D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra: Music between worlds: Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China, Ph.D. Dissertation at University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA, 2013

Music between worlds: Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China

D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra. University of Hawai’i at Manoa, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2013. 3572420.
MUSIC BETWEEN WORLDS:MONGOL MUSIC AND ETHNICITY IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINAA
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‘I AT MĀNOA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR IN PHILOSOPHY IN MUSIC MAY 2013 BY
Charlotte Alexandra D’Evelyn
Dissertation Committee:Frederick Lau, ChairpersonCathryn ClaytonDavid Hanlon ByongWon Lee Ricardo D. Trimillos
UMI Number: 3572420
All rights reservedINFORMATION TO ALL USERSThe quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscriptand there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States CodeProQuest LLC.789 East Eisenhower ParkwayP.O. Box 1346Ann Arbor, MI 48106 – 1346UMI 3572420Published by ProQuest LLC (2013). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.UMI Number: 3572420
Acknowledgments
I owe my gratitude to the following funding organizations for contributing to the completionof this work: Andrew Nyborg Fellowship in Music, a John Young Memorial Scholarship, a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship, and a Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Doctoral Fellowship.
I would like to thank the many individuals who have supported me through my graduate school career, summers of fieldwork, and a long dissertation-writing process.I am immensely grateful to my Mongol friends and research collaborators that are too many to name here. I extend a special thanks to several individuals who have responded promptly and thoughtfully to email inquiries regarding Mongol music over the past two-and-a-half years, especially Xu Xin, Li Bo, Siriguleng, and Xu Xin. I have to also thank Andrew Colwell for many lengthy and provocative email discussions that have shed light on many aspects of Mongol music for me. I give mythanks to Daniel Kwok for providing me with his perspectives and initial field contacts and for Zhao Hongroufor her kind assistance and help making contacts during my stay in Inner Mongolia.Stephen Tschudi, thank you for patiently and astutely guiding me on an important translation journey.
Our work together has helped me put many of the pieces of this dissertation together and has perhaps more importantly, given me tools that I will use the rest of my scholarly career.Mahalo nui loa to theclassmates and colleagues who have read portions of this dissertation and offered me deepinsights, among them, Nancy Marsden, Ri Choi, Brigita Sebald, Rebecca Dirksen, Justin Hunter, Emily Wilcox, and Andrew Colwell. I would also like tothankHeather Diamond, Sarah McClimon, Sunhee Koo, Alyson Jones, Jessica Turner, Liz Macy, and many others for their excellent recommendationson how to survive the writing process.Thank you, Beryl Yang, Carl Polley, Aaron Infante-Levy, Katie McClellen, and Jason Engel for your friendship and many fun, stress-relieving times over a game table.I offer my thanks to those graduate school classmatesnot already mentioned,Priscilla Tse,Will Connor, Brian Diettrich, Rebecca Fineman, Sarah Carle, Ching-huei Chou-Lee, Clare Chan, Chadwick Pang, Justin Hunter, Yuanyu Kuan, Yang Xi, and many othersfor their friendship and camaraderiethroughout my years at the University of Hawai‘i ethno program.
I am grateful formy mentors at the University of Hawai‘i,especially Ricardo Trimillos, Byong Won Lee, Jane Moulin, Katherine McQuiston, Cathryn Clayton, David Hanlon, and Mari Yoshihara, who have supported and nurtured my growth as a scholar and whose knowledge will continue to guide me intothe next phase of my academic career. Barbara Smith, you are ever an inspiration and have made an impact on all of us in ethnomusicology program at the University of Hawai‘i. I have tried to carry yourcareful attention to detail and wisdom with me in all of my writing endeavors.I am indebted to many former mentors, including Dave Hagedorn, Andrea Een, Richard Bodmanand Hongyuan, Wan Binbin Laoshi, Phyllis Larson, Robert Entenmann, Loie Flood, KristenDruker. The knowledge I continue to pursue is largely built on the foundation you provided. Thanks to new mentors among them Jennifer Post and Paul Humphreys who have been cheering me on these last few months.I extend my deepest gratitude to FrederickLaufor nineyears of mentorship, inspiration, and encouragement. Thank you, Fred,for critically redirecting me and helping me to focus. You have shaped and guided my understanding of China and the field of ethnomusicology in fundamental waysand I will always treasure the wisdom and friendship you have generously shared with me.
Thank you for your enduring patience and for trusting me to work hard.
On a more personal level, the completion of this dissertation marks and coincides with two important phases inmy family life. My first son Liam is almost six, the number of years since I started my Ph.D.program. My son Micah has journeyed with me through this entire dissertation process, even before he was born. Each of my sons has provided me motivation, insights, and opportunities to grow as a human being and a scholarin ways I never imagined. I will always honor Liam and Micah for the difficulties they endured through my times away from home, physically and mentally, and for the wisdom they provided me beyondtheir ages.I cannot offerenough thanksto my parents, all four of them, who supported me with prayers, encouragement,and lots of childcare through this process. Mom and Dad, thank you for filling me with a desire to pursue knowledge from a very early age.I’ll always be thankful for your willingness to drive me to all my music lessons growing up, our many long nights finishing up research papers in high school, and many other dedicated ways that you have been involved in my musical and academic life. I could have never gotten to this point without your support. I would also like to thank my Oma Charlotte, for her namesake, and for taking me on my first trip outside the United States, for widening my eight-year-old world and helping me learn how to be brave away from home.My siblings deserve special thanks for offering their support during my studies. You are all amazing uncles and aunts and have been a special part of the lives of our sons. Jason, your presence has meant so much to Liam during our years in Hawai’i. Lara, you are the best aunt and have been a lifesaver on numerous occasions. Eric, thank you for stepping in during the crucial weekI was racing to finish. Katie, Josh, Heather, and Thomas, you four have also been wonderful in coming to our rescue in times of need.My sincere thanks to the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Children’s Center, the Loyola Marymount Children’s Center, and Fara and Mehran Kaihani. Your tender care, love, and guidance for our boys have been a blessing to our family and have kept my mind at ease during the day so that I could get my work done.I dedicate this dissertation to Sean, my loving husband, whohaskept me sane, given me inspiration, and who has been the rock of our family through my months of fieldwork and years of writing.Sean,you have been a constant sounding board, never complaining when you hearme struggle through the same ideas over and overand always helping me to see the “forest”when I am stuck in the trees. You have an amazing way of articulating my own ideas better than I can. Thank you for encouraging me to pursue my career above concerns of money or the possibility of relocation, for offeringme some of my greatest insights, and for being, now and always, my biggest fan.

Abstract

The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of China is home to a diverse group of ethnic Mongols who live across the border from the nation of Mongolia, in a division that has existed for almost a century. As Inner Mongols have negotiated their position as ethnic minorities in China and a people between cultural worlds, they have used music to reconcile, and sometimes even celebrate, the complexities of their history and contemporary condition.
In this dissertation, I argue that Inner Mongols’ contact with a variety of Mongol, Chinese, and Western musical styles has inspired them to take up creative and energetic musical expressions, particularly as they traverse shifting minority politics in China and determine how to represent themselves on national and international stages.The first part of this dissertation tracesthe work of four musical elites, two Mandarin-language grassland song composers and two reformers of them or in khuur horse-head fiddle, who have been formative in the staging of a unified, orthodox Mengguzu(Mongol ethnic group) representationsfor the national stage. I demonstrate how these musical leaders adeptly negotiated the communist system in China and became the voices and faces of their Mongols through their musical developments and reforms.The second part of this dissertation highlights new understandings of Mongolness that have emerged in the past decade.
I explore Inner Mongol efforts to locate local heritage through the folk fiddle chor, on the one hand,and to forge links with the nation of Mongolia through morin khuur and khoomii styles, on the other. Through these two strategies—looking locally inward and transnationally outward—musicians have reconfigured themselves as Mongol peoples outside orthodox representations of previous decades.

