Regional Distribution of KHOREKTEER and its typology / International Scientific Center of Khoomei, Tuva

Regional Distribution of KHOREKTEER and its typology
Method of performance KHOREKTEER  The method of khorekteer itself is the basis for all archaic styles and therefore each  kind of melodic singing is  unthinkable  without introduction based on this method. 
Other traditional methods of performance whichrequire special professional skills    They exist together with other styles as sub-styles and differ by subtle technical traits in performance. They do not force these styles out and become an integral part enriching their structure. 
Five  styles are  recognized in Tuvan  solo  double-voiced  singing.  These  are five styles: khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, ezengileer, and borbannadyr  each of which include many  sub-styles.
TYPOLOGY       Style Resonance zone, drone Character of breathing Articulation Melody and musical-expressive specifics Khoomei Middle register F, F sharp, G can be sung with and without words, chest and mouth resonators  Basic (khorekteer), smooth breathing =, \ Overtone melodic (8th-12th overtones) Borbannadyr Lower or middle register, mouth or partially nose resonator Khorekteer, spasmodic rhythm, modulations, middle tension =, \ Without and with melodization Sygyt High and tense Constricted breathing, very tense йо, й, йа can be alternated with text Overtone melodic (8th-12th overtones), song melodic with vibrato Kargyraa Low guttural sound, the open mouth resonates Khorekteer, smooth breathing, open mouth, can be sung with text а, =, \, э open Drone with third turns, overtone melodic (6th-12th overtones, song melodic Steppe kargyraa Low, open, chest, soft, velvet timbre. Outward resonator  Very long breathing а, =, \, э open Overtone or song melodic (6th-12thg overtones) Ezengileer Middle register, vibration with lips Smooth breathing, rhythmic pulsation as in ambling of a horse а, =, и, \, э, ю, я with vibration Quiet overtone melodic, high whistling timbre Chylandyk F sharp, G, middle register, singing without words, mouth resonator Middle in length breathing =, \. Nasal long sound   Folk terminology reflected the timbre of these styles, both as independent timbres and in comparison with other means of sound-extraction.  
KHOOMEI  A bright sound, by its timbre, of a humming middle tessitura, is designated in tales khoomei. Khooledir khoomeileerge cher sirgeini bergen, “during the humming of khoomei, the earth trembled”.  According to our observations the style khoomei  can  be  considered  an  initial  or  basic  style. Khoomeizhis  of  old  and  young  generations  say  that  khoomei  is  the  father  of a forefather of khorekteer. The  majority  of  musicians  prefer  this  style  because  of  its relatively  convenient  sound-extraction  in the middle  register. Deep  sounds  of  khoomei, especially  in  lower  register, resemble  the  unison  of  oboe  and  clarinet. In  ergi  khoomei (old  khoomei), the  basic  ostinato  sound  is  more  deep  than  in the  borbannadyr  style  and  has a more  expressed  overtone  melody. The sounds in khoomei  are  executed  with  closed  lips  as  pronouncing  the  consonant  “v”. This  style  is  intermediate  in  timbre  between  the  sounds  extracted  by schalmeis and trumpets. It  is  mostly  characterized  by  power, richness  in  tone, and melodiousness. In  Tuvan  heroic  tales throat singing appears  as  a   firmly  established  musical  phenomenon. For  example, “a bogatyr (an  epic  hero)  performs  khoomei  with  the  force  of a thousand  people, his  singing  makes  the  earth  and  the  sky  shudder, and  brings  mountain  tops  crashing  down”. Though  the power of this  singing  is  exaggerated to the extreme, the  storyteller  describes  the  force  of  sound  emission  very  accurately. In connection with this  we  should  give  a delicate  remark  of  B.I. Tatarintsev  who  investigated the place and role of  throat  singing  in  Tuvan  epics. He  wrote: “The  traveling  hero’s  throat  singing  is  characterized  by  stock  epithets  of  one  type yndynnyg, yiangylyg, syrynnyg “doleful, plaintive, drawling”  which, apparently, characterize  the uneasy  emotional  state  of  a  hero”. The  researcher  gives  an  example  from  a  variant  of a lyric  tale  about  Khan-Khulyuk. After singing the hero’s “pining chest expands and his crowded thoughts broaden”. Thus, Tatarintsev was the first to note this function of throat singing: to pass time and make oneself comfortable on journey. At  first  glance  it  seems  that  it  is  impossible  to  think  about  a  more  recent  origin  of the khoomei  style  in  comparison  to  other  styles  because  I  find  the same principle of articulation in all the styles  in  the  framework  of  the  given  traditional  musical  culture. However, if  we  delve  deeper  into  the  nature  of khoomei,  with  its  ways  of  intonation, the  assumption  the  recent  origin  of  khoomei  is  well  supported. The  style  of  khoomei, which holds a transitional position between ordinary and double-voiced singing often performs  a  utilitarian  function  as  a  lullaby  song  in  the  special  style  opei  khoomeii (lullaby  khoomei). When performing  this style the  performer  accompanies  his  singing  by  a  rocking  of  his  body  from  one  side  to  another. The  performer  uses  clavicular  breathing. He  sings  the  words  by  moving  his  lips  slightly. The  movements  of  his  lips  are  intermediate  between  speaking  and  singing. While  lulling  a  baby, the  performer  sings through his nose. There  are  scarcely  any  overtone  melodies  in  his  singing. Before  people  the  performer  sings  loudly, with  a  great  support  of the  diaphragm  and  with  a  distinct  pressure  of  pectoral  resonators  while  alone  in  the  yurt, lulling  a baby, the  performer  sings  quietly.
SYGYT    For the designation of a high timbre, there existed the term of sygyt cyyrladyr cygyrtyrga kok deer ayazyp turgan “during the piercing singing of sygyt, the blue sky became clearer”. In the  sygyt  style,  overtones  are  produced  in  a high  whistling  timbre similar to that of the  piccolo in the same register. The  basic  ostinato  moves between the middle tones of the Great octave throughout the piece from la of the first octave to la of the third octave. In sygyt  style  the  vowels  are  not  articulated and the sounds, in  contrast  to  those in  other  styles, are  produced at  an  optimal  strain  of  respiratory  ways. The  main  feature distinguishing  sygyt from  any  other  style  is in the technique of sound extraction: the  root  of  the  tongue  is  moved  forward  and  the melody  is  mostly  produced  by the vibration  of  the  uvula  and its approaching the soft palate. In  sygyt  style  the  uvula  is  the  main  organ  which  regulates the  stream  of  air. Double  voice  usually  appears  in  low  and  high  registers  simultaneously. When  one  voice  is  produced  the  overtones  are  absent. Typical  of the  sygyt  style  are  melodies  ascending  to  high  pitch  sounds. For  example, in kishteer performed by Tumat Gennady, one can hear a glissando ascending an octave up from the 10th and 12th overtones of the 2nd basic ostinato note. Additional overtone sounds  occur as a  tremolo between  two  sounds which also differentiates the  sygyt  style  from  other  styles.
