic in Russia out into the entire world. Persons of different ethnic ori­gins sing and teach throat singing to persons from all kinds of nations, thus all kinds of personscome in contact with the throat singing phenomenon. Questions that seem to naturally arise fromthis are: How is throat singing used by these persons, how does it play a part in their lives? Thisstudy begins with a historical background to the phenomenon of throat singing, introducing theimportant terms and concepts, then it goes into the more scientific analysis, showingphenomenologically how a heterogeneous group uses throat singing in its/their ontology, and thenconcluding it all by putting it all together, creating a model of a being of throat singing. In otherwords, this is a first step towards a complete understanding of the phenomena of throat singing, andthis first step takes the approach from the experience of the individual. With a phenomenologicalmethod of analysis, Meaning Constitution Analysis, the different aspects of throat singing isexposed by showing the meanings associated with it. There has not been any similar study as thisbefore, all the previous data using throat singing without definition is arbitrary. With the results ofthis study, even quantitative surveys can be used to further understand the phenomenon of throatsinging.Keywords: Socialantropologi, Tuva, Sibirien, Strupsång, Fenomenologi, Kognitiv Antropologi,Social Anthropology, Siberia, Throat Singing, Phenomenology, Cognitive Anthropology,Anthropology of Music, EthnomusicologyAuthor: Robin Öberg

Table of contents1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11.1 Short background to throat singing…………………………………………………………….11.2 Purpose of study………………………………………………………………………………………41.3 Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………52 Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72.1 Defining the field of study………………………………………………………………………..72.2 Phenomenological Anthropology……………………………………………………………….72.3 Reductionism as a model of thought…………………………………………………………..83 Material and Method…………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Previous research relevant for this study……………………………………………………..103.2 Phenomenological method of analysis – MCA…………………………………………….153.3 What was it that the informants answered to……………………………………………….193.4 Who are the informants…………………………………………………………………………….194 Analysis and interpretation…………………………………………………………………………………..214.1 Example (Informant no.1)…………………………………………………………………………214.2 The rest of the informants…………………………………………………………………………264.2.1 Informant no.2……………………………………………………………………………..264.2.2 Informant no.3……………………………………………………………………………..284.2.3 Informant no.4……………………………………………………………………………..304.2.4 Informant no.5……………………………………………………………………………..324.2.5 Informant no.6……………………………………………………………………………..344.2.6 Informant no.7……………………………………………………………………………..364.2.7 Informant no.8……………………………………………………………………………..385 Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..406 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………457 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

1 IntroductionThis study will demonstrate that the being of throat singing is, among other things; being usedaround Altai Mountains in Siberia, being used to heal the earth, being used to create music, andbeing used to learn to throat sing together with others. This will be done by looking at how a groupof persons create meaning towards throat singing by their individual way of using and thinkingabout it.1.1 Short background to throat singingThe Tuva1 region in southern Siberia have always had natural barriers, like mountains, desert andrivers, that have for a long time made the country more or less inaccessible by outside visitors.During the larger part of the twentieth century Tuva was also willingly a part of the Soviet union,which created political barriers for visitors from the other side of the iron curtain. (Humphrey1980:1-4) Towards the latter part of the twentieth century Tuva was changed into an autonomousrepublic in Russia. This came to open to the borders internationally, both for tuvinians and foreignvisitors. (Leighton 1992:214-219) In Tuva there is a strong tradition of throat singing2, a phenomenon where the listener can heartwo different controlled tones at the same time, coming from one singer. Tuva is a small country inthe Altai mountains, where throat singing has thrived, but since throat singing nomads do not stayin one place, geographical and political borders can not show where there are throat singers andwhere there are not. (Levin 2006:71) Throat singing was traditionally used in different ways in the everyday life of nomad life aroundthe Altai mountains, from throat singing to lull a baby to sleep to throat singing to call yaks on themountains. (Pegg 2001:60) Throat singing was usually sung outside because the majority of throatsingers were herders, hunters, craftsmen and tradesmen. (Tongeren 2004:56) It was also highlytaboo of women to throat sing, “Because throat-singing makes women barren!” (Levin 2006:199) Throat singing as a phenomenon has gone from being the passtime of local nomads to thecharacteristics of internationally known tuvinians, from the shamans of the steppe to persons alloverthe world through the internet. Regional competitions in throat singing have become internationallyknown. Throat singing as a phenomenon has become known by persons who do not come fromTuva, and is being taught by persons who do not come from Tuva.1Tuva is a republic in Russia, in the South of Siberia, to the borders Northwest of Mongolia. There are 300.000persons living in Tuva, half of them live in urban areas, and the average age for a person in Tuva is 25 years old.(http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2007/0301/barom04.php 2008) There are two major ethnicities in Tuva, 77-80%Tuvans and ~20% Russians. The only other calculable group is barely 1%, the Khalkhas.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuva 2008)2As the locus of inquiry in this study is based on the Tuvan style of throat singing, whenever the term “throatsinging” is used it refers to tuvan style throat singing. When other styles of throat singing are mentioned, it will sayso in the text, like so “Mongolian throat singing” or so “Inuit throat singing”.1 Introductionpage 1