Through these case studies, I demonstrate that Mongol individuals in China have occupied a central role innational and transnational discussions about musical Mongolness, cultural development,purity and preservation,and the Mongol past(Humphrey 1992, Marsh 2009). By critically examining instrument reform efforts,compositional fusions,musical discourses, and stage performances in Inner Mongolia, I explore how Mongol individuals have used music as a means to pursue creative artistic careers and, moreover,as a way to creatively invoke and contest musical representations of their ethnicity over the past six decades.
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/101902

Music between worlds : Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China

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Item Summary

Title: Music between worlds : Mongol music and ethnicity in Inner Mongolia, China
Authors: D’Evelyn, Charlotte Alexandra
Keywords: Mongols
Date Issued: May 2013
Publisher: [Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2013]
Abstract: The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of China is home to a diverse group of ethnic Mongols who live across the border from the nation of Mongolia, in a division that has existed for almost a century. As Inner Mongols have negotiated their position as ethnic minorities in China and a people between cultural worlds, they have used music to reconcile, and sometimes even celebrate, the complexities of their history and contemporary condition. In this dissertation, I argue that Inner Mongols’ contact with a variety of Mongol, Chinese, and Western musical styles has inspired them to take up creative and energetic musical expressions, particularly as they traverse shifting minority politics in China and determine how to represent themselves on national and international stages.
The first part of this dissertation traces the work of four musical elites, two Mandarin-language grassland song composers and two reformers of the morin khuur horse-head fiddle, who have been formative in the staging of a unified, orthodox Mengguzu (Mongol ethnic group) representations for the national stage. I demonstrate how these musical leaders adeptly negotiated the communist system in China and became the voices and faces of their Mongols through their musical developments and reforms.
The second part of this dissertation highlights new understandings of Mongolness that have emerged in the past decade. I explore Inner Mongol efforts to locate local heritage through the folk fiddle chor, on the one hand, and to forge links with the nation of Mongolia through morin khuur and khoomii styles, on the other. Through these two strategies–looking locally inward and transnationally outward–musicians have reconfigured themselves as Mongol peoples outside orthodox representations of previous decades.
Through these case studies, I demonstrate that Mongol individuals in China have occupied a central role in national and transnational discussions about musical Mongolness, cultural development, purity and preservation, and the Mongol past (Humphrey 1992, Marsh 2009). By critically examining instrument reform efforts, compositional fusions, musical discourses, and stage performances in Inner Mongolia, I explore how Mongol individuals have used music as a means to pursue creative artistic careers and, moreover, as a way to creatively invoke and contest musical representations of their ethnicity over the past six decades
Description: Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa 2013.
Includes bibliographical references.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/101902
Appears in Collections: Ph.D. – Music

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia : Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia

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Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region[1]
Chinese: 内蒙古自治区
Mongolian: Mongolian:ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ
Cyrillic: Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese Simplified: 内蒙古自治区
Traditional: 內蒙古自治區
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
 • Abbreviation NM
Simplified: 内蒙 or 内蒙古[2]
Traditional: 內蒙 or 內蒙古
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měng or Nèi Měnggǔ
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Méng or Nèi Ménggǔ
Map showing the location of Inner Mongolia

Map showing the location of Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 44°N 113°ECoordinates: 44°N 113°E
Named for From the Mongolian öbür monggol, where öbür means the front, sunny side of a barrier (a mountain, mountain range, lake, desert, clothes etc…)
Capital Hohhot
Largest city Baotou
Divisions 12 prefectures, 101 counties, 1425 townships
Government

 • Secretary Li Jiheng
 • Chairwoman Bu Xiaolin
Area

 • Total 1,183,000 km2 (457,000 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Highest elevation

(Main Peak, Helan Mountains[4])
3,556 m (11,667 ft)
Population

 (2010)[5]
 • Total 24,706,321
 • Estimate

(31 December 2014)[6]
25,050,000
 • Rank 23rd
 • Density 20.2/km2 (52/sq mi)
 • Density rank 28th
Demographics

 • Ethnic composition Han – 79%
Mongol – 17%
Manchu – 2%
Hui – 0.9%
Daur – 0.3%
 • Languages and dialects Mandarin (official),[7] Mongolian (official), Oirat, Buryat, Dagur, Evenki, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-NM
GDP (2017 [8]) CNY 1.61 trillion
USD 238.50 billion (22nd)
 – per capita CNY 81,791
USD 12,156 (7th)
HDI (2017) 0.771[9](high) (7th)
Website http://www.nmg.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Inner Mongolia
Great Wall in Inner Mongolia.JPG

Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 内蒙古
Traditional Chinese 內蒙古
Hanyu Pinyin PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ
Literal meaning Inner Mongolia
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Өвөр Монгол
(Övör Mongol)
Mongolian script ᠦᠪᠦᠷ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᠣᡵᡤᡳ
ᠮᠮᠣᠩᡤᠣ
Romanization Dorgi monggo
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 内蒙古自治区
Traditional Chinese 內蒙古自治區
Hanyu Pinyin PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
Literal meaning Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон
(Övör Mongolyn Öörtöö Zasakh Oron)
Mongolian script ᠦᠪᠦᠷ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ‍‍ᠤᠨ
ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ

Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Oburmonggul.svg Öbür Monggol, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол[1] Övör Mongol /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/; simplified Chinese: 内蒙古; traditional Chinese: 內蒙古; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Měnggǔ, ROC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Ménggǔ), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (NMAR), is a Mongolic autonomous region in Northern China. Its border includes most of the length of China’s border with Mongolia (Dornogovi, Sükhbaatar, Ömnögovi, Bayankhongor, Govi-Altai, Dornod Provinces). The rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province and a small section of China’s border with Russia (Zabaykalsky Krai).[a] Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, and Ordos.

The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China provinces of Suiyuan, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing’an, along with the northern parts of Gansu and Ningxia.

Its area makes it the third largest Chinese subdivision, constituting approximately 1,200,000 km2 (463,000 sq mi) and 12% of China’s total land area. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China‘s total population. Inner Mongolia is the country’s 23rd most populous province-level division.[10] The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of which is written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, which is used in the state of Mongolia (formerly often described in the West as “Outer Mongolia“).

Name

In Chinese, the region is known as “Inner Mongolia”, where the terms of “Inner/Outer” are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi (cf. Mongolian dotugadu/gadagadu). Inner Mongolia is distinct from Outer Mongolia, which was a term used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva in Russia. The term Inner (Nei) referred to the Nei Fan 内藩 (Inner Tributary), i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan who granted the title khan (king) in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained.

History

Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists.

Early history

Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove that this culture related to the Proto-Mongols.[11]

During the Zhou dynasty, central and western Inner Mongolia (the Hetao region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu, and , while eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region. After destroying the state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the Yunzhong Commandery near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao also built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shi Huang created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian to drive the Xiongnu from the region, and incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China. He also maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong and moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned.[12]

During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year, he established the commanderies of Shuofang and Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would, later on, eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence.

During the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD), Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu and Xianbei) regimes.

The Sui dynasty (581–618) and Tang dynasty (618–907) re-established a unified Chinese empire, and like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao (along with the rest of what now consists Inner Mongolia) was then taken over by the Khitan Empire (Liao dynasty), founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people originally from what is now the southern part of Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. They were followed by the Western Xia of the Tanguts, who took control of what is now the western part of Inner Mongolia (including western Hetao). The Khitans were later replaced by the Jurchens, precursors to the modern Manchus, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria and northern China.