KARGYRAA    A low sound was designated among people as kargyraa kaargyraalaarga khayaa dash kaanayndyr bustup badip turgan, “during the singing of kargyraa, the sheer cliffs vibrated, rumbled, and fell down”. The folk performers divide this style in sub-styles by  timbre  and  pitch. Khovu  kargyraazy (steppe kargyraazy) has a higher, lighter  and  softer  sound while  a lower, louder sound characterizes kozhagar kargyraazy(mountain or cave kargyraazy). The  main  form of the  kargyraa  style  is  singing  with  a  clear  logical semantic  connection  of sounds. It is based on ornamented melodies of wide breath. Timbre  contrast  and  register  amplitude  distinguish different  sub-styles. Among these sub-styles khovu kargyraazy (steppe kargyraa)  is one of the most popular sub-styles of kargyraa. Khovu  kargyraazy is characterized by drawling, soft, and broad sound. This  style  is  performed  to  show  the  spaciousness  of  flat  steppes and mountains. An introduction  with  text  is usually sung. The  basic  ostinato  sound  is  produced  with a half-open  mouth. Overtones alternates with vowels. One of  the vowels а, э, =, \ corresponds  to  each  overtone.             Dag kargyraazy (mountain kargyraa) is also popular. This style is more stern. It expresses the power of the mountains. The timbre is more dense, nasal, and dimly.               The third style is dumchuk  kargyraazy (nasal  kargyraa). A  characteristic  feature  of  this  sub-style  is  a  regular  release  of  air  with a sharp double  inhalation  and  exhalation  through the nose and  mouth. The powerful  vibration  has  a  positive  effect  on  performer’s  lungs and  body.  According to my informants singing in this way  makes  it  possible  to  relax  and  concentrate  oneself  spiritually. When  singing, the  performer  does  not  feel  any  disharmony. The frequency  range  of the produced  sound  is  quite  wide. The sound is more velvet-like, and softer due to the use of nose resonator. This  is a typical style of the traditional Mongun-Taiga performance  school.
BORBANNADYRThe borbannadyr  style  is  related  to the khoomei  style  in respect to intonation. A melodious  introduction using khorekteer  is  performed  with  the  same  position  of  lips (close  to  each  other)  as  with the  khoomei  style. Timbre  norm, intonization  with  falsetto  inflection, narrow modal scale with short stable formulae, and ostinato  strophe  rhythm  with  ornamentation  are  common  to  these  two  styles.   The  mechanism  of  sound  extraction, especially  acoustic  manipulations,  rather  than the steady  melodious  turns  characteristic of the  khoomei  style is  a  more  important  point  in  borbannadyr  style. The coexistence  of  these  two  styles  can  be  explained  as a manifestation  of  the  features  of  an  early  folk  tradition  which  is  characterized  by  an organic  relationship  of  melodic  expression. During a period of singing the tempo increases and the melody becomes more complex, descending by  leaps  from  the twelfth to the seventh overtone, more  rarely  to  the eighth overtone. The  ostinato  sound  remains  intact  but  its  pitch  occasionally  oscillates  within  the three  middle  sounds  of  the Great octave.             Contrary  to  khoomei, the melodious phrase of which is performed within one breath, the borbannadyr  style is  always  interrupted, with the process of breathing plays a lesser role for articulation. The  performer  of  this  style  usually  begins  by reciting  of  the  words  of  a  song typical  only  to the  borbannadyr  style. Here  is  an  example:               Bolur-daa  bol, bolbas-daa  bol            Whether it comes out or itdoesn’t             Borbannadyp  berein  shumna            I shall sing borbannadyr anyways               In  rhythmical  respect  the  tune  is  more  schematic. This  is the  tendency  of  the  schematization  of the  borbannadyr  style  that  involves  outward  ostinato  repetition of musical turn. Similarities  in  the  techniques  of the   khoomei  and  borbannadyr  styles  makes  it  possible  to  pass  from  one  style  to  another. In the  khoomei  style  the lower voice  stops  on  a  sustained (ostinato)  sound  and  the  singer  can  select overtones (which  create  additional  melody, melodious  recitation  with  words  of  a  song)  from  this  sound  while  in the  borbannadyr  style  the  sound  seems  to  throw  away  rolling  sounds  without  words. The  tune  is  based  on an  intonization  approximate  to  onomatopoeia but this is, more likely, not a concrete but somewhat generalized imitation. Therefore, the  melodies  in  khoomei  style,  by  its  very  nature,  are  of  a  radically  different  kind  of  those  in  borbannadyr  style. What’s  more,  if  one  compares  the  peculiarities  of  the  timbres  of  styles of the above styles one  can  get  additional  idea  of  a  concrete  style  too.             In  ensemble  performance of khoomei, kargyraa, and sygyt styles (except onomatopoeic – ezengileer and borbannadyr styles)  the  singers  seek  to  keep  to basic forms, producing  only  slight  additional  tones  which are mostly  ornamental. The  style  borbannadyr  is  traditionally  sung  individually. This  makes it possible  for  a  performer  of  this  style  to  introduce  some  individual  traits  in  the  form  of his rhythmical  intonization. This  style  is  among  the  main  independent  styles  because  it  has  its  own  structure,  a  separate  mechanism  of  sound  extraction, and a  characteristic  timbre  coloring. The  performance  of  this  style does not  require the use of other styles. With regards to  its  tessitura, register, rhythm, and  structure of melodies, borbannadyr  style  represents  quite an independent artistic phenomenon which  can  be  optionally  synthesized  in  order  to  decorate  the  melody  of other  styles. For  example, there are synthesized styles such as borbannadyr  of  sygyt, borbannadyr  of  kargyraa, or borbannadyr  of  khoomei
ESENGILEEREzengileer also have  their  own  peculiarities of rhythm, timbre, and  intonation. Ezengileer  represents  an  independent  style of khorekteer. According  to  old  people, ezengileer  style  has  completely  retained  its  meaning  up  to today.  The  style  itself, as  assumed  by  some  researchers,  seems to be  relatively  recent  in origin. The appearance of   this  style was possible not earlier than 1st millenium AD, that  is, in the time  when the appearance of stirrup in horse harness could  have  a  perceptible  influence  upon  Tuvan music. It is believed that the ezengileer  style  was  formed later than the sygyt  style  but, undoubtedly, it was formed on its basis and in  a  constant  interaction.             If  we compare ezengileer with sygyt it is not difficult to note that  the  performance  of  ezengileer  differs from sygyt by  its slow  singing  and  distinct  scancion. Another distinctive  feature  of the  ezengileer  style  is  the periodic release  of  air  through the  nose with a sharp double exhalation. The  sound-formation  of  styles  is  preconditioned  by  aesthetic  prerequisites, acoustic  peculiarities  of the means  of  sound  extraction, and timber. The  melodious  introduction  is  absent  in  ezengileer  style. Ezengileer style is represented a peculiar, independent phenomenon in function also and  its performance  is  connected  to  horse  riding. The  timbre  of  this  style  is  softer  than  that of the  sygyt  style. The  overtone  melodies  appear  usually  on  8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, and 13th  overtones  from  the  low ostinato sound. 
SUBSTILESIn the  kargyraa  style  alone  one  can  count  more  that  five common freely interchanged motifs: khovu  kargyraazy (steppe  kargyraa), kashpal  kargyraazy (hill kargyraa), dag  kargyraazy (mountain  kargyraa), kozhagar  kargyraazy (mound  kargyraa), oidupaa  kargyraazy (kargyraa  of  the  singer  Oidupaa) and so on.
KHOREKTEER SYGYT KARGYRAA KHOOMEI BORBANNADYR EZENGILEER KISHTEER     DESPEN BORBAN  
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http://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CENTRE “KHOOMEI”, KYZYL, TUVA

