DEMETRIO STRATOS RETHINKS VOCAL TECHNIQUES: A HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION AT ISTC IN PADOVA, Proceeding of the SMC Conference 2011 (Sound and Music Computing), Padova 6-9 July 2011, pp. 48-55.

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Laura Zattra

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Graziano Tisato

Elena Ceolia, Graziano Tisato, Laura Zattra


1 DEMETRIO STRATOS RETHINKS VOCAL TECH- NIQUES: A HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION AT ISTC IN PADOVA Elena Ceolin Graziano Tisato Laura Zattra ISTC (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione), CNR, Padova Università di Padova Dipartimento di Storia delle Arti Visive e della Musica Università di Padova Dipartimento di Storia delle Arti Visive e della Musica ABSTRACT Demetrio Stratos ( ) was a singer known for his creative use of vocal techniques such as diplophony, bitonality and diphony (overtone singing). His need to know the scientific explanation for such vocal behaviors, drove him to visit the ISTC in Padova (Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies) in the late Seventies. ISTC technical resources and the collaboration with Franco Ferrero and Lucio Croatto (phonetics and phoniatric experts), allowed him to analyze his own phonoarticulatory system and the effects he was able to produce. This paper presents the results of a broad historical survey of Stratos research at the ISTC. The historic investigation is made possible by textual criticism and interpretation based on different sources, digital and audio sources, sketches, various bibliographical references (published or unpublished) and oral communications. Sonograms of Stratos exercises (made at the time and recently redone) show that various abilities existed side by side in the same performer, which is rare to find. This marks his uniqueness in the avant-gard and popular music scene of the time. The ultimate aim of this study was to produce a digital archive for the preservation and conservation of the sources related to this period. 1. INTRODUCTION Efstratios Demetriou (April 22, 1945 June 13, 1979), better known as Demetrio Stratos, was a multiinstrumentalist, music researcher and singer. He is known for his activity with the Italian progressive rock group Area, as well as for his collaborations with other artists and his solo activity. His interests in ethnomusicology and extra-european traditions, the complete mastery of a wide range of vocal techniques and the awareness of the spoken language constraints, were his background. That induced him to free the voice from the linguistic superstructures and to explore the underlying sonic substance. Among the most Copyright: 2011 Ceolin et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. impressive results of his research on what he called the instrument-voice [1], a series of unbelievable performances must be mentioned, mainly in the whistle register, producing two or three inharmonic partials at the same time, in a frequency region that could reach the 8,000 Hz. During the late Seventies, Stratos visited several times the ISTC of CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) in Padova ( Here, he worked with the physicist Franco Ferrero, who was an expert in phonetics, and with Lucio Croatto, phoniatric expert, to explore this vocal effects by the means of ISTC technical resources: a spectrograph of the VoiceIdentification and an electroglottograph (or EGG, or laryngograph) Elettro-Glottograph EG 830 by the F-J Electronics [9]. Unfortunately, Stratos premature death at age 34 put an end to his research activity, which would have provided other results and assertions to his original view and definitely future pedagogical and scientific outcomes. Why, thirty years after his death, the myth of Demetrio Stratos voice is still alive and growing? His unusual extension of vocal techniques, the musical use of his vocal features and his penchant for scientific research, show the emergence of a figure in the musical scene who struggles against established vocal techniques and monody, but also against the established music industry. What was Stratos looking for from phonetics, physicists, and phoniatric experts? In what way did he try to study his ability to obtain such complicated techniques? This paper is an attempt to reply to this double question. The investigation starts from two premises. The first one is the necessity to study the Stratos scientific experience through the sources, an aspect which has not yet been considered by literature. Literature normally has a target audience from the rock ambience. Stratos should be considered more broadly for his scientific contribution. His Paduan period is significant for this reason. It is a particular case where creativity rethinks science, as happened worldwide in the musical and scientific research centers (San Diego, Stanford Universities, Ircam, CSC in Padova, etc.). The Seventies drove musicians and scientists to collaborate in order to understand how voice and instruments physically worked (think e.g. the spectral analysis and physical models research, etc.). In this case, the performer himself decides to study his own voice and be more acquainted with his own capabilities.