Mongol and Ming periods

The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent

After Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes in 1206 and founded the Mongol Empire, the Tangut Western Xia empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the Jurchen Jin dynasty fell in 1234. In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan’s summer capital Shangdu (aka Xanadu) was located near present-day Dolonnor. During that time Ongud and Khunggirad peoples dominated the area of what is now Inner Mongolia. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led Ming dynasty in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia including Shangdu and Yingchang. The Ming rebuilt the Great Wall of China at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (though it deviates significantly at the Hebei-Inner Mongolia border). The Ming established the Three Guards composed of the Mongols there. Soon after the Tumu incident in 1449, when the Oirat ruler Esen taishi captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols flooded south from Outer Mongolia to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia was the political and cultural center of the Mongols during the Northern Yuan dynasty.[13]

Qing period

The eastern Mongol tribes near and in Manchuria, particularly the Khorchin and Southern Khalkha in today’s Inner Mongolia intermarried, formed alliances with, and fought against the Jurchen tribes until Nurhaci, the founder of the new Jin dynasty, consolidated his control over all groups in the area in 1593.[14] The Manchus gained far-reaching control of the Inner Mongolian tribes in 1635, when Ligden Khan‘s son surrendered the Chakhar Mongol tribes to the Manchus. The Manchus subsequently invaded Ming China in 1644, bringing it under the control of their newly established Qing dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), Greater Mongolia was administered in a different way for each region:

Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
  • “Outer Mongolia”: This region corresponds to the modern state of Mongolia, plus the Russian-administered region of Tannu Uriankhai, and a part of northern Xinjiang. It included the four leagues (aimag) of the Khalkha Mongols north of the Gobi, as well as the Tannu Uriankhai and Khovd regions in northwestern Mongolia, which were overseen by the General of Uliastai from the city of Uliastai.
  • “Inner Mongolia”: This region corresponded to most of modern Inner Mongolia and some neighboring areas in Liaoning and Jilin provinces. The banners and tribes in this region came under six leagues (chuulghan): Jirim, Juuuda, Josutu, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Yekejuu.
  • “Taoxi Mongolia”: The Alashan Öölüd and Ejine Torghuud banners were separate from the aimags of Outer Mongolia and the chuulghans of Inner Mongolia. This territory is equivalent to modern-day Alxa League, the westernmost part of what is now Inner Mongolia.
  • The Chahar Banners were controlled by the military commander of Chahar (now Zhangjiakou). Their extent corresponded to southern Ulanqab and Bayannur in modern Inner Mongolia, plus the region around Zhangjiakou in Hebei province. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Zhili and Shanxi provinces also belonged to this region.
  • The Guihua Tümed banner was controlled by the military commander of Suiyuan (now Hohhot). This corresponds to the vicinities of the modern city of Hohhot. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of modern Shanxi province also belonged to this region.
  • The Hulunbuir region in what is now northeastern Inner Mongolia was part of the jurisdiction of the General of Heilongjiang, one of the three generals of Manchuria.

The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and was given the title of Prince (親王; qīn wáng), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor, unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on the Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s.[15]

Ordinary Mongols were not allowed to travel outside their own leagues. Mongols were forbidden by the Qing from crossing the borders of their banners, even into other Mongol Banners and from crossing into neidi (the Han Chinese 18 provinces) and were given serious punishments if they did in order to keep the Mongols divided against each other to benefit the Qing.[16] Mongol pilgrims wanting to leave their banner’s borders for religious reasons such as pilgrimage had to apply for passports to give them permission.[17]

During the eighteenth century, growing numbers of Han Chinese settlers had illegally begun to move into the Inner Mongolian steppe. By 1791 there had been so many Han Chinese settlers in the Front Gorlos Banner that the jasak had petitioned the Qing government to legalize the status of the peasants who had already settled there.[18]

During the nineteenth century, the Manchus were becoming increasingly sinicized and faced with the Russian threat, they began to encourage Han Chinese farmers to settle in both Mongolia and Manchuria. This policy was followed by subsequent governments. The railroads that were being built in these regions were especially useful to the Han Chinese settlers. Land was either sold by Mongol Princes, or leased to Han Chinese farmers, or simply taken away from the nomads and given to Han Chinese farmers.

A group of Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty called “Mongol followers” immigrated to Inner Mongolia who worked as servants for Mongols and Mongol princes and married Mongol women. Their descendants continued to marry Mongol women and changed their ethnicity to Mongol as they assimilated into the Mongol people, an example of this were the ancestors of Li Shouxin. They distinguished themselves apart from “true Mongols” 真蒙古.[19][20][21]

Republic of China and the Second World War periods

Mongols stand in front of the yurt,1912

Outer Mongolia gained independence from the Qing dynasty in 1911, when the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu of the Khalkha was declared the Bogd Khan of Mongolia. Although almost all banners of Inner Mongolia recognized the Bogd Khan as the supreme ruler of Mongols, the internal strife within the region prevented a full reunification. The Mongol rebellions in Inner Mongolia were counterbalanced by princes who hoped to see a restored Qing dynasty in Manchuria and Mongolia, as they considered the theocratic rule of the Bogd Khan would be against their modernizing objectives for Mongolia.[22] Eventually, the newly formed Republic of China promised a new nation of five races (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan and Uyghur),[23] and suppressed the Mongol rebellions in the area,[24][25] forcing the Inner Mongolian princes to recognize the Republic of China.

The Republic of China reorganized Inner Mongolia into provinces:

  • Rehe province was created to include the Juuuda and Josutu leagues, plus the Chengde area in what is now northern Hebei.
  • Chahar province was created to include Xilingol league as well as much of the former territory of the Eight Banners.
  • Suiyuan province was created to include Ulanqab league, Yekejuu league, and the Hetao region (former Guihua Tümed territory).
  • Hulunbuir stayed within Heilongjiang in Manchuria, which had become a province.
  • Most of Jirim league came under the new province of Fengtian in southern Manchuria.
  • Taoxi Mongolia, i.e. Alashan and Ejine leagues, was incorporated into neighbouring Gansu province. Later on Ningxia province was split out of northern Gansu, and Taoxi Mongolia became part of Ningxia.

Some Republic of China maps still show this structure.

The history of Inner Mongolia during the Second World War is complicated, with Japanese invasion and different kinds of resistance movements. In 1931, Manchuria came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, taking some Mongol areas in the Manchurian provinces (i.e. Hulunbuir and Jirim leagues) along. Rehe was also incorporated into Manchukuo in 1933, taking Juu Uda and Josutu leagues along with it. These areas were occupied by Manchukuo until the end of World War II in 1945.

In 1937, the Empire of Japan openly and fully invaded Republic of China by war. On December 8, 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as “De Wang”) declared an independence of the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia (i.e. the Suiyuan and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed an agreements with Manchukuo and Japan. Its capital was established at Zhangbei (now in Hebei province), with the Japanese puppet government’s control extending as far west as the Hohhot region. The Japanese advanced was defeated by Hui Muslim General Ma Hongbin at the Battle of West Suiyuan and Battle of Wuyuan. After 1945, Inner Mongolia has remained part of China.

The Mongol Ulanhu fought against the Japanese.

Delegates of Inner Mongolia People’s Congress shouting slogans

Ethnic Mongolian guerilla units were created by the Kuomintang Nationalists to fight against the Japanese during the war in the late 30s and early 40s. These Mongol militias were created by the Ejine and Alashaa based commissioner’s offices created by the Kuomintang.[26][27] Prince Demchugdongrob’s Mongols were targeted by Kuomintang Mongols to defect to the Republic of China. The Nationalists recruited 1,700 ethnic minority fighters in Inner Mongolia and created war zones in the Tumet Banner, Ulanchab League, and Ordos Yekejuu League.[26][28]

People’s Republic of China

The Communist movement gradually gained momentum as part of the Third Communist International in Inner Mongolia during the Japanese period. By the end of WWII, the Inner Mongolian faction of the ComIntern had a functional militia and actively opposed the attempts at independence by De Wang’s Chinggisid princes on the grounds of fighting feudalism. Following the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria as well as the Inner Mongolian Communists with decisive Soviet support and established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947. The Comintern army was absorbed into the People’s Liberation Army. Initially, the autonomous region included just the Hulunbuir region. Over the next decade, as the communists established the People’s Republic of China and consolidated control over mainland China, Inner Mongolia was expanded westwards to include five of the six original leagues (except Josutu League, which remains in Liaoning province), the northern part of the Chahar region, by then a league as well (southern Chahar remains in Hebei province), the Hetao region, and the Alashan and Ejine banners. Eventually, near all areas with sizeable Mongol populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia its elongated shape. The leader of Inner Mongolia during that time, as both regional CPC secretary and head of regional government, was Ulanhu.