MISSION Preservation and development of traditional culture of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer. Organization of scientific research for revealing and study of throat singing of the peoples of Sayan-Altai Region and other parts of the world and their propaganda. Creation of archives khorekteer recordings and their analysis. Training and probation of young performers including foreign performers in the experimental laboratory of the center. Participation in international music contests and organization of international symposia, seminars, conferences and festivals of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer. Promotion of scientific-practical international contacts. Social protection of performers.
NEWS
01.05.2008 We are honored to invite you to participate in the 5th International Ethnomusicology Symposium “Khoomei (throat-singing) is a Cultural Phenomenon of the Peoples of Central Asia” to be held July 25-28, 2008 in Kyzyl, the capital of the Republic of Tuva.
The problems of the functioning and development of throat singing in the different regions will be discussed.
Within the framework of the Symposium the 5th International festival of throat singing with participation of the performers from Moscow, Republic of Altay, Republic of Khakasia, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Kalmykia, Republic of Yakutia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Japan, USA, France, Holland, Austria, Turkey and Norway will be held.
The issues of musical ethnography on following directions will be discussed:
1. Comparative study of double-voiced throat-singing (Khoomei).
2. Genres of traditional music ( ritual music, epos, lyric poetry).
3. Musical instruments and instrumental music.
4. Traditional music and religious systems.
5. Issues of migration of musical phenomena. Interaction of nomadic and settled cultures. Musical folklore as a source of historic information on ethnogenesis of peoples of Central Asia.
 In work of  the symposium scientists of khoomei studies, physicians-physiologists, scientist physicists, musicologists, scientists of folk arts, throat singing performers, also representatives philological, history sciences will take part. Their themes are closely connected with marked problems.
    Registration fee is 300$ US. Different exhibitions, show of movies, trips to the countryside of Tyva are in the program.
The thesis of scientific papers should be no more than 2 A4 (1,5 interval) both in English and Russian languages should be sent not later than 1st April 2008 (Thesis received after the 1st of April will not be included in the final thesis publication).
We kindly ask you to include the best people’s khoomei performers into the list of your delegation (not more than 2 people) to participate in the concert of the traditional music.
Accommodation and travel expenses are paid by participants; food and cultural program are paid by organizing committee of the Symposium.  
We look forward to your acceptance.
Organizing Committee: International Scientific Centre “Khoomei”
                                         46,Shchetinkin-Kravchenko str .
                                      Kyzyl, Republic of Tyva, Russia, 667000
                                      tel: +7 (39422) 2-33-18 fax: +7 (39422) 3-38-97
                                            mobile: +7 913 342-43-87
                                              e-mail: kyrgys@yandex.ru
Khorekteer exists in five style: khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, borbannadyr, ezengileer. Sub-styles: chylandyk, despen borban, opei khoomei, buga khoomei, kanzyp, khovu kargyraazy, kozhagar kargyraazy, dag kargyraazy, kargyraa of singer Oidupaa, uyangylaar, damyraktaar, kishteer, serlennedyr, byrlannadyr. more>>
The history of investigation of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer accounts more than hundred and fifty years. For the first time khorekteer was recorded in Easten Tuva in 1865. P. Ostrovskinh (1897), E.K. Yakovlev (1989), G.E. Grum-Grzhimailo (1901), A.V. Anokhin (1910), E.V. Gippius (1927), A.N. Aksenov (1944), S.I. Vainshtein (1956) made their contribution in the investigation of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer. more>>
The disk of eminent throat singers Kyrgys Soruktu, Sat Manchakai, Sanchy Kyzyl-ool and M. Kombu was released in 30’s of 20th century. Ak-Ool Kara-Sal, Khomushku Idamchap, Marzhymal Ondar, Maksim Dakpai, Oorzhak Khunashtaar-ool were the followers of khorekteer tradition. They were the ones who contributed to the preservation and development of tradition of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer. more>> 
SHAMANISM IN TUVA Beside songs, tales and legends throat singing khorekteer and shamanic kamlanie are distinguished as main performance traditions which play an important role in the life of Tuvan ethnos. It is practically impossible to combine these forms because they performed different functions in culture of Tuvans. Throat singing khorekteer is an acoustical-physiological phenomenon in its nature and structural parameters tightly connected with lyric songs and instrumental music while shamanic kamlanie is a ritual singing of shaman which is sung by the “voice” of spirits helpers being a intermediary between them.  The main goal of Tuvan shamanism as a belief is to establish harmony between man and his surrounding world. more>>
Ensemble Tyva was founded in Kyzyl in 1987 by musicologist and folklorist Zoya Kyrgys. Its repertoire contains some hundreds folk songs from all districts of Tuva. The performers of this group are the best representatives of Tuvan throat singing khorekeer the fascination of which is in the fact one person produces simultaneously two or three melodic lines. more>>
Director: Z.Kyrgys Copyright © 2003 | Pictures painted by  A.Chernyak | Designed by I.Denisov 667000, Shetinkina-Kravchenko st. 46. Kyzyl, Republic of TYVA Russian Federation
fone +7 (39422) 2-33-18, +7 (39422) 3-38-97, +7 (39422) 1-14-29

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HISTORY OF INVESTIGATION OF KHOREKTEER , TUVA

HISTORY OF INVESTIGATION OF KHOREKTEER 
Ustu-Hure

 

 

INVEST 1
  • 1897 P.E. Ostrovskikh
  • 1897 E.K. Yakovlev
  • 1897 G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo
  • 1914 Douglas Carruthers
  • 1927 E.V. Gippius
  • Mid 30s First professional record of Tuvan solo double-voiced singing on gramophone disks under supervision of E.V. Gippius
  • 1934 Release of a series of gramophone disks with classical samples of the styles of throat singing khorekteer (khoomei, kargyraa, ezengileer, sygyt, borbannadyr), songs yrlar, and instrumental folk tunes on igil.
  • 1945 Beginning of folk studies in Tuva. Tuvan Scientific-Research Institute for Language, Literature and History (TNIIYaLI).
  • 1956 m. Munzuk (first publication of folk melodies)
  • 1973 Supplemented publication of “Tyva ulustun yrlary (Tuvan folk songs)
  • 1964 A.N. Aksenov Monograph “Tuvan folk music” edited by E.V. Gippius became a landmark event in Tuvan folk studies.
  • 1975 V.T. Maslov, B.P. Chernov The mechanism of the formation of second source of sound oscillations was established
  • 1980 S.I. Vainshtein Article “Musical Phenomenon born in the steppes”
  • 1995 Z.K. Kyrgys, Anat Keidor, Anthony Jahn Endoscopic experiment (Roosevelt Hospital, New-York State)

 

P.E. Ostrovskikh He wrote that of a particular originality is the art of so-called khoomeileer kizhi (khomiler-kizhi) — singers performing the style khoomei (those who sing with the throat).  Producing guttural sounds typical for many Asiatic peoples, “the singer, at the background of them, creates with his throat highly characteristic melodies, as of a flute; in doing so, he accompanies himself on a wooden topshuluur”. The account of P. Ostrovskikh contains the first data that considerably supplemented the existing conceptions about the ethnic culture of Tuvans. The merit of Ostrovskikh lies in the fact that he, along with other questions of their history and ethnography, considers musical art as an important part of the spiritual culture of a people.  His works have not lost their relevance up to the present day.