2 The second premise emphasizes the problem of music conservation and preservation. The ISTC shares the same problem musical archives or musical institutions have. Oblivion or inaccurate preservation exist because of scientists and musicians continued acquisition of knowledge and the urge of experimentation, that brought to postpone, and often to forget, the organization and preservation of their musical materials [2, 3]. Together with the reconstruction of Stratos experience, this research has been based on the philological method, in which the researcher follows different steps in his investigation. First of all the philologist aims to the complete recension and description of extant sources (even oral witnesses). Then he proceeds listing all different sources and name them with abbreviations derived from their content or origin. XX century music is characterized by heterogeneous sources (audio and video sources, sketches, digital sources, spectrograms and/or digital scores or description, oral witnesses) therefore he must consider all of them. The accurate description of the sources is the third moment of the investigation [4]. Section 2 gives an overview of the historical experience. Section 3 describes Ferrero and Stratos work during the recording and the analysis of the vocal effects. Section 4 describes sources, methodological problems and the organization of the new archive with Stratosrelated materials at the ISTC [5]. 2. STRATOS AT THE ISTC ( ) This section tells the story of Stratos presence at the ISTC, as derived from the sources mentioned in chapter A necessity Many are the reasons why Stratos had found the necessity to analyze his own voice compelling. First of all, as it is stressed by all Area members, Stratos background was a melting pot of Greek, Egyptian and Balcanic musical traditions. Another field which certainly caused this interest were infant and newborn voices. Daniela Ronconi, Stratos wife, told that Stratos was fascinated by his daughter Anastasia s voice, especially during the lallation phase; 1 he kept asking himself the reason why people lose this interesting capability while they grow up [6]. Another fact happened in 1974, when Stratos performed the John Cage piece Sixty-two Mesostics Re Merce Cunningham (1971) for voice unaccompanied using a microphone, a score that demands the performer a great independence and liberation. The occasion to meet Tran Quang Hai, a renowned interpreter of Eastern musical tradition and harmonic chant, was also important and allowed Stratos to learn this way of singing and its philosophical implication. Finally, Nicola Bernardini had a relevant part in Stratos experience. Bernardini (at the time a member of Prima Materia) met Demetrio Stratos and exchanged discussions. They used to perform overtone singing compe- 1 The infant baby s gibberish (from Latin lallāre: to sing lullaby, a verb containing the concept of producing alliterative sounds). In phonetics it means more generally a defect of speech (replacement of L for R). titions («we travelled together a lot at the time, and practicing the overtone singing was the best pastimes!» [17]). 2.2At the ISTC The musical experimentation was not enough for Demetrio Stratos. He needed to give a scientific explanation to the phono-articulatory phenomena. This is why he firstly asked Pino Sambataro, his reliable otorhinolaryngologist in Milan to study his voice. But because of his inability to understand how Stratos voice worked, this doctor decided to contact a colleague in Padova, Maurizio Accordi, who was in his opinion a specialist in this field. Accordi and Lucio Croatto, director of the ISTC (at the time Centro per le Ricerche di Fonetica) examined Stratos phono-articulatory system accurately, and found nothing unusual. No special instrumentation was used, but only a laryngeal little mirror, for the videolaringostroboscopy did not exist yet. Then they thought to examine Stratos voice also from an acoustical point of view, and take him to the ISTC [6]. This happened during Fall 1976, which is also confirmed by [5] and the researcher and physicist Kyriaki Vagges, who worked at the time with Ferrero at the ISTC, and is the sole witness alive of that meeting [8]. During their meetings, Ferrero and Stratos recorded several improvisations, which were analyzed to observe their spectral content (several papers were published under the names of Accordi, Croatto and Ferrero). Unfortunately, it is difficult to date those meetings, and yet material sources (audio sonograms and paper sources) do not give any help. Nonetheless it is certain that Stratos went to the ISTC ISTC during the years 1976, 1977 and 1978 (daa-ssn, daa-d, 2 and [12]) and in 1999 Ferrero declared to Janete El Haouli that he worked with Stratos at the ISTC for 4 or 5 times [1: 129]. Audio sources and sonograms demonstrate that most of the vocal material was recorded at the ISTC. Only a small number of audio recordings were made at Stratos home [6]. Since evidently no electroglottograph tracks exist of those materials, it is easy to establish which vocal effects were recorded at ISTC under monitored conditions. 2.3Recording Demetrio Stratos Speech and glottic sources were recorded by Ferrero team in the ISTC silent room, respectively on a Revox A77 tape recorder, and an Electro-Glottograph EG 830 by F-J Electronics [8]. The equipment also included an oscilloscope for the real time visualization and the signal analysis [8]. The vocal and glottal signals were recorded on two separate synchronous tracks. The speech signal was captured from a microphone at 10 cm from the mouth. The glottic source was acquired by means of two electrodes, attached to both side of the neck, in correspondence of the larynx. This allowed to pick up the rough signal of the vocal cords, not filtered by the resonances of the vocal tract. The absence of articulatory effects takes away all 2 The sources are listed in chapter 4.2.