During the Cultural Revolution, the administration of Ulanhu was purged, and a wave of repressions was initiated against the Mongol population of the autonomous region.[29] In 1969 much of Inner Mongolia was distributed among surrounding provinces, with Hulunbuir divided between Heilongjiang and Jilin, Jirim going to Jilin, Juu Uda to Liaoning, and the Alashan and Ejine region divided among Gansu and Ningxia. This was reversed in 1979.

Inner Mongolia has seen considerable development since Deng Xiaoping instituted Chinese economic reform in 1978. For about ten years since 2000, Inner Mongolia’s GDP growth has been the highest in the country, (along with Guangdong) largely owing to the success of natural resource industries in the region. GDP growth has continually been over 10%, even 15% and connections with the Wolf Economy to the north has helped development. However, growth has come at a cost with huge amounts of pollution and degradation to the grasslands.[30] Attempts to attract ethnic Chinese to migrate from other regions, as well as urbanise those rural nomads and peasants has led to huge amounts of corruption and waste in public spending, such as Ordos City.[31][32] Acute uneven wealth distribution has further exacerbated ethnic tensions, many indigenous Mongolians feeling they are increasingly marginalised in their own homeland, leading to riots in 2011 and 2013.[33][34]

Geography

Grasslands in the region

Topography of Inner Mongolia in China

Officially Inner Mongolia is classified as one of the provincial-level divisions of North China, but its great stretch means that parts of it belong to Northeast China and Northwest China as well. It borders eight provincial-level divisions in all three of the aforementioned regions (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, and Gansu), tying with Shaanxi for the greatest number of bordering provincial-level divisions. Most of its international border is with Mongolia,[b] which, in Chinese, is sometimes called “Outer Mongolia“, while a small portion is with Russia’s Zabaykalsky Krai.

Weeping willows (Salix Babylonica) grow tall at the Zhaojun Tomb in Hohhot, reflecting the milder climate there.

Inner Mongolia largely consists of the northern side of the North China Craton, a tilted and sedimented Precambrian block. In the extreme southwest is the edge of the Tibetan Plateau where the autonomous region’s highest peak, Main Peak in the Helan Mountains reaches 3,556 metres (11,670 ft), and is still being pushed up today in short bursts.[4] Most of Inner Mongolia is a plateau averaging around 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) in altitude and covered by extensive loess and sand deposits. The northern part consists of the Mesozoic era Khingan Mountains, and is owing to the cooler climate more forested, chiefly with Manchurian elm, ash, birch, Mongolian oak and a number of pine and spruce species. Where discontinuous permafrost is present north of Hailar District, forests are almost exclusively coniferous. In the south, the natural vegetation is grassland in the east and very sparse in the arid west, and grazing is the dominant economic activity.

Owing to the ancient, weathered rocks lying under its deep sedimentary cover, Inner Mongolia is a major mining district, possessing large reserves of coal, iron ore and rare-earth minerals, which have made it a major industrial region today.

Climate

Due to its elongated shape, Inner Mongolia has a four-season monsoon climate with regional variations. The winters in Inner Mongolia are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia has no modern glaciers[4] even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) reached in October in the north and November in the south.

Officially, most of Inner Mongolia is classified as either a cold arid or steppe regime (Köppen BWk, BSk, respectively). The small portion besides these are classified as humid continental (Köppen Dwb) in the northeast, or subarctic (Köppen Dwc) in the far north near Hulunbuir.[35]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Inner Mongolia of China
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Baotou 29.6/17.1 85.3/62.8 –4.1/–16.8 24.7/1.8
Bayannur 30.7/17.9 87.3/64.2 –3.3/–15.1 26.1/4.8
Hohhot 28.5/16.4 83.3/61.5 –5/–16.9 23/1.6
Ordos 26.7/15.8 80.1/60.4 –4.8/–14.7 23.4/5.5
Ulanqab 25.4/13.6 77.7/56.5 –6.1/–18.5 21/–1.3

Administrative divisions

Inner Mongolia is divided into twelve prefecture-level divisions. Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia’s prefectural regions were known as Leagues (Chinese: ), a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the Qing dynasty. Similarly, county-level divisions are often known as Banners (Chinese: ). Since the 1990s, numerous Leagues have converted into prefecture-level cities, although Banners remain. The restructuring led to the conversion of primate cities in most leagues to convert to districts administratively (i.e.: Hailar, Jining and Dongsheng). Some newly founded prefecture-level cities have chosen to retain the original name of League (i.e.: Hulunbuir, Bayannur and Ulanqab), some have adopted the Chinese name of their primate city (Chifeng, Tongliao), and one League (Yekejuu) simply renamed itself Ordos. Despite these recent administrative changes, there is no indication that the Alxa, Hinggan, and Xilingol Leagues will convert to prefecture-level cities in the near future.

Administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia
Nei Mongol prfc map.png     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities
Division code[36] Division Area in km2[37] Population 2010[38] Seat Divisions[39]
Districts Counties Banners Aut. banners CL cities
150000 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 1183000.00 24,706,321 Hohhot city 23 66 3 11
6 150100 Hohhot city 17186.10 2,866,615 Xincheng District 4 5
5 150200 Baotou city 27768.00 2,650,364 Jiuyuan District 6 3
3 150300 Wuhai city 1754.00 532,902 Haibowan District 3
9 150400 Chifeng city 90021.00 4,341,245 Songshan District 3 9
10 150500 Tongliao city 59535.00 3,139,153 Horqin District 1 6 1
4 150600 Ordos city 86881.61 1,940,653 Hia’bagx District 2 7
12 150700 Hulunbuir city 254003.79 2,549,278 Hailar District 2 4 3 5
2 150800 Bayannur city 65755.47 1,669,915 Linhe District 1 6
7 150900 Ulanqab city 54447.72 2,143,590 Jining District 1 9 1
11 152200 Hinggan League 59806.00 1,613,250 Ulanhot city 4 2
8 152500 Xilingol League 202580.00 1,028,022 Xilinhot city 10 2
1 152900 Alxa League 267574.00 231,334 Alxa Left Banner 3

The twelve prefecture-level divisions of Inner Mongolia are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions, including 22 districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1425 township-level divisions, including 532 towns, 407 townships, 277 sumu, eighteen ethnic townships, one ethnic sumu, and 190 subdistricts. At the end of 2017, the total population of Inner-Mongolia is 25.29 million.[1]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[40] District area[40] City proper[40] Census date
1 Baotou 1,900,373 2,096,851 2,650,364 2010-11-01
2 Hohhot 1,497,110 1,980,774 2,866,615 2010-11-01
3 Chifeng 902,285 1,333,526 4,341,245 2010-11-01
4 Tongliao 540,338 898,895 3,139,153 2010-11-01
5 Ordos[i] 510,242 582,544 1,940,653 2010-11-01
6 Wuhai 502,704 532,902 532,902 2010-11-01
7 Bayannur 354,507 541,721 1,669,915 2010-11-01
8 Yakeshi 338,275 352,173 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
9 Hulunbuir[ii] 327,384 344,934 2,549,252 2010-11-01
(9) Hulunbuir (new district)[ii] 99,960 99,960 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
10 Ulanqab 319,723 356,135 2,143,590 2010-11-01
11 Ulanhot 276,406 327,081 part of Hinggan League 2010-11-01
12 Xilinhot 214,382 245,886 part of Xilingol League 2010-11-01
13 Zalantun 167,493 366,323 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
14 Manzhouli 148,460 149,512 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
15 Fengzhen 123,811 245,608 see Ulanqab 2010-11-01
16 Holingol 101,496 102,214 see Tongliao 2010-11-01
17 Genhe 89,194 110,438 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01
18 Erenhot 71,455 74,179 part of Xilingol League 2010-11-01
19 Arxan 55,770 68,311 part of Hinggan League 2010-11-01
20 Ergun 55,076 76,667 see Hulunbuir 2010-11-01

 

  • New district established after census: Kangbashi from a part of Dongsheng. The new district is included in the urban area & district area count.