A short account of the trip to the Todzha region of the Uryankhai Region and the importance of the Uryankhai land for southern Siberia” (Journal of the Russian Geographical Society, 1898-1899).                       The full diary of the Uryankhai trip, with numerous drawings and photographs and a description of the entire ethnographic collection brought from the Uryankhai land (at present in the Berlin Museum of Ethnic Studies) was, at that time, presented to the Russian Geographical Society, which had provided a considerable portion of the finances for the trip, but because of the significant cost of publication, it was not published.

E.K. Yakovlev In a published scientific account he reports that “an extraordinary impression made by singing without words cannot be expressed with words. This singing is called “kumeyler” (khoomeileer– Z.K) and is composed of a whole range of wheezes.                       A singer inhales as much air as his lungs can hold and then begins producing from deep within his entrails strange rumbling husky sounds, the continuity and duration of which fully depends on his ability to control the diaphragm. Then comes a new, deep inhalation and a continuation of the mysterious sounds, accompanied on the two-stringed topshuluurum — an instrument that consists of a long neck and a body with a hollow sounding board covered with a bladder — until they are interrupted by the singer unexpectedly for a listener without any tonic or rhythmic resolution, so that the term ‘melody’ cannot be applied to his composition of mysterious sounds”.

 

ANOKHIN 2A.V. Anokhin

 

One of the initiators for the recording of Tuvan songs on phonograph was the well-known collector of local lore, ethnographer, pedagogue, composer, collector and propagandist of musical folklore of Turkic and Mongolian-speaking peoples, A.V. Anokhin (1874-193) who conducted investigations among Tuvans in 1910.

He noted: “This kind of throat singing is by far more simple. It has a strict definiteness, such a definiteness that                       can be easily brought within the laws of existing music. And finally, this singing is not a wheeze in which it is difficult to define the height of the sound. The sounds are not produced with an open free throat but a slightly pressed one, the height of the sound being quite clear”.

Then Anokhin notes that throat singing often makes an unfavorable impression upon the listener who is not familiar with it and who has heard it for the first time. But with time he begins to like this singing and it even has a calming effect on the nerves. “This singing is, undoubtedly, pleasant for the Asiatic ear. Such double-voiced singing khoomei (there are also other names for it) is specific for Altaians, Khakassians, and Tuvans”. According to the observations of Anokhin “Of all Turkic tribes, Soyots (Tuvans – Z.K.) are the tribe that sing the most… 95% Soyots of sing. Song among Soyots is expressed by the word ‘yr’. Its melody is more developed than that of Kachintsy and Sagaits. In the art of Soyots there is no foreign influence, the melodies are original.

GUPPIUS 3E.V. Guppius

 

The first post-revolutionary musical records of Tuvan folk songs were made in 1927 by E.V. Gippius and Z.V. Evald from the voices of Tuvan students at the Institute of the Peoples of the North and Siberia in Leningrad.
AKSENOV 4A.N. Aksenov

 

A.N. Aksenov was the first to reproduce on a high scientific level the structure of khorekteer singing and that of folk tunes on the traditional instruments igil, byzaanchy, and khomus.
 

S.I. Vanshtein

 

Also of interest is an article of S.I. Vainshtein published in 1981 connected with the problems of the ethnogenesis of Tuvans.  Without taking on questions of musicology, the investigator conveyed the spirit of Tuvan music and gave a complete and bright portrayal of khorekteer performance. His field materials from Central Tuva and his meetings with his informant O. Aldyn-ool in 1954 served as a basis for his article.  S.I. Vainshtein writes: “it was like a duet of unusual musical instruments but performed … without instruments, with the voice of one soloist on the lonely central-asian steppe, performing for himself but maybe for me too. A quarter of a century has passed but this episode remains, perhaps, the most remarkable in the long train of my souvenirs from trips around Siberia”.

 

В.Т. Маслов и Б.П. Чернов The mechanism of sound-formation in solo double-voice was established in 1975.

As the authors affirm, “the whistle hole makes high frequency oscillations which then resonate in the mouth cavity, forming the sounds of different pitches. The larynx of a Tuvan singer who sings in a double-voiced manner represents a double sound generator, in which the pitch of the lower tone is formed by the vocal folds, while the pitch of the whistle tone is formed by the narrow entrance to the larynx (nozzle) and the resonating cavities of the pharynx and mouth.

On this basis, they made a general conclusion about direct links between Tuvan singing and that of Bashkirians and Mongolians which is hardly acceptable.

 

DIFFERENCES 
  • When considered in a totality of timbres, texts, methods of performance, melodies, and styles Tuvan throat singing considerably differs from similar forms of musicianship of other related ethnic groups. Though the singing of those peoples have some elements in common, this similarity seems to by circumstantial and preconditioned by common character of their geographical situation and cultural exchange among them.
  • The performance of throat singing among the above mentioned Turko-Mongolian peoples involves clavicular breathing, i.e., the upper part of lungs. Single voice with periodic double-voice is formed due to changes in the resonators of the mouth cavity. An insufficient quantity of inhaled air transforms into melody through a hoarse bass voice and a peculiar timbre coloring.
Z.K. Kyrgys,

Anat Keidor,

Anthony Jahn

tuvan analyse 1

According to the data of experiments held in Roosevelt Hospital (USA) in 1995, Tuvan khorekteer is so specific which does not allow us to make anywhere near correct correlation with any other known forms of solo double-voice. The experiments were conducted in the following areas: a physiological examination of the vocal chords, and peculiarities of the respiratory system and those of the system of resonators. This effect can be achieved only with a quite compact energetic satiation of thorax (the performer of khorekteer with pectoral muscles push a dense energetic substance out which resonates in the thorax). Therefore we have to do with a strong resistance to energetic saturation of the thorax that gives a distinct feeling of energetic density and resonating of the mass of the instrument-voice. We arrived at the important conclusion that young performers of Tuvan khorekteer singing must not begin singing before the age of 14 or 15, in order to allow the larynx to mature and the body and nervous system to become stronger so that training will not harm cerebration and the respiratory system. Professional singers who work in institutions of culture and art for many years should be under the constant observation of physicians in order to monitor the functions of their lungs, larynx, and cerebrum.                       The action of intensive vibration may cause certain changes in the functional state of different organs (blood pressure, heart activity, and the nervous system).

 

  • One should listen to it in the surrounding of steppes and mountains and then it starts speaking the same language.
  • One should take into consideration that Tuvan language is the one which played and still plays a historical role in the development of this musical form.

 

Khorekteer is an instrumental misicianship based on the imitation of the sounds of surrounding world.
[uphttp://www.khoomei.narod.ru/historyeng.htm#Kyrgys_ruzvelt

ENSEMBLE TYVA , TUVA

 

Ensemble �Tyva� was founded by musicologist and folklorist Zoya Kyrgys in Kyzyl in 1987. The repertoire of the group contains some hundred of songs from all parts of Tuva. Ensemble is composed of best performers of unique art of Tuvans throat singing khorekteer the fascination of which is in the fact that one performer can produce simultaneously two or even three melodic lines.