There are different ways of categorizing different techniques and styles3 of throat singing, somesimpler then others. Which techniques exist differs between clans and villages. The most simplecategorisation is just three different techniques. These are Kargyraa, Khoomei and Sygyt. Kargyraais the technique which creates most bass-sound, as it takes the normal singing voice down oneoctave. Sygyt is the one with highest pitch, creating an almost whistle-like sound. Khoomei is themost basic technique, having a middle-range character compared to the other two techniques.Together, these three are known as Khoomei. Khoomei is not just a sub-category, but also a wordthat describes all the techniques and styles. (Tongeren 2004:18-19)A translation of the Tuvan words also gives an insight into what technique they represent: Sygytmeans “whistle”, kargyraa means “to roar like a waterfall” or “croak like a black crow”,borbangnadyr means “rolling” and “chylandyk” is an onomatopoetic word describing the soundmade by a type of bird called chylandyk. (Pegg 2001:302, Levin 2006:67,228) The Tuvan word forthroat singing, “khoomei”, is believed to have its origin in the Mongolian word for throat orpharynx, kögemei. (Pegg 1992:31, Lundberg&Ronström 2002:13)Sometimes you can think, “ah, what clear tones that singer is producing”, but this is physicallynot true. A sound produced by a voice contains all the tones in an entire octave, with thefundamental, the lowest tone, being the one with the most volume, usually. Your voice producingapparatus is everything from your abdominal muscles to your lips, and each part of your body inyour voice producing apparatus helps shape the sound you make. In normal speech and singing, onepart, like your jaw, is responsible for shaping the volume of one formant. A formant is a resonantpeak in your voice. A resonant peak is a slightly higher volume on a few bundled harmonics. Andharmonics, in this case, are the tones in your voice that you’re not usually aware of, the tones besideyour fundamental. A specific set of resonant peaks make up the cognitive characteristics for avowel, which is why humans can understand each other even though they have different voices.(Tongeren2004:11-18)3A shared definition on the difference between “styles” and “techniques” within throat singing doesn’t exist. In caseswhere there has to be definition on this, this on is used: Techniques are based on larger physical changes while stylesare personal preferences. As an example: Singing high-pitched and with a faster rythm is a style. Applying increasedconstriction in the throat to make the ventricular folds vibrate is a technique.1 Introductionpage 2Illustration 1: An example of how a tuvan (EmiC) taxonomyof throatsinging can look like,using tuvan words to describe tuvan techniques.Made by the author.KhoomeiBorbangnadyrSygytChylandykKargyraaKhoomei

In throat singing and overtone singing, you combine formants to increase the volume of certainharmonics, to make the overtones more audible. A metaphor that works here is that high4 formantsequals audible overtones. (Lundberg&Ronström 2002:15) But throat singing is primarily asubjective experience, for both the listener and the singer. If you can not distinguish two differenttones coming from one singer, then it is just ordinary singing. This is so even in Tuva, where theylike to focus on the timbre of the voice. (Levin 2006:47-48) Timbre, or colour, being the relationbetween the harmonics.In throat singing, but not in overtone singing, you constrict the airflow trough your throat.(Tongeren 2004:23) This is the basis for tuvan style throat singing, khoomei. If you apply tremoloto your tongue root while singing khoomei, you get the technique borbangnadyr instead ofkhoomei. If you put your tongue tip to the roof of your mouth when singing khoomei, you get thebasic technique sygyt. Sygyt is hard to do, it requires alot of throat constriction and air pressure.(Lundberg&Ronström 2002:15)Illustration 2: Tree arrangement of throat singing, made by the author,using early cognitive anthropology as reference. (Tyler 2004:402)Plus (+) indicates presence of feature,minus (-) indicates absence of feature.VVF is short for Vocal-Ventricular Folds.Kargyraa uses a special kind of vibration of the vocal-ventricular folds, they vibrate half the speedof the normal vocal folds, making the voice drop an entire octave. The vocal-ventricular folds(VVF), sometimes also referred to as false vocal folds, are located above the normal vocal folds. Inall kinds of tuvan throat singing, the VVFs are involved in one way or another, but in kargyraa theymake the voice sound really low. (Sakakibara et al. 2002, Fuks et al. 1998:57-58) This is also how4“High” here meaning both pitch as well as volume.1 Introductionpage 3More then one tone audibleNormal singingThroat constrictionWesternOvertone singing-+VVF’s vibratinghalf the speed of vocal folds+–Sygyt+-+KargyraaChylandyk-+Lip tremoloKhoomeiBorbangnadyrTip of tonguetouching palate-+ByrlangTonguetremolo-+Fast VVF vibrations & Tip of tonguetouching palate