3 intelligibility and all human characteristics from the sound, and makes it like a buzzing of a reed instrument. The subsequent analyses were made on a massive Voiceidentification Spectrograph 700 (same machine used in forensic application) by Franca Zecchin, who did the very first study of those materials [9]. The maximum frequency band the machine could capture was 8 KHz, which explains why Ferrero-Zecchin analysis established that Stratos could perform some extraordinary bitonality effects reaching 7000 Hz [12]. However, today analysis (made in 2002) has allowed to determine that Stratos maximum was much higher, of about 8000 Hz (Fig. 3). 3. VOCAL EXERCISES AND ANALYSIS 3.1Stratos original vocal technique Stratos ability allowed him to produce diplophony, bitonality and diphony (overtone singing) [10]. 3 Diplophony is the ability to make two sounds at the same time. Vocal cords vibrate asymmetrically, and produce a waveform period with normal amplitude followed by a feebler one. One cannot always perceive two separate sounds: a normal period followed by an anomalous period means that the perceived frequency is one octave lower (for psycoacoustic reasons it is sometimes difficult to distinguish). If two normal periods are followed by one abnormal, the pitch of the perceived sound results an octave and a fifth lower [10]. What is heard, consequently, is a dirty and scratched voice, because two frequency components fall in the same critical band and because of the masking of the lower partials above the higher. If this phenomenon can be sometimes accidental in the pathological voices and sometimes also in singing, Stratos made it intentionally. Bitonality is the unusual capability to produce two different sounds which are sometimes not in a harmonic relation. In normal conditions, the vocal folds produce a sound with harmonic spectral components, i.e. the frequencies of partials are multiple of a fundamental, or separated by the same frequency interval. Sometimes the contraction of false vocal cords provokes a second sound due to the low frequency modulation. Some other times, strong false vocal cords contractions trigger very high whistles. In the case of bitonality, the adduction of vocal cords is so strong that it generates two independent nonharmonic sounds, as it happens when you touch with a finger the string on a musical instrument and the original sound splits in two. In some of Stratos effects, the EGG demonstrated the absence of the vocal cords vibration: in this case, the perceived pure high frequency whistles are due to the reduced dimension of pharyngeal resonators [10]. Overtone singing is the extraordinary way to split the harmonic partials of a vocal sound, normally fused in a single one, in two distinct sonic images: one in the usual vocal range of the singer, the other in an high or very high register; this pure and flute-like sound corresponds to one of the harmonic partials reinforced by the resonances or formants of the spectral envelope. In enhancing the harmonic partial, one can create real melodies. An overtone singer can play these harmonic pitches in a scale which is a natural pentatonic scale (see Zarlino) [10]. 3.2Analysis and Sonograms Analyses of Stratos voice are mentioned in the following sources: dav-l, dc-val82, dc-riv80, dc-riv80/cp, dc- T/BATT, dc-t/cop, dc-ce/cnr, dc-son, dc-t/zecc (see Table 2). Franca Zecchin s graduation thesis is the first study dedicated to Stratos vocalizations. It is a very significant source because it was made during the period in which Stratos came at the ISTC [9, 11], and because it allows establishing the origin and reliability of the audio sources. In this way it is possible to verify that nearly all Stratos vocal effects were recorded at ISTC in controlled conditions, and cannot be the result of a (fraudulent) mixing, filtering, etc. From the entire series, Ferrero s team selected a set of 22 vocalizations to be the most representatives. The thesis reports that examples from n.1 to n.18 were recorded at the CNR during the fall Vocalizations nn. 19, 20, 21 were brought by Stratos in September 1977, pre-recorded on a tape. Vocalization n. 22 was recorded during the Fall 1976 [9]. All those examples were subjected to analysis, even if some of them (nn. 1-6 and 12, 15, 16) do not appear in Zecchin s thesis nor in the published article [9] (Zecchin also does not mention vocalizations nn. 7 e 11). The electrographic track of vocalizations nn. 8-10, 13, 14, 17, 18 is completely flat because of the absence of the vocal folds vibration. The thesis also includes a brief description of Stratos phono-articulatory attitude during the vocalization, but not the way it was deduced. Unfortunately, after 30 years, Zecchin does not remember the methodology they adopted. She makes two assumptions: the described vocalization mechanism could be a deduction made a posteriori, through the study of the sonograms and the formant positions and movements. A more likely explanation could be that Ferrero discussed with Stratos about what he felt inside his phono-articulatory system, and compared this sensations with the sonographic results [11]. Figure 1 shows the analysis of fragment n. 18, as it is shown in the article made in 1980 [12]. It begins with 2 whistles of 3700 Hz (and 2 nd harmonic, small triangle) and 5000 Hz (empty triangle). 3 Vocal analysis is one of Graziano Tisato s research topic, started during the Seventies. Soon after Stratos Paduan period, Tisato met Ferrero, and decided to determinate a precise terminology for the vocal effects. These were published in [14]. In 1989 Tisato realized the first model synthesis for the overtone singing [18].