Ensemble �Tyva� gives an opportunity of better understanding the Tuvan culture. In contrast to other folk groups, the program of �Tyva� is closely connected with the specific character of this region, this part of Siberia where all kinds of landscape, rich flora and fauna, various styles of life and economic activities. Ensemble reflects the variety of Tuvan culture as if conserving this kind of culture in its very early manifestations. Tuvan people have preserved these ancient methods of performance connected with imitation of the sounds of surrounding world up to our days. They are basic in Tuvan culture. The sounds of nature are used not only in throat singing but also in khomus (Jew’s Harp) playing. The knowledge of sound imitation is the key to throat singing, the key which helps to discover the secrets of this art.

The main goal of the group is to preserve, develop, and promote traditional forms of Tuvan art which are typical for nomads of Central Asia and at the same time to create its new forms. Ensemble performed in Mongolia, Taiwan, Holland, Sweden, Germany, Norway, US, Japan and other countries.

Ensemble �Tyva� performed in:

Moscow

Clubs �DOM�, �Rotonda�, �PushkinG�, �OGI�, �Central House of Artists�

�Russia Radio�

Performance in popular Russian TV program �Anthropology�

St-Pete

Club �Spartak�5

Kyzyl (Tuva)

International festival of pop song �Melodies of Sayan Mountains� (Drama Theater named after Kok-ool)

Chadan (Tuva)

International Festival �Ustuu-Khuree� (Chadan Palace of Culture)

Taiwan

Taipei (ASIA PASIFIC TRADITIONAL ARTS FORUM 2000)

Japan (NEW GENERATION OF LOVE)

Tokyo � Sendai � Osaka � Okayama � Kioto

Mongolia

International Throat Singing Conference �Bridge � 2001�

 

In 2000 the first album �Ezengileer� (stirups)           of new �Tyva� was released.

 

At present �Tyva� prepares new album �CARAVAN� 

home concert in Osaka
ensemble “TYVA” 

  • Danzyryn Ayas-ool
  •  Choodu Nachyn
  • Chayan-Khoo Mergen
  • Choodu Shonchalai
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Eki from Japan!
[uphttp://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html

Famous performers of khorekteer, TUVA

Famous performers of khorekteer

 

  Soruktu Kyrgys

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In           1927 Kyrgys           Soruktu (born in the village of Mezhegei) was           famous among the           khoomei performers           in Erzin

People called           him khoomeileer           Soruktu, “master of           khoomei           Soruktu”.

Maksim Dakpai

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Diploma-winner of the All-Russian Amateur             Art Festival and             prize-winner of the World Festival in. In             HIS opinion, folk             tunes played on igil             are an expression             of the instrumental             “voice” which             is as individual and             unique as the human voice.
 Andrei Chuldum-ool

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The other           best known           center of           khorekteer is situated           in Central           Tuva in           the settlement           of Chyraa-Bazhy           in the Ulug-Khem district where             famous throat             singers Tumat             Kara-ool and             Andrei Chuldum-ool live.
 Marzhymal Ondar

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Marzhymal Ochurovich Ondar was the most famous performer of khorekteer from the village of Bora-Taiga.

He was one of           the performers of khorekteer who             carried musical             instrumental traditions             into our             days. At present             there remain very             few masters             like him.

 Khunashtaar-ool Oorzhak

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A peculiar feature of the artistic individuality of Khunashtaar-ool Oorzhak is his virtuosity in not only one or two styles of khorekteer singing (as is typical for Tuvan khoomeizhis), but in absolutely all of its styles and substyles.
 

Fedor Tau

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Fedor Tau was born in Tes-Khem District of Tuva. He won Tuva ski championship ten times. People’s Khoomeizhi of the Republic of Tyva.
[up] http://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html

Regional Distribution of KHOREKTEER and its typology, TUVA

Regional Distribution of KHOREKTEER and its typology
Method of performance KHOREKTEER
The method of khorekteer itself is the basis for all archaic styles and therefore each           kind of melodic singing is unthinkable           without introduction based on this method.
Other traditional methods of performance whichrequire special professional skills

 

  • Dumchuktaar – nasal performance
  • Uyangylaar – performance in a doleful, pitiful manner
  • Damyraktaar –  imitation  of  the  sounds  of  a  brook
  • Sirlennedyr  tinkling
  • Byrlannadyr – singing used  for  ornamentation  of  solo  double-voice.

They exist together with other styles as sub-styles and differ by subtle technical traits in performance. They do not force these styles out and become an integral part enriching their structure.

Five styles are recognized in Tuvan solo             double-voiced singing.

 

These           are five styles: khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, ezengileer, and borbannadyr       each of which include many sub-styles.
TYPOLOGY

 

                    Style Resonance zone, drone Character of breathing Articulation Melody and musical-expressive specifics
Khoomei Middle register

F, F sharp, G can be sung with and without words, chest and mouth resonators

Basic (khorekteer), smooth breathing =, \ Overtone melodic (8th-12th overtones)
Borbannadyr Lower or middle register, mouth or partially nose resonator Khorekteer, spasmodic rhythm, modulations, middle tension =, \ Without and with melodization
Sygyt High and tense Constricted breathing, very tense йо, й, йа can be alternated with text Overtone melodic (8th-12th overtones), song melodic with vibrato
Kargyraa Low guttural sound, the open mouth resonates Khorekteer, smooth breathing, open mouth, can be sung with text а, =, \, э open Drone with third turns, overtone melodic (6th-12th overtones, song melodic
Steppe kargyraa Low, open, chest, soft, velvet timbre. Outward resonator Very long breathing а, =, \, э open Overtone or song melodic (6th-12thg overtones)
Ezengileer Middle register, vibration with lips Smooth breathing, rhythmic pulsation as in ambling of a horse а, =, и, \, э, ю, я with vibration Quiet overtone melodic, high whistling timbre
Chylandyk F sharp, G, middle register, singing without words, mouth resonator Middle in length breathing =, \. Nasal long sound

 

Folk terminology reflected the timbre of these styles, both as independent timbres and in comparison with other means of sound-extraction.

 

KHOOMEI

 

A bright sound, by its timbre, of a humming middle tessitura, is designated in tales khoomei.

Khooledir khoomeileerge cher sirgeini bergen, “during the humming of khoomei, the earth trembled”.

According to our observations the style khoomei           can be           considered an           initial or           basic style. Khoomeizhis           of old           and young           generations say           that khoomei           is the           father of a forefather of khorekteer. The majority           of musicians           prefer this           style because           of its relatively           convenient sound-extraction           in the middle register. Deep sounds           of khoomei, especially in           lower register, resemble the           unison of           oboe and           clarinet.

In           ergi           khoomei (old khoomei), the basic           ostinato sound           is more           deep than           in the borbannadyr style           and has a more           expressed overtone           melody.

The sounds in khoomei are           executed with           closed lips           as pronouncing           the consonant           “v”. This style           is intermediate           in timbre           between the           sounds extracted           by schalmeis and trumpets. It           is mostly           characterized by           power, richness in           tone, and melodiousness.

In           Tuvan heroic           tales throat singing appears as           a   firmly           established musical           phenomenon. For example, “a bogatyr (an           epic hero)           performs khoomei with           the force           of a thousand people, his singing           makes the           earth and           the sky           shudder, and brings           mountain tops           crashing down”. Though the power of this           singing is           exaggerated to the extreme, the           storyteller describes           the force           of sound           emission very           accurately. In connection with this           we should           give a delicate           remark of           B.I. Tatarintsev who           investigated the place and role of           throat singing           in Tuvan           epics. He wrote: “The traveling           hero’s throat           singing is           characterized by           stock epithets           of one           type yndynnyg, yiangylyg, syrynnyg “doleful, plaintive, drawling”           which, apparently, characterize           the uneasy emotional           state of           a hero”. The           researcher gives           an example           from a           variant of a lyric           tale about           Khan-Khulyuk. After singing the hero’s “pining chest expands and his crowded thoughts broaden”. Thus, Tatarintsev was the first to note this function of throat singing: to pass time and make oneself comfortable on journey.