Robert Oliver Beahrs: Post-Soviet Tuvan Throat-Singing (Xöömei)and the Circulation of Nomadic Sensibility, Ph.D. Dissertation at University of California, Berkeley, USA, 2014

Post-Soviet Tuvan Throat-Singing (Xöömei)and the Circulation of Nomadic  Sensibility By Robert Oliver Beahrs

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy inMusici n the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley

Committee in charge: Professor Benjamin Brinner, Chair

Professor Bonnie Wade , Professor Alexei Yurchak, Professor Theodore Levin

Fall 2014

doc. post soviet tuvan khoomei

index

post soviet tuvan khoomei 2.jpg

 

Abstract

Post-Soviet TuvanThroat-Singing (Xöömei)and the C

 

irculation of NomadicSensibility byRobert Oliver Beahrs Doctor of Philosophy in MusicUniversity of California, Berkeley Professor Benjamin Brinner, Chair

Guttural singing practices in the Sayan-Altai region of south-central Siberia have been historically framed as possessing “nomadic” qualities linked with pastoral population groups indigenous to the region. As these singing practices were incorporated into a genre of national folk music for Tannu Tuva (1921-1944) and the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1961-1991)—and then later reformulated as the center piece of an exotic genre of world music—xöömei throat-singing was shaped by contradictory attitudes towards its purportedly nomadiccharacteristics, which have been essentialized at various times, for multiple reasons, by local and global actors and interest groups.

In the post-Soviet era, xöömeizhi(master throat-singers) from the Tuva Republic (now part of Russia) express a revitalized nomadic sensibility through xöömei singing practices, which has come to operate both as an ideology and a disposition for Tuvan traditional music. Drawing on a selective use of history, cultural memory, and natural environments, post-Soviet xöömeizhi construct a nomadic sensibility that is embodied in music and sound-making activities, foregrounded in intercultural exchanges, and circulated as a social disposition.

To Mom, Dad,and Matt

In Memoriam Katherine Hagedorn (1961-2013) and Kongar-ool Ondar (1962-2013)

 

 

http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Beahrs_berkeley_0028E_14611.pdf

 

 

D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra: Music between worlds: Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China, Ph.D. Dissertation at University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA, 2013