 

  1. New district established after census: Zhalainuo’er from a part of Manzhouli CLC. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.

Economy

Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry and hunting are somewhat important in the Greater Khingan ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks in the Evenk Autonomous Banner. More recently, growing grapes and winemaking have become an economic factor in the Wuhai area.

Theater in Hohhot

Inner Mongolia has an abundance of resources especially coal, cashmere, natural gas, rare-earth elements, and has more deposits of naturally occurring niobium, zirconium and beryllium than any other province-level region in China. However, in the past, the exploitation and utilisation of resources were rather inefficient, which resulted in poor returns from rich resources. Inner Mongolia is also an important coal production base, with more than a quarter of the world’s coal reserves located in the province.[41] It plans to double annual coal output by 2010 (from the 2005 volume of 260 million tons) to 500 million tons of coal a year.[42]

Inner Mongolia Gymnasium

Industry in Inner Mongolia has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and related industries. Inner Mongolia now encourages six competitive industries: energy, chemicals, metallurgy, equipment manufacturing, processing of farm (including dairy) produce, and high technology. Well-known Inner Mongolian enterprises include companies such as ERDOS, Yili, and Mengniu.

The nominal GDP of Inner Mongolia in 2015 was 1.8 trillion yuan (US$272.1 billion), with an average annual increase of 10% from the period 2010-2015. Its per capita GDP reached US$11,500 in 2015, ranking No.4th among all the 31 provinces of China, only after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin.[43]

As with much of China, economic growth has led to a boom in construction, including new commercial development and large apartment complexes.

In addition to its large reserves of natural resources, Inner Mongolia also has the largest usable wind power capacity in China[41] thanks to strong winds which develop in the province’s grasslands. Some private companies have set up wind parks in parts of Inner Mongolia such as Bailingmiao, Hutengliang and Zhouzi.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Baotou National Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[44]
  • Erenhot Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone

Hohhot Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002, by the State Council, which is located in the west of the Hohhot, with a planning area of 2.2 km2 (0.85 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the export processing zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Food/Beverage Processing, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry.[45]

Government and politics

Under the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, articles 112-122, autonomous regions have limited autonomy in both the political and economic arena. Autonomous regions have more discretion in administering economic policy in the region in accordance with national guidelines. Structurally, the Chairman—who legally must be an ethnic minority and is usually ethnic Mongolian—is always kept in check by the Communist Party Regional Committee Secretary, who is usually from a different part of China (to reduce corruption) and Han Chinese. As of August 2016, the current party secretary is Li Jiheng. The Inner Mongolian government and its subsidiaries follow roughly the same structure as that of a Chinese province. With regards to economic policy, as a part of increased federalism characteristics in China, Inner Mongolia has become more independent in implementing its own economic roadmap.

The position of Chairman of Inner Mongolia alternates between Khorchin Mongols in the east and the Tumed Mongols in the west. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, this convention has not been broken. The family of Ulanhu has retained influence in regional politics ever since the founding the People’s Republic. His son Buhe and granddaughter Bu Xiaolin both served as Chairman of the region.

Demographics

Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1954[46] 6,100,104
1964[47] 12,348,638 +7.31%
1982[48] 19,274,279 +2.50%
1990[49] 21,456,798 +1.35%
2000[50] 23,323,347 +0.84%
2010[5] 24,706,321 +0.58%
Established in 1947 from dissolution of Xing’an Province, Qahar Province, parts of Rehe Province, and Suiyuan Province; parts of Ningxia Province were incorporated into Inner Mongolia AR.

When the autonomous region was established in 1947, Han Chinese comprised 83.6% of the population, while the Mongols comprised 14.8% of the population.[51] By 2010, the percentage of Han Chinese had dropped to 79.5%. While the Hetao region along the Yellow River has always alternated between farmers from the south and nomads from the north, the most recent wave of Han Chinese migration began in the early 18th century with encouragement from the Qing dynasty, and continued into the 20th century. Han Chinese live mostly in the Hetao region as well as various population centres in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Over 70% of Mongols are concentrated in less than 18% of Inner Mongolia’s territory (Hinggan League, and the prefectures of Tongliao and Chifeng).

Mongols are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 17.11% of the population as of the 2010 census.[52] They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols in China. In addition to the Manchus, other Tungusic ethnic groups, the Oroqen, and the Evenks also populate parts of northeastern Inner Mongolia.

Many of the traditionally nomadic Mongols have settled in permanent homes as their pastoral economy was collectivized during the Mao Era, and some have taken jobs in cities as migrant labourers; however, some Mongols continue in their nomadic tradition. In practice, highly educated Mongols tend to migrate to big urban centers after which they become essentially indistinct with ethnic Han Chinese populations.

Inter-marriage between Mongol and non-Mongol populations is very common, particularly in areas where Mongols are in regular contact with other groups. There was little cultural stigma within Mongol families for marrying outside the ethnic group, and in urban centers in particular, Mongol men and women married non-Mongols at relatively similar rates. The rates of intermarriage stands in very sharp contrast to ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs in their respective autonomous regions. By the 1980s, for instance, in the former Jirim League, nearly 40% of marriages with at least one Mongol spouse was a mixed Mongol-Han Chinese marriage.[53] However, anecdotal reports have also demonstrated an increase in Mongol-female, Han Chinese-male pairings in which the woman is of a rural background, ostensibly shutting rural Mongol males from the marriage market as the sex ratio in China becomes more skewed with a much higher proportion of men.[54]

There is also a significant number of Hui and Koreans.

Ethnic groups in Inner Mongolia, 2010 census[55]
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 19,650,687 79.54%
Mongol 4,226,093 17.11%
Hui 452,765 1.83%
Daur 121,483 0.90%
Evenks 26,139 0.11%
Oroqen people 8,464 0.07%
 
Year Population Han Chinese Mongol Manchu
1953[56] 6,100,104 5,119,928 83.9% 888,235 14.6% 18,354 0.3%
1964[56] 12,348,638 10,743,456 87.0% 1,384,535 11.2% 50,960 0.4%
1982[56] 19,274,281 16,277,616 84.4% 2,489,378 12.9% 237,149 1.2%
1990[57] 21,456,500 17,290,000 80.6% 3,379,700 15.8%
2000[58] 23,323,347 18,465,586 79.2% 3,995,349 17.1% 499,911 2.3%
2010[59] 24,706,321 19,650,687 79.5% 4,226,093 17.1% 452,765 1.83%
Territories with Mongol majorities and near-majorities[60][61]
Name of banner Mongol population Percentage
Horqin Right Middle Banner, Hinggan (2009) 222,410 84.1%
New Barag Right Banner, Hulunbuir (2009) 28,369 82.2%
Horqin Left Back Banner, Tongliao 284,000 75%
New Barag Left Banner, Hulunbuir (2009) 31,531 74.9%
Horqin Left Middle Banner, Tongliao 395,000 73.5%
East Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol (2009) 43,394 72.5%
West Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol 57,000 65%
Sonid Left Banner, Xilingol (2006) 20,987 62.6%
Bordered Yellow Banner, Xilingol 19,000 62%
Hure Banner, Tongliao 93,000 56%
Jarud Banner, Tongliao 144,000 48%
Horqin Right Front Banner, Hinggan 162,000 45%
Old Barag Banner, Hulunbuir (2006) 25,903 43.6%
Jalaid Banner, Hinggan 158,000 39%
Ar Khorchin Banner, Chifeng (2002) 108,000 36.6%

Population numbers exclude members of the People’s Liberation Army in active service based in Inner Mongolia.