At           first glance           it seems           that it           is impossible           to think           about a           more recent           origin of the khoomei           style in           comparison to           other styles           because I           find the same principle of articulation in all the styles           in the           framework of           the given           traditional musical           culture. However, if we           delve deeper           into the           nature of khoomei,           with its           ways of           intonation, the assumption           the recent           origin of           khoomei           is well           supported. The style           of khoomei, which holds a transitional position between ordinary and double-voiced singing often performs a           utilitarian function           as a           lullaby song           in the           special style           opei           khoomeii (lullaby khoomei). When performing this style the performer           accompanies his           singing by           a rocking           of his           body from           one side           to another. The           performer uses           clavicular breathing. He sings           the words           by moving           his lips           slightly. The movements           of his           lips are           intermediate between           speaking and           singing. While lulling           a baby, the           performer sings through his nose. There are           scarcely any           overtone melodies           in his           singing. Before people           the performer           sings loudly, with           a great           support of the           diaphragm and           with a           distinct pressure           of pectoral           resonators while           alone in           the yurt, lulling           a baby, the performer           sings quietly.

SYGYT

 

 

For the designation of a high timbre, there existed the term of sygyt

cyyrladyr cygyrtyrga kok deer ayazyp turgan “during the piercing singing of sygyt, the blue sky became clearer”.

In the sygyt           style, overtones           are produced           in a high           whistling timbre similar to that of the piccolo in the same register. The basic ostinato moves between the middle tones of the Great octave throughout the piece from la of the first octave to la of the third octave. In sygyt           style the           vowels are           not articulated and the sounds, in contrast to those in           other styles, are           produced at an           optimal strain           of respiratory           ways.

The main feature distinguishing sygyt from any           other style           is in the technique of sound extraction: the           root of           the tongue           is moved           forward and           the melody is           mostly produced           by the vibration of           the uvula           and its approaching the soft palate. In sygyt style           the uvula           is the           main organ           which regulates the           stream of           air. Double voice           usually appears           in low           and high           registers simultaneously. When one           voice is           produced the           overtones are           absent. Typical of the sygyt           style are           melodies ascending           to high           pitch sounds. For           example, in kishteer performed by Tumat Gennady, one can hear a glissando ascending an octave up from the 10th and 12th overtones of the 2nd basic ostinato note. Additional overtone sounds           occur as a tremolo between two           sounds which also differentiates the           sygyt           style from           other styles.

KARGYRAA

 

 

A low sound was designated among people as kargyraa

kaargyraalaarga khayaa dash kaanayndyr bustup badip turgan, “during the singing of kargyraa, the sheer cliffs vibrated, rumbled, and fell down”.

The folk performers divide this style in sub-styles by           timbre and           pitch. Khovu kargyraazy (steppe kargyraazy) has a higher, lighter and           softer sound while           a lower, louder sound characterizes kozhagar kargyraazy(mountain or cave kargyraazy). The main form of the           kargyraa           style is           singing with           a clear           logical semantic connection of sounds. It is based on ornamented melodies of wide breath. Timbre           contrast and           register amplitude           distinguish different sub-styles. Among these sub-styles khovu kargyraazy (steppe kargyraa) is one of the most popular sub-styles of kargyraa.

Khovu           kargyraazy is characterized by drawling, soft, and broad sound. This           style is           performed to           show the           spaciousness of flat           steppes and mountains. An introduction           with text           is usually sung. The basic           ostinato sound           is produced           with a half-open mouth. Overtones alternates with vowels. One of           the vowels а, э, =, \ corresponds to           each overtone.

Dag kargyraazy (mountain kargyraa) is also popular. This style is more stern. It expresses the power of the mountains. The timbre is more dense, nasal, and dimly.

The third style is dumchuk           kargyraazy (nasal kargyraa). A characteristic feature           of this           sub-style is           a regular           release of           air with a sharp double inhalation           and exhalation           through the nose and mouth. The powerful vibration           has a positive effect           on performer’s           lungs and body.           According to my informants singing in this way makes it           possible to           relax and           concentrate oneself           spiritually. When singing, the performer           does not           feel any           disharmony. The frequency range           of the produced sound           is quite           wide. The sound is more velvet-like, and softer due to the use of nose resonator. This is a typical style of the traditional Mongun-Taiga performance           school.

BORBANNADYR
The borbannadyr           style is           related to the khoomei           style in respect to intonation. A melodious introduction using khorekteer           is performed           with the           same position           of lips (close           to each           other) as           with the khoomei           style. Timbre norm, intonization with           falsetto inflection, narrow modal scale with short stable formulae, and ostinato           strophe rhythm           with ornamentation           are common           to these           two styles.

The           mechanism of           sound extraction, especially acoustic           manipulations, rather than the steady melodious           turns characteristic of the khoomei           style is a           more important           point in           borbannadyr style. The coexistence of           these two           styles can           be explained           as a manifestation of           the features           of an           early folk           tradition which           is characterized by an organic           relationship of melodic           expression. During a period of singing the tempo increases and the melody becomes more complex, descending by           leaps from           the twelfth to the seventh overtone, more           rarely to           the eighth overtone. The ostinato           sound remains           intact but           its pitch           occasionally oscillates           within the three           middle sounds           of the Great octave.

Contrary to           khoomei, the melodious phrase of which is performed within one breath, the borbannadyr           style is always           interrupted, with the process of breathing plays a lesser role for articulation. The performer           of this           style usually           begins by reciting           of the words of           a song typical           only to the           borbannadyr           style. Here is an           example:

 

Bolur-daa bol, bolbas-daa           bol            Whether it comes out or itdoesn’t

Borbannadyp berein           shumna            I shall sing borbannadyr anyways

 

In rhythmical           respect the           tune is           more schematic. This           is the tendency           of the schematization of the borbannadyr           style that           involves outward           ostinato repetition of musical turn. Similarities in           the techniques           of the   khoomei           and borbannadyr           styles makes           it possible           to pass           from one           style to           another. In the khoomei           style the lower voice           stops on           a sustained (ostinato) sound           and the           singer can           select overtones (which create           additional melody, melodious recitation           with words           of a           song) from           this sound           while in the           borbannadyr           style the           sound seems           to throw           away rolling           sounds without           words. The tune           is based           on an intonization approximate to           onomatopoeia but this is, more likely, not a concrete but somewhat generalized imitation. Therefore, the           melodies in           khoomei style,           by its           very nature,           are of a radically           different kind           of those           in borbannadyr style. What’s more,           if one compares the           peculiarities of the           timbres of           styles of the above styles one           can get additional           idea of           a concrete style           too.