Music between worlds: Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China

D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra. University of Hawai’i at Manoa, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2013. 3572420.
MUSIC BETWEEN WORLDS:MONGOL MUSIC AND ETHNICITY IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINAA
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‘I AT MĀNOA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR IN PHILOSOPHY IN MUSIC MAY 2013 BY
Charlotte Alexandra D’Evelyn
Dissertation Committee:Frederick Lau, ChairpersonCathryn ClaytonDavid Hanlon ByongWon Lee Ricardo D. Trimillos
UMI Number: 3572420
All rights reservedINFORMATION TO ALL USERSThe quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscriptand there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States CodeProQuest LLC.789 East Eisenhower ParkwayP.O. Box 1346Ann Arbor, MI 48106 – 1346UMI 3572420Published by ProQuest LLC (2013). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.UMI Number: 3572420
Acknowledgments
I owe my gratitude to the following funding organizations for contributing to the completionof this work: Andrew Nyborg Fellowship in Music, a John Young Memorial Scholarship, a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship, and a Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Doctoral Fellowship.
I would like to thank the many individuals who have supported me through my graduate school career, summers of fieldwork, and a long dissertation-writing process.I am immensely grateful to my Mongol friends and research collaborators that are too many to name here. I extend a special thanks to several individuals who have responded promptly and thoughtfully to email inquiries regarding Mongol music over the past two-and-a-half years, especially Xu Xin, Li Bo, Siriguleng, and Xu Xin. I have to also thank Andrew Colwell for many lengthy and provocative email discussions that have shed light on many aspects of Mongol music for me. I give mythanks to Daniel Kwok for providing me with his perspectives and initial field contacts and for Zhao Hongroufor her kind assistance and help making contacts during my stay in Inner Mongolia.Stephen Tschudi, thank you for patiently and astutely guiding me on an important translation journey.
Our work together has helped me put many of the pieces of this dissertation together and has perhaps more importantly, given me tools that I will use the rest of my scholarly career.Mahalo nui loa to theclassmates and colleagues who have read portions of this dissertation and offered me deepinsights, among them, Nancy Marsden, Ri Choi, Brigita Sebald, Rebecca Dirksen, Justin Hunter, Emily Wilcox, and Andrew Colwell. I would also like tothankHeather Diamond, Sarah McClimon, Sunhee Koo, Alyson Jones, Jessica Turner, Liz Macy, and many others for their excellent recommendationson how to survive the writing process.Thank you, Beryl Yang, Carl Polley, Aaron Infante-Levy, Katie McClellen, and Jason Engel for your friendship and many fun, stress-relieving times over a game table.I offer my thanks to those graduate school classmatesnot already mentioned,Priscilla Tse,Will Connor, Brian Diettrich, Rebecca Fineman, Sarah Carle, Ching-huei Chou-Lee, Clare Chan, Chadwick Pang, Justin Hunter, Yuanyu Kuan, Yang Xi, and many othersfor their friendship and camaraderiethroughout my years at the University of Hawai‘i ethno program.
I am grateful formy mentors at the University of Hawai‘i,especially Ricardo Trimillos, Byong Won Lee, Jane Moulin, Katherine McQuiston, Cathryn Clayton, David Hanlon, and Mari Yoshihara, who have supported and nurtured my growth as a scholar and whose knowledge will continue to guide me intothe next phase of my academic career. Barbara Smith, you are ever an inspiration and have made an impact on all of us in ethnomusicology program at the University of Hawai‘i. I have tried to carry yourcareful attention to detail and wisdom with me in all of my writing endeavors.I am indebted to many former mentors, including Dave Hagedorn, Andrea Een, Richard Bodmanand Hongyuan, Wan Binbin Laoshi, Phyllis Larson, Robert Entenmann, Loie Flood, KristenDruker. The knowledge I continue to pursue is largely built on the foundation you provided. Thanks to new mentors among them Jennifer Post and Paul Humphreys who have been cheering me on these last few months.I extend my deepest gratitude to FrederickLaufor nineyears of mentorship, inspiration, and encouragement. Thank you, Fred,for critically redirecting me and helping me to focus. You have shaped and guided my understanding of China and the field of ethnomusicology in fundamental waysand I will always treasure the wisdom and friendship you have generously shared with me.
Thank you for your enduring patience and for trusting me to work hard.
On a more personal level, the completion of this dissertation marks and coincides with two important phases inmy family life. My first son Liam is almost six, the number of years since I started my Ph.D.program. My son Micah has journeyed with me through this entire dissertation process, even before he was born. Each of my sons has provided me motivation, insights, and opportunities to grow as a human being and a scholarin ways I never imagined. I will always honor Liam and Micah for the difficulties they endured through my times away from home, physically and mentally, and for the wisdom they provided me beyondtheir ages.I cannot offerenough thanksto my parents, all four of them, who supported me with prayers, encouragement,and lots of childcare through this process. Mom and Dad, thank you for filling me with a desire to pursue knowledge from a very early age.I’ll always be thankful for your willingness to drive me to all my music lessons growing up, our many long nights finishing up research papers in high school, and many other dedicated ways that you have been involved in my musical and academic life. I could have never gotten to this point without your support. I would also like to thank my Oma Charlotte, for her namesake, and for taking me on my first trip outside the United States, for widening my eight-year-old world and helping me learn how to be brave away from home.My siblings deserve special thanks for offering their support during my studies. You are all amazing uncles and aunts and have been a special part of the lives of our sons. Jason, your presence has meant so much to Liam during our years in Hawai’i. Lara, you are the best aunt and have been a lifesaver on numerous occasions. Eric, thank you for stepping in during the crucial weekI was racing to finish. Katie, Josh, Heather, and Thomas, you four have also been wonderful in coming to our rescue in times of need.My sincere thanks to the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Children’s Center, the Loyola Marymount Children’s Center, and Fara and Mehran Kaihani. Your tender care, love, and guidance for our boys have been a blessing to our family and have kept my mind at ease during the day so that I could get my work done.I dedicate this dissertation to Sean, my loving husband, whohaskept me sane, given me inspiration, and who has been the rock of our family through my months of fieldwork and years of writing.Sean,you have been a constant sounding board, never complaining when you hearme struggle through the same ideas over and overand always helping me to see the “forest”when I am stuck in the trees. You have an amazing way of articulating my own ideas better than I can. Thank you for encouraging me to pursue my career above concerns of money or the possibility of relocation, for offeringme some of my greatest insights, and for being, now and always, my biggest fan.