4 V O C A L I Z E N THESIS -Phono articulatory attitude: the same as in nn. 8, 9 and 13. Spectrographic Recording -Cue: two non harmonic whistled notes, one at 3700 Hz + 2, the other as pure sound beyond 5000 Hz. Their frequency is decreasing. -1st s: transition phase after which they continue as pure sound with non harmonic fluctuations. Whistled bitonal sound. -2nd – 3rd s: a whistle overlaps for three times with a fundamental frequency at 1660 Hz + 2nd and 3rd, with the result of a three-partite sound. -4th s: the main whistle with a lower frequency disappears. A flat changeable whistle overlaps the whistled note, stabilizing around 1500 Hz: bitonal sound, like bird singing. -5th s: pitch at 1500 Hz + 2nd and flat inflected whistle (like bird singing) between 4000 and 5000 Hz. Figure 1. Vocalization n. 18 [12: 253]. In a graduation thesis made in 2005, Copiello showed new analyses of the 22 examples, which had been made by Tisato [16]. They considered sonograms, pitches and intensities contours [16]. The numeric representation shows unquestionable advantages and it solves those resolution and frequency limits of the Sonograph 700, thanks to the possibility to choose the proper frequency and time scale, and to obtain the parameter values straight from the data analysis. Table 1shows the comparison [16]. Fig. 2 shows the same vocalization of Fig. 1 in an arbitrary time scale. The Fig. 3 shows a sonogram with an example of tritonality STUDY 2005 STUDY Electroglottographic recording: flat during the whole length. (vocalize 18 was recorded in 1976 at CNR. The tape include the verbal vocalize but not the glottic vocalize) (annotations are made only if the analysis is different from the one made in 1977) Spectrographic Recording -During the whole vocalize there is a noise band around 1200 Hz Electroglottographic recording: Not quoted (annotations where different) Spectrographic Recording: -Whistled at ~3555 Hz (La7) and 2nd harmonic; and beyond 5500 Hz pure sound. -1,5 s: the lover whistle loses the 2nd harmonic s: whistle at ~1660 Hz (Sol6) Table 1. Vocalize n. 18: comparison between [12: 253] and the new analyze with modern sonograms [16]. Figure 2. The vocalization starts with a guttural impulsive sound, then it proceeds until 2.2 s with two inharmonic whistles (bitonality case): the lower at Hz presents a second harmonic, the higher slopes down from 5500 to about 4000 Hz. At this point until 3.3 s. a new inharmonic component appears at 1650 Hz to form the tritonality. Around Hz a very narrow noise band can be heard.

5 Figure 3. The vocalization starts with a breathy-vocalized sound of 300 ms, then 600 ms of an expiratory noise of low amplitude. At ~1.4 s, an high pitched cry with a set of 4 harmonics of 1 s can be heard, which raises from ~1100 (DO#6) to 1289 Hz (MI6-). Between 5-8 s, a chirp go down from ~7900 Hz to ~6200 Hz. Between 6-7 s a whistle appears at 4000 Hz and then at 6000 Hz. There is also a colored noise with 2 formants at 500 and 1000 Hz. At 7 s a chirp falling from ~4400 to 2250 Hz. 4. SOURCES 4.1New texts and supports in philology During the past half-century music and musical research (in both popular music and art music) have been made involving new ways of producing and analyzing sounds. As a result, sources that document information of this activity are heterogeneous and very different from the traditional status of paper material [13]. They are not necessarily a visible or symbolic trace and can indifferently be: 1) the audio and video source (analogue, CD, the mini disc, the memory of the computer); 2) printed, handwritten sources; 4) traditional scores; 5) different sketches; 6) articles; 7) oral witnesses (oral communications find justification in the contemporary context where collaboration is important); 8) visual representations such as sonograms [3, 4]. Stratos experience is a good example of a XX century historical event that must be studied in detail in terms of material and oral documentation. Chapter 4.2 shows the list of sources. Oral communications have been indispensable in reconstructing the historical facts and are included in [5]. 4.2Sources at the ISTC and elsewhere Table 2 lists all materials collected during this research project. General Cathegories of sources are: Analogue audio document (daa), Visual analogue document (dav), Paper document (dc), Audiovisual digital document (dda). For specific description, see [5]. SOURCE Cantare la Voce (long play disc) Copia disco dimostrazione Titze, (magnetic tape 1/8, SONY HF-ES60, compact cassette) Demetrio (magnetic tape 1/8, BASF Chromdioxid 90, compact cassette) Lo strumento voce, demo Lecce 14/4/94 (magnetic tape 1/8, SONY Metal-xr 100, compact cassette) Metrodora (long play disc) Napoli (magnetic tape 1/8 BASF Chromdioxid 60, compact cassette) Nastro cantanti 75/78 (magnetic tape, BASF, plastic flange) Nastro pre-tesi, copia nastro Tesi, Stratos vocalizzi riversati (magnetic tape