In           ensemble performance of khoomei, kargyraa, and sygyt styles (except onomatopoeic – ezengileer and borbannadyr styles)           the singers           seek to           keep to basic forms, producing only           slight additional           tones which are mostly ornamental. The style           borbannadyr is           traditionally sung individually. This makes it possible           for a           performer of           this style           to introduce           some individual           traits in           the form           of his rhythmical intonization. This style is           among the           main independent           styles because           it has           its own           structure, a           separate mechanism           of sound           extraction, and a characteristic           timbre coloring. The performance of           this style does not           require the use of other styles. With regards to           its tessitura, register, rhythm, and structure of melodies, borbannadyr style           represents quite an independent artistic phenomenon which can be           optionally synthesized           in order           to decorate           the melody           of other styles. For           example, there are synthesized styles such as borbannadyr of           sygyt, borbannadyr of kargyraa, or borbannadyr of khoomei.

ESENGILEER
Ezengileer also have their           own peculiarities of rhythm, timbre, and intonation. Ezengileer represents           an independent           style of khorekteer. According to           old people, ezengileer style           has completely           retained its           meaning up           to today.

The           style itself, as           assumed by           some researchers,           seems to be relatively           recent in origin. The appearance of   this style was possible not earlier than 1st millenium AD, that is, in the time           when the appearance of stirrup in horse harness could           have a           perceptible influence           upon Tuvan music.

It is believed that the ezengileer           style was           formed later than the sygyt           style but, undoubtedly, it was formed on its basis and in a           constant interaction.

If           we compare ezengileer with sygyt it is not difficult to note that the performance           of ezengileer differs from sygyt by its slow singing and           distinct scancion. Another distinctive feature           of the ezengileer           style is           the periodic release of           air through the           nose with a sharp double exhalation. The           sound-formation of           styles is           preconditioned by aesthetic           prerequisites, acoustic peculiarities of the means of           sound extraction, and timber. The melodious           introduction is           absent in           ezengileer           style. Ezengileer style is represented a peculiar, independent phenomenon in function also and           its performance is           connected to           horse riding. The           timbre of           this style           is softer           than that of the           sygyt           style. The overtone           melodies appear           usually on           8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, and 13th           overtones from           the low ostinato sound.

SUBSTILES
In the  kargyraa  style  alone  one  can  count  more  that  five common freely interchanged motifs: khovu  kargyraazy (steppe  kargyraa), kashpal  kargyraazy (hill kargyraa), dag  kargyraazy (mountain  kargyraa), kozhagar  kargyraazy (mound  kargyraa), oidupaa  kargyraazy (kargyraa  of  the  singer  Oidupaa) and so on.
KHOREKTEER
SYGYT KARGYRAA KHOOMEI BORBANNADYR EZENGILEER
  • KISHTEER
  • KHOVU KARGYRAAZY
  • DAG KARGYRAAZY
  • DUMCHUK KARGYRAAZY
  • OIDUPAA KARGYRAAZY
  • BUGA KARGYRAAZY
  • KASHPAL KARGYRAAZY
  • KOZHAGAR KARGYRAAZY
  • ERGI KHOOMEI
  • BUGA KHOOMEI
  • OPEI KHOOMEI
  • DESPEN KHOOMEI
  • KUMZATTAAR
  • CHYLANDYK

 

SUBSTILES

  •  UYANGYLAAR
  • DAMYRAKTAAT
  • SIRLENNEDYR
  • BYRLANADYR
  • DESPEN BORBAN
[up]  http://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html

HISTORY OF INVESTIGATION OF KHOREKTEER , TUVA

HISTORY OF INVESTIGATION OF KHOREKTEER 
Ustu-Hure

 

The investigation of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer accounts for more that a century. For the first time khorekteer was recorded by investigator P. Ostrovskikh in Eastern Tuva in 1864.  
  • 1897 P.E. Ostrovskikh
  • 1897 E.K. Yakovlev
  • 1897 G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo
  • 1914 Douglas Carruthers
  • 1927 E.V. Gippius
  • Mid 30s First professional record of Tuvan solo double-voiced singing on gramophone disks under supervision of E.V. Gippius
  • 1934 Release of a series of gramophone disks with classical samples of the styles of throat singing khorekteer (khoomei, kargyraa, ezengileer, sygyt, borbannadyr), songs yrlar, and instrumental folk tunes on igil.
  • 1945 Beginning of folk studies in Tuva. Tuvan Scientific-Research Institute for Language, Literature and History (TNIIYaLI).
  • 1956 m. Munzuk (first publication of folk melodies)
  • 1973 Supplemented publication of “Tyva ulustun yrlary (Tuvan folk songs)
  • 1964 A.N. Aksenov Monograph “Tuvan folk music” edited by E.V. Gippius became a landmark event in Tuvan folk studies.
  • 1975 V.T. Maslov, B.P. Chernov The mechanism of the formation of second source of sound oscillations was established
  • 1980 S.I. Vainshtein Article “Musical Phenomenon born in the steppes”
  • 1995 Z.K. Kyrgys, Anat Keidor, Anthony Jahn Endoscopic experiment (Roosevelt Hospital, New-York State)

 

P.E. Ostrovskikh He wrote that of a particular originality is the art of so-called khoomeileer kizhi (khomiler-kizhi) — singers performing the style khoomei (those who sing with the throat).  Producing guttural sounds typical for many Asiatic peoples, “the singer, at the background of them, creates with his throat highly characteristic melodies, as of a flute; in doing so, he accompanies himself on a wooden topshuluur”. The account of P. Ostrovskikh contains the first data that considerably supplemented the existing conceptions about the ethnic culture of Tuvans. The merit of Ostrovskikh lies in the fact that he, along with other questions of their history and ethnography, considers musical art as an important part of the spiritual culture of a people.  His works have not lost their relevance up to the present day.

A short account of the trip to the Todzha region of the Uryankhai Region and the importance of the Uryankhai land for southern Siberia” (Journal of the Russian Geographical Society, 1898-1899).                       The full diary of the Uryankhai trip, with numerous drawings and photographs and a description of the entire ethnographic collection brought from the Uryankhai land (at present in the Berlin Museum of Ethnic Studies) was, at that time, presented to the Russian Geographical Society, which had provided a considerable portion of the finances for the trip, but because of the significant cost of publication, it was not published.

E.K. Yakovlev In a published scientific account he reports that “an extraordinary impression made by singing without words cannot be expressed with words. This singing is called “kumeyler” (khoomeileer– Z.K) and is composed of a whole range of wheezes.                       A singer inhales as much air as his lungs can hold and then begins producing from deep within his entrails strange rumbling husky sounds, the continuity and duration of which fully depends on his ability to control the diaphragm. Then comes a new, deep inhalation and a continuation of the mysterious sounds, accompanied on the two-stringed topshuluurum — an instrument that consists of a long neck and a body with a hollow sounding board covered with a bladder — until they are interrupted by the singer unexpectedly for a listener without any tonic or rhythmic resolution, so that the term ‘melody’ cannot be applied to his composition of mysterious sounds”.

 

A.V. Anokhin

 

One of the initiators for the recording of Tuvan songs on phonograph was the well-known collector of local lore, ethnographer, pedagogue, composer, collector and propagandist of musical folklore of Turkic and Mongolian-speaking peoples, A.V. Anokhin (1874-193) who conducted investigations among Tuvans in 1910.

He noted: “This kind of throat singing is by far more simple. It has a strict definiteness, such a definiteness that                       can be easily brought within the laws of existing music. And finally, this singing is not a wheeze in which it is difficult to define the height of the sound. The sounds are not produced with an open free throat but a slightly pressed one, the height of the sound being quite clear”.