Language and culture

A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian

Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870

Alongside Chinese, Mongolian is the official provincial language of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols.[62] Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country’s 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate)[63] However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country’s citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012.[64] However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia’s urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities.[65] The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language.[66][67] Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols.[63][68] The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols.[69]

By law, all street signs, commercial outlets, and government documents must be bilingual, written in both Mongolian and Chinese. There are three Mongolian TV channels in the Inner Mongolia Satellite TV network. In public transportation, all announcements are to be bilingual.

Mongols in Inner Mongolia speak Mongolian dialects such as Chakhar, Xilingol, Baarin, Khorchin and Kharchin Mongolian and, depending on definition and analysis, further dialects[70] or closely related independent Central Mongolic languages[71] such as Ordos, Khamnigan, Barghu Buryat and the arguably Oirat dialect Alasha. The standard pronunciation of Mongolian in China is based on the Chakhar dialect of the Plain Blue Banner, located in central Inner Mongolia, while the grammar is based on all Southern Mongolian dialects.[72] This is different from the Mongolian state, where the standard pronunciation is based on the closely related Khalkha dialect. There are a number of independent languages spoken in Hulunbuir such as the somewhat more distant Mongolic language Dagur and the Tungusic language Evenki. Officially, even the Evenki dialect Oroqin is considered a language.[73]

The Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia speak a variety of dialects, depending on the region. Those in the eastern parts tend to speak Northeastern Mandarin, which belongs to the Mandarin group of dialects; those in the central parts, such as the Yellow River valley, speak varieties of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, due to its proximity to other Jin-speaking areas in China such as the Shanxi province. Cities such as Hohhot and Baotou both have their unique brand of Jin Chinese such as the Zhangjiakou–Hohhot dialect which are sometimes incomprehensible with dialects spoken in northeastern regions such as Hailar.

The vast grasslands have long symbolised Inner Mongolia. Mongolian art often depicts the grassland in an uplifting fashion and emphasizes Mongolian nomadic traditions. The Mongols of Inner Mongolia still practice their traditional arts. Inner Mongolian cuisine has Mongol roots and consists of dairy-related products and hand-held lamb (手扒肉). In recent years, franchises based on Hot pot have appeared in Inner Mongolia, the best known of which is Xiaofeiyang. Notable Inner Mongolian commercial brand names include Mengniu and Yili, both of which began as dairy product and ice cream producers.

Among the Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia, Jinju (晋剧) or Shanxi Opera is a popular traditional form of entertainment. See also: Shanxi. A popular career in Inner Mongolia is circus acrobatics. The internationally known Inner Mongolia Acrobatic Troupe travels and performs with the renowned Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus.

Religion

Religion in Inner Mongolia (2005-2010)
Chinese and Mongolian folk religion
(worship of Heaven and ovoo/aobao)
80%
Tibetan Buddhism
12.1%
Chinese ancestral religion
2.35%
Christianity
2%
Islam
0.91%

Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.[c]

According to a survey held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China, about 80% of the population of the region practice the worship of Heaven (that is named Tian in the Chinese tradition and Tenger in the Mongolian tradition) and of ovoo/aobao.[74]

Official statistics report that 12.1% of the population (3 million people) are members of Tibetan Buddhist groups.[75] According to the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007 and the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christianity is the religious identity of 2% of the population of the region; and Chinese ancestral religion the professed belonging of 2.36%,[76] while a demographic analysis of the year 2010 reported that Muslims comprise the 0.91%.[77]

The cult of Genghis Khan, present in the form of various Genghis Khan temples, is a tradition of Mongolian shamanism, in which he is considered a cultural hero and divine ancestor, an embodiment of the Tenger (Heaven, God of Heaven).[78] His worship in special temples, greatly developed in Inner Mongolia since the 1980s, is also shared by the Han Chinese, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.[79]

Tibetan Buddhism (Mongolian Buddhism, locally also known as “Yellow Buddhism”) is the dominant form of Buddhism in Inner Mongolia, also practiced by many Han Chinese. Another form of Buddhism, practiced by the Chinese, are the schools of Chinese Buddhism.

Tourism

In the capital city Hohhot:

Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia:

  • The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the cenotaph of Genghis Khan, is located in Ordos City.
  • Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.
  • The Arshihaty Stone Forest in Hexigten Global Geopark has magnificent granite rock formations formed from natural erosion.
  • Xiangshawan, or “singing sands gorge”, is located in the Gobi Desert and contains numerous tourist attractions including sand sledding and camel rides.
  • Remains of Zhongjing (Central Capital) built in 1003 by Emperor Shengzong of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Ningcheng County.
  • Remains of Shangjing (Upper Capital) built in 918 by Yelu Abaoji the 1st emperor of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907-1125). Also called Huangdu it was one of the five capitals of the Liao dynasty.
  • Zuling Mausoleum of Abaoji Khan. It was built in 926 for Abaoji the 1st Emperor of the Liao dynasty. Located north-west of Shifangzi village.
  • Tablets of Juyan. Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) inscriptions on wood and bamboo. In 1930 Folke Bergman of the Sino-Swedish expedition first discovered 10,000 tablets at Ejin Khoshuu in the Gobi Desert.
  • Ruins of Shangdu (Xanadu) the Summer Capital of the Mongol Yuan dynasty built in 1256 by Kublai Khan.
  • White pagoda of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) in Kailu County, Tongliao. It is still well preserved.
  • Ruins of Chagan Khoto (查干浩特) capital of the last Mongol Great Khan Ligden (1588–1634). Located in Ar Horqin Banner.

Image gallery

Chinese space program

One of China’s space vehicle launch facilities, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, is located in the extreme west of Inner Mongolia, in the Alxa League‘s Ejin Banner. It was founded in 1958, making it the PRC’s first launch facility. More Chinese launches have occurred at Jiuquan than anywhere else. As with all Chinese launch facilities, it is remote and generally closed to the public. It is named as such since Jiuquan is the nearest urban center, although Jiuquan is in the nearby province of Gansu. Many space vehicles have also made their touchdowns in Inner Mongolia. For example, the crew of Shenzhou 6 landed in Siziwang Banner, near Hohhot.

Education

Colleges and universities

All of the above are under the authority of the autonomous region government. Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

See also

Notes

 

 

  1. The White Sulde (White Spirit) is one of the two spirits of Genghis Khan (the other being the Black Sulde), represented either as his white or yellow horse or as a fierce warrior riding this horse. In its interior, the temple enshrines a statue of Genghis Khan (at the center) and four of his men on each side (the total making nine, a symbolic number in Mongolian culture), there is an altar where offerings to the godly men are made, and three white suldes made with white horse hair. From the central sulde there are strings which hold tied light blue pieces of cloth with a few white ones. The wall is covered with all the names of the Mongol kins. The Chinese worship Genghis as the ancestral god of the Yuan dynasty.

References

 

 

  1. John Man. Genghis Khan. Bantam, 2005. ISBN 0553814982. p. 23.

Further reading

External links

The Mongolian art of singing: Khoomei in Inner Mongolia , CHINA

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The Mongolian art of singing: Khoomei

When you are wondering along Inner Mongolia, the chance is that a high-pitching, penetrating and touching voice will sparkle your curiosity and spur your reverie.

Infectious and mysterious in character, it has concise yet elegant lyrics, euphonious melodies and diversified themes. It is Khoomei (Long-tune Song, Hooliin Chor, Throat Harmony or Throat Singing), the living fossil folk music of the Mongolian and one UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage, which is teased by the Han Chinese as “The Wolf’s Cry ”.


Khoomei’s charm lies in its biphonic sound achieved through the tighten of throat and the manipulation of tongue, by the same person.
What is more incredible is that both follow different rhythms. The result is that you can hear two voice sung from the same person at the same time, one is low and melodious, which forms the background music, while the other is penetrating and high-pitched, which has lyrics and is the highlight. From some sense, it is  acrobatic performed through throat and tongue.

khoomei
As we know, whenever the Mongolian holds a banquet, it will last for three days and nights. No banquet and party will be complete without Khoomei, and there are so many songs that you wont hear a repeated one during this period.

By present, Khoomei prevails in Tuwa of Siberian, Mongolia, Russia, Altai of Xinjiang, Khakass and Inner Mongolia. In Gyuto and Gyume Monasteries of Tibet, lamas there also use throat voice to chant the prayers. For a Khoomei master, it is a piece of cake to sing their own ethnic songs, or the popular songs of the Han Chinese as well as any classic song of America and Europe.


“Khoomei” means “song of eternity”. It is a gem inspired by the spectacular grassland and the unrestrained nomadic lifestyle.
Over one thousand years ago, the Mongolian’s ancestors migrated westward from the dense forests of Black Dragon River to Mongolian plateau, with lifestyle shifting from hunting to animal husbandry. During this process, Khoomei emerged. The following years saw it replaced the narrative hunting song (Short-tune song) as the dominating sight. Epitomizing the Mongolian’s culture, philosophy, customs and religion, Khoomei exerts profound and lasting influence on every aspect of their life. Today, it is a short-cut for us to unravel this nationality’s legacy and heritage.  Khoomei is to the Mongolian just like Beijing opera is to the Han Chinese, the Kam Grand Choirs to the Dong people and Tibetan opera to the Tibetans. It has become a cultural identity and integral part of the Mongolian’s life. During Wedding Ceremony, holidays, religious festivals and especially the Naadam Festival, Khoomei is performed enthusiastically, which is one of the most eye-catching and expecting parts. As we know, whenever the Mongolian holds a banquet, it will last for three days and nights. No banquet and party will be complete without Khoomei, and there are so many songs that you wont hear a repeated one during this period.

 Khoomei can be performed in form of solo or chorus , with or without accompany music.  Highly spontaneous is its defining feature. The singer has ample room for on-site creation. Accompanied by Matou Zither(Horse Head Zither马头琴), the performers usually wear traditional gowns to sing Khoomei to mesmerize the audiences. The rhythm of Khoomei can be divided into the concise narrative tune, the prolonged and affectionate tune as well as the Nogula tune. Ornamental vibrato such as front appoggiaturas, back appoggiaturas, portamentoes and turns all abound.
khoomei
This infectious and mysterious sound that resonates between heaven and earth may be straight-ford and imposing at first impression, but as long as you listen contently, you will be spellbound by its appealing tunes and indescribable charm.

Dynamic and ever-changing in tune, Khoomei is profound in theme, which addresses almost all the elements typical of Inner Mongolia: the enticing landscape, the beautiful Mongolia ladies, the strong Mongolian men, their ancient heroes and vibrant daily labor life. The beauty of life, friendship and love are also eternal subjects. Judging from the different occasions it serves, Khoomei splits into Love Song, Departing Song, Homesick Song, Wine Toast Song, Banquet Song, War Song, Hunting Song, Warrior’s song and Mourning Song. Through Khoomei, the living environment and spirit world of the Mongolian are revived and revealed before us vividly.

According to a famous musician, Khoomei is a voice flows from the innermost corner of the Mongolian’s heart, a voice imbued with wisdom, philosophy and emotion. Hence, no matter you can understand the lyrics or not, this captivating music can tug your heartstring easily. The best way to enjoy Khoomei is to close your eyes and let the arresting song carry you away.

Khoomei has developed four variants in Inner Mongolian, with some intertwine with one another especially along the bordering area: Hulunbuire Khoomei, Xilingol Khoomei, Ordos Khoomei and Alxa Khoomei.

khoomei
Khoomei in western Inner Mongolian mirrors the balance of simplicity, archaic and religion. It is the celestial voice for those who want to seek console and serenity in this far-flug getaway to nature.

From east to west, the lush grassland gives way to hills and desolate deserts. In Hulunbuire and Horqin district, the eastern part of Inner Mongolian, the well-fed and happy nomads interpret Khoomei into a high-pitched, inspiring and passionate music with free form and concise lyrics. In Hulunbuire,the purity and sweetness of voice are valued, besides, the liberal use of ornamental vibrato bestows it with sumptuous beauty. Most Khoomei singers in Hulunbuir are women. Representatives songs include: The Expansive Grassland《辽阔的草原》. In Horqin, Khoomei is distinguished by its flowing, soothing and profound melody.

Moving westward, you can reach Xilingol, the political, economic and cultural center of Inner Mongolia since the 13th century. Xilingol has long been reputed an ideal pasture thanks to the mild weather and lush grass. Khoomei here adopts lingering melody, enlightening feeling, profound artistical effect, complete form and intricate structure. It is also notable for the broad range of voice, simplicity and sweet melancholy. Judging from tunes, lyrics, contents and artistic value, Xilingol Khoomei highlight the essence of Khoomei and become one of the top four representatives. Khoomei singers are mainly composed of men. Representative song include Little Yellow Horse《小黄马》.

Keeping advancing westward to Ordos and Alxa, you will notice the undulating grassland is replaced by barren landscape of Gobi and desserts. Life here is less colorful, so does Khoomei. With few ornamental vibrato, Khoomei here stays true to its original look and shows strong religious influence. Khoomei in Ordos has lively and dramatically-changing tunes, Khoomei in Alxa is calm, penetrating and overwhelming.

LI JINGJING: THE STIRRING ART OF MONGOLIAN THROAT SINGING, INNER MONGOLIA

The stirring art of Mongolian throat singing
Culture
By Li Jingjing
2017-11-23 22:50 GMT+8

Updated 2017-11-24 10:31 GMT+8

The capabilities of a human body are sometimes beyond a brain’s imagination.

For example, it’s hard for most people to believe the sound in the video above came from a human being rather than an instrument.

That is because the singer is able to produce a continuous bass and simultaneously produce one or more pitches through his/her throat.

That unique way of singing is known as khoomei, or hooliin chor (throat singing), an art of singing practiced by Mongolian communities in Inner Mongolia in northern China, Mongolia and the Russian republic of Tuva. It is also known as Tuvan throat singing in other cultures.

Through the throat singing band Alash’s performance in the video below, you may get a better idea of what this art form sounds like.

It is believed the Khoomei could be traced back to Huns, the nomadic people living between the 4th and 6th centuries in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.

Mongolians in ancient times imitated the sound of nature, such as waterfall, forest and animals, during nomadism and hunting as a way of connecting and showing respect to the nature.

This singing art was officially inscribed on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO in 2009.

Photo via g-photography.net

Once endangered

Life styles keep changing. Khoomei, the art that was born in certain geography characteristics and production mode, was on the verge of extinction for a while in history since less people were able to perform.

It wasn’t until the 1990s that the art was flourished again along with the more frequent communications with neighboring countries.

57-year-old Hugejiletu, one of the most renowned inheritor of the intangible cultural heritage in China, wasn’t able to perform Khommei at all back in 1996.

Khoomei master Hugejiletu/Photo via China Youth Daily

When he traveled to Australia to perform traditional music and instrument for local audience, he was questioned by local reporter how come they didn’t bring Khoomei.

“There were so many of us, yet none could perform Khoomei. I felt ashamed that I couldn’t inherit the culture of my own people,” Hugejiletu told China Youth Daily in 2015.

At the age of 39, he embarked on a tough journey to learn this art. More Khoomei masters from different countries were also invited to Inner Mongolia to help re-boom the culture.

“As a Mongolian, it’s my responsibility to inherit and spread the music and art of our own people,” he said.

As the “living fossil” of Mongolian culture, Khoomei has drawn wide attention from international communities, including musicians, experts of sociology, anthropology and historians.

The Mongolian art of singing: Khoomei, INNER MONGOLIA

Zoom In  Zoom Out
Zoom In  Zoom Out

The Mongolian art of singing: Khoomei

When you are wondering along Inner Mongolia, the chance is that a high-pitching, penetrating and touching voice will sparkle your curiosity and spur your reverie.Infectious and mysterious in character, it has concise yet elegant lyrics, euphonious melodies and diversified themes. It is Khoomei (Long-tune Song, Hooliin Chor, Throat Harmony or Throat Singing), the living fossil folk music of the Mongolian and one UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage, which is teased by the Han Chinese as “The Wolf’s Cry ”.


Khoomei’s charm lies in its biphonic sound achieved through the tighten of throat and the manipulation of tongue, by the same person.
What is more incredible is that both follow different rhythms. The result is that you can hear two voice sung from the same person at the same time, one is low and melodious, which forms the background music, while the other is penetrating and high-pitched, which has lyrics and is the highlight. From some sense, it is  acrobatic performed through throat and tongue.

khoomei
As we know, whenever the Mongolian holds a banquet, it will last for three days and nights. No banquet and party will be complete without Khoomei, and there are so many songs that you wont hear a repeated one during this period.

By present, Khoomei prevails in Tuwa of Siberian, Mongolia, Russia, Altai of Xinjiang, Khakass and Inner Mongolia. In Gyuto and Gyume Monasteries of Tibet, lamas there also use throat voice to chant the prayers. For a Khoomei master, it is a piece of cake to sing their own ethnic songs, or the popular songs of the Han Chinese as well as any classic song of America and Europe.


“Khoomei” means “song of eternity”. It is a gem inspired by the spectacular grassland and the unrestrained nomadic lifestyle.
Over one thousand years ago, the Mongolian’s ancestors migrated westward from the dense forests of Black Dragon River to Mongolian plateau, with lifestyle shifting from hunting to animal husbandry. During this process, Khoomei emerged. The following years saw it replaced the narrative hunting song (Short-tune song) as the dominating sight. Epitomizing the Mongolian’s culture, philosophy, customs and religion, Khoomei exerts profound and lasting influence on every aspect of their life. Today, it is a short-cut for us to unravel this nationality’s legacy and heritage.  Khoomei is to the Mongolian just like Beijing opera is to the Han Chinese, the Kam Grand Choirs to the Dong people andTibetan opera to the Tibetans. It has become a cultural identity and integral part of the Mongolian’s life. During Wedding Ceremony, holidays, religious festivals and especially theNaadam Festival, Khoomei is performed enthusiastically, which is one of the most eye-catching and expecting parts. As we know, whenever the Mongolian holds a banquet, it will last for three days and nights. No banquet and party will be complete without Khoomei, and there are so many songs that you wont hear a repeated one during this period.

 Khoomei can be performed in form of solo or chorus , with or without accompany music.  Highly spontaneous is its defining feature. The singer has ample room for on-site creation. Accompanied by Matou Zither(Horse Head Zither马头琴), the performers usually wear traditional gowns to sing Khoomei to mesmerize the audiences. The rhythm of Khoomei can be divided into the concise narrative tune, the prolonged and affectionate tune as well as the Nogula tune. Ornamental vibrato such as front appoggiaturas, back appoggiaturas, portamentoes and turns all abound.
khoomei
This infectious and mysterious sound that resonates between heaven and earth may be straight-ford and imposing at first impression, but as long as you listen contently, you will be spellbound by its appealing tunes and indescribable charm.

Dynamic and ever-changing in tune, Khoomei is profound in theme, which addresses almost all the elements typical of Inner Mongolia: the enticing landscape, the beautiful Mongolia ladies, the strong Mongolian men, their ancient heroes and vibrant daily labor life. The beauty of life, friendship and love are also eternal subjects. Judging from the different occasions it serves, Khoomei splits into Love Song, Departing Song, Homesick Song, Wine Toast Song, Banquet Song, War Song, Hunting Song, Warrior’s song and Mourning Song. Through Khoomei, the living environment and spirit world of the Mongolian are revived and revealed before us vividly.

According to a famous musician, Khoomei is a voice flows from the innermost corner of the Mongolian’s heart, a voice imbued with wisdom, philosophy and emotion. Hence, no matter you can understand the lyrics or not, this captivating music can tug your heartstring easily. The best way to enjoy Khoomei is to close your eyes and let the arresting song carry you away.

Khoomei has developed four variants in Inner Mongolian, with some intertwine with one another especially along the bordering area: Hulunbuire Khoomei, Xilingol Khoomei, Ordos Khoomei and Alxa Khoomei.

khoomei
Khoomei in western Inner Mongolian mirrors the balance of simplicity, archaic and religion. It is the celestial voice for those who want to seek console and serenity in this far-flug getaway to nature.

From east to west, the lush grassland gives way to hills and desolate deserts. In Hulunbuire and Horqin district, the eastern part of Inner Mongolian, the well-fed and happy nomads interpret Khoomei into a high-pitched, inspiring and passionate music with free form and concise lyrics. In Hulunbuire,the purity and sweetness of voice are valued, besides, the liberal use of ornamental vibrato bestows it with sumptuous beauty. Most Khoomei singers in Hulunbuir are women. Representatives songs include: The Expansive Grassland《辽阔的草原》. In Horqin, Khoomei is distinguished by its flowing, soothing and profound melody.

Moving westward, you can reach Xilingol, the political, economic and cultural center of Inner Mongolia since the 13th century. Xilingol has long been reputed an ideal pasture thanks to the mild weather and lush grass. Khoomei here adopts lingering melody, enlightening feeling, profound artistical effect, complete form and intricate structure. It is also notable for the broad range of voice, simplicity and sweet melancholy. Judging from tunes, lyrics, contents and artistic value, Xilingol Khoomei highlight the essence of Khoomei and become one of the top four representatives. Khoomei singers are mainly composed of men. Representative song include Little Yellow Horse《小黄马》.

Keeping advancing westward to Ordos and Alxa, you will notice the undulating grassland is replaced by barren landscape of Gobi and desserts. Life here is less colorful, so does Khoomei. With few ornamental vibrato, Khoomei here stays true to its original look and shows strong religious influence. Khoomei in Ordos has lively and dramatically-changing tunes, Khoomei in Alxa is calm, penetrating and overwhelming.

You can join our 5-Day Naadam Fair Tour in Inner Mongolia to listen to Khoomei, enjoy horse racing, wrestling and archery as well as to sample the delicious Inner Mongolia food.

The stirring art of Mongolian throat singing

The stirring art of Mongolian throat singing

Published on Nov 23, 2017

The capabilities of a human body are sometimes beyond a brain’s imagination. For example, it’s hard for most people to believe the sound in the video above came from a human being rather than an instrument. That is because the singer is able to produce a continuous bass and simultaneously produce one or more pitches through his/her throat. That unique way of singing is known as khoomei, or hooliin chor (throat singing), an art of singing practiced by Mongolian communities in Inner Mongolia in northern China, Mongolia and the Russian republic of Tuva. It is also known as Tuvan throat singing in other cultures. This singing art was officially inscribed on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO in 2009. Subscribe to us on YouTube: https://goo.gl/lP12gA Download our APP on Apple Store (iOS): https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/cctvn… Download our APP on Google Play (Android): https://play.google.com/store/apps/de… Follow us on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ChinaGlobalT… Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cgtn/?hl=zh-cn Twitter: https://twitter.com/CGTNOfficial Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/CGTNOfficial/ Tumblr: http://cctvnews.tumblr.com/ Weibo: http://weibo.com/cctvnewsbeijing