Abstract

The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of China is home to a diverse group of ethnic Mongols who live across the border from the nation of Mongolia, in a division that has existed for almost a century. As Inner Mongols have negotiated their position as ethnic minorities in China and a people between cultural worlds, they have used music to reconcile, and sometimes even celebrate, the complexities of their history and contemporary condition.
In this dissertation, I argue that Inner Mongols’ contact with a variety of Mongol, Chinese, and Western musical styles has inspired them to take up creative and energetic musical expressions, particularly as they traverse shifting minority politics in China and determine how to represent themselves on national and international stages.The first part of this dissertation tracesthe work of four musical elites, two Mandarin-language grassland song composers and two reformers of them or in khuur horse-head fiddle, who have been formative in the staging of a unified, orthodox Mengguzu(Mongol ethnic group) representationsfor the national stage. I demonstrate how these musical leaders adeptly negotiated the communist system in China and became the voices and faces of their Mongols through their musical developments and reforms.The second part of this dissertation highlights new understandings of Mongolness that have emerged in the past decade.
I explore Inner Mongol efforts to locate local heritage through the folk fiddle chor, on the one hand,and to forge links with the nation of Mongolia through morin khuur and khoomii styles, on the other. Through these two strategies—looking locally inward and transnationally outward—musicians have reconfigured themselves as Mongol peoples outside orthodox representations of previous decades.

Through these case studies, I demonstrate that Mongol individuals in China have occupied a central role innational and transnational discussions about musical Mongolness, cultural development,purity and preservation,and the Mongol past(Humphrey 1992, Marsh 2009). By critically examining instrument reform efforts,compositional fusions,musical discourses, and stage performances in Inner Mongolia, I explore how Mongol individuals have used music as a means to pursue creative artistic careers and, moreover,as a way to creatively invoke and contest musical representations of their ethnicity over the past six decades.
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/101902

Music between worlds : Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China

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Item Summary

Title: Music between worlds : Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China
Authors: D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra
Keywords: Mongols
Date Issued: May 2013
Publisher: [Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2013]
Abstract: The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of China is home to a diverse group of ethnic Mongols who live across the border from the nation of Mongolia, in a division that has existed for almost a century. As Inner Mongols have negotiated their position as ethnic minorities in China and a people between cultural worlds, they have used music to reconcile, and sometimes even celebrate, the complexities of their history and contemporary condition. In this dissertation, I argue that Inner Mongols’ contact with a variety of Mongol, Chinese, and Western musical styles has inspired them to take up creative and energetic musical expressions, particularly as they traverse shifting minority politics in China and determine how to represent themselves on national and international stages.
The first part of this dissertation traces the work of four musical elites, two Mandarin-language grassland song composers and two reformers of the morin khuur horse-head fiddle, who have been formative in the staging of a unified, orthodox Mengguzu (Mongol ethnic group) representations for the national stage. I demonstrate how these musical leaders adeptly negotiated the communist system in China and became the voices and faces of their Mongols through their musical developments and reforms.
The second part of this dissertation highlights new understandings of Mongolness that have emerged in the past decade. I explore Inner Mongol efforts to locate local heritage through the folk fiddle chor, on the one hand, and to forge links with the nation of Mongolia through morin khuur and khoomii styles, on the other. Through these two strategies–looking locally inward and transnationally outward–musicians have reconfigured themselves as Mongol peoples outside orthodox representations of previous decades.
Through these case studies, I demonstrate that Mongol individuals in China have occupied a central role in national and transnational discussions about musical Mongolness, cultural development, purity and preservation, and the Mongol past (Humphrey 1992, Marsh 2009). By critically examining instrument reform efforts, compositional fusions, musical discourses, and stage performances in Inner Mongolia, I explore how Mongol individuals have used music as a means to pursue creative artistic careers and, moreover, as a way to creatively invoke and contest musical representations of their ethnicity over the past six decades
Description: Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa 2013.
Includes bibliographical references.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/101902
Appears in Collections: Ph.D. – Music