Then Anokhin notes that throat singing often makes an unfavorable impression upon the listener who is not familiar with it and who has heard it for the first time. But with time he begins to like this singing and it even has a calming effect on the nerves. “This singing is, undoubtedly, pleasant for the Asiatic ear. Such double-voiced singing khoomei (there are also other names for it) is specific for Altaians, Khakassians, and Tuvans”. According to the observations of Anokhin “Of all Turkic tribes, Soyots (Tuvans – Z.K.) are the tribe that sing the most… 95% Soyots of sing. Song among Soyots is expressed by the word ‘yr’. Its melody is more developed than that of Kachintsy and Sagaits. In the art of Soyots there is no foreign influence, the melodies are original.

E.V. Guppius

 

The first post-revolutionary musical records of Tuvan folk songs were made in 1927 by E.V. Gippius and Z.V. Evald from the voices of Tuvan students at the Institute of the Peoples of the North and Siberia in Leningrad.
A.N. Aksenov

 

A.N. Aksenov was the first to reproduce on a high scientific level the structure of khorekteer singing and that of folk tunes on the traditional instruments igil, byzaanchy, and khomus.
 

S.I. Vanshtein

 

Also of interest is an article of S.I. Vainshtein published in 1981 connected with the problems of the ethnogenesis of Tuvans.  Without taking on questions of musicology, the investigator conveyed the spirit of Tuvan music and gave a complete and bright portrayal of khorekteer performance. His field materials from Central Tuva and his meetings with his informant O. Aldyn-ool in 1954 served as a basis for his article.  S.I. Vainshtein writes: “it was like a duet of unusual musical instruments but performed … without instruments, with the voice of one soloist on the lonely central-asian steppe, performing for himself but maybe for me too. A quarter of a century has passed but this episode remains, perhaps, the most remarkable in the long train of my souvenirs from trips around Siberia”.

 

В.Т. Маслов и Б.П. Чернов The mechanism of sound-formation in solo double-voice was established in 1975.

As the authors affirm, “the whistle hole makes high frequency oscillations which then resonate in the mouth cavity, forming the sounds of different pitches. The larynx of a Tuvan singer who sings in a double-voiced manner represents a double sound generator, in which the pitch of the lower tone is formed by the vocal folds, while the pitch of the whistle tone is formed by the narrow entrance to the larynx (nozzle) and the resonating cavities of the pharynx and mouth.

On this basis, they made a general conclusion about direct links between Tuvan singing and that of Bashkirians and Mongolians which is hardly acceptable.

 

DIFFERENCES 
  • When considered in a totality of timbres, texts, methods of performance, melodies, and styles Tuvan throat singing considerably differs from similar forms of musicianship of other related ethnic groups. Though the singing of those peoples have some elements in common, this similarity seems to by circumstantial and preconditioned by common character of their geographical situation and cultural exchange among them.
  • The performance of throat singing among the above mentioned Turko-Mongolian peoples involves clavicular breathing, i.e., the upper part of lungs. Single voice with periodic double-voice is formed due to changes in the resonators of the mouth cavity. An insufficient quantity of inhaled air transforms into melody through a hoarse bass voice and a peculiar timbre coloring.
Z.K. Kyrgys,

Anat Keidor,

Anthony Jahn

According to the data of experiments held in Roosevelt Hospital (USA) in 1995, Tuvan khorekteer is so specific which does not allow us to make anywhere near correct correlation with any other known forms of solo double-voice. The experiments were conducted in the following areas: a physiological examination of the vocal chords, and peculiarities of the respiratory system and those of the system of resonators. This effect can be achieved only with a quite compact energetic satiation of thorax (the performer of khorekteer with pectoral muscles push a dense energetic substance out which resonates in the thorax). Therefore we have to do with a strong resistance to energetic saturation of the thorax that gives a distinct feeling of energetic density and resonating of the mass of the instrument-voice. We arrived at the important conclusion that young performers of Tuvan khorekteer singing must not begin singing before the age of 14 or 15, in order to allow the larynx to mature and the body and nervous system to become stronger so that training will not harm cerebration and the respiratory system. Professional singers who work in institutions of culture and art for many years should be under the constant observation of physicians in order to monitor the functions of their lungs, larynx, and cerebrum.                       The action of intensive vibration may cause certain changes in the functional state of different organs (blood pressure, heart activity, and the nervous system).

 

  • One should listen to it in the surrounding of steppes and mountains and then it starts speaking the same language.
  • One should take into consideration that Tuvan language is the one which played and still plays a historical role in the development of this musical form.

 

Khorekteer is an instrumental misicianship based on the imitation of the sounds of surrounding world.
[up] http://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CENTRE “KHOOMEI”, KYZYL, TUVA

MISSION

  • Preservation and development of traditional culture of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer.
  • Organization of scientific research for revealing and study of throat singing of the peoples of Sayan-Altai Region and other parts of the world and their propaganda.
  • Creation of archives khorekteer recordings and their analysis.
  • Training and probation of young performers including foreign performers in the experimental laboratory of the center.
  • Participation in international music contests and organization of international symposia, seminars, conferences and festivals of Tuvan throat singing khorekteer.
  • Promotion of scientific-practical international contacts.
  • Social protection of performers.
http://www.khoomei.narod.ru/khorekteereng.html NEWS

01.05.2008

We are honored to invite you to participate in the 5th International Ethnomusicology Symposium “Khoomei (throat-singing) is a Cultural Phenomenon of the Peoples of Central Asia” to be held July 25-28, 2008 in Kyzyl, the capital of the Republic of Tuva.

The problems of the functioning and development of throat singing in the different regions will be discussed.
Within the framework of the Symposium the 5th International festival of throat singing with participation of the performers from Moscow, Republic of Altay, Republic of Khakasia, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Kalmykia, Republic of Yakutia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Japan, USA, France, Holland, Austria, Turkey and Norway will be held.
The issues of musical ethnography on following directions will be discussed:
1. Comparative study of double-voiced throat-singing (Khoomei).
2. Genres of traditional music ( ritual music, epos, lyric poetry).
3. Musical instruments and instrumental music.
4. Traditional music and religious systems.
5. Issues of migration of musical phenomena. Interaction of nomadic and settled cultures. Musical folklore as a source of historic information on ethnogenesis of peoples of Central Asia.
In work of  the symposium scientists of khoomei studies, physicians-physiologists, scientist physicists, musicologists, scientists of folk arts, throat singing performers, also representatives philological, history sciences will take part. Their themes are closely connected with marked problems.
Registration fee is 300$ US. Different exhibitions, show of movies, trips to the countryside of Tyva are in the program.
The thesis of scientific papers should be no more than 2 A4 (1,5 interval) both in English and Russian languages should be sent not later than 1st April 2008 (Thesis received after the 1st of April will not be included in the final thesis publication).
We kindly ask you to include the best people’s khoomei performers into the list of your delegation (not more than 2 people) to participate in the concert of the traditional music.
Accommodation and travel expenses are paid by participants; food and cultural program are paid by organizing committee of the Symposium.
We look forward to your acceptance.
Organizing Committee: International Scientific Centre “Khoomei”
46,Shchetinkin-Kravchenko str .
Kyzyl, Republic of Tyva, Russia, 667000
tel: +7 (39422) 2-33-18 fax: +7 (39422) 3-38-97
mobile: +7 913 342-43-87
e-mail: kyrgys@yandex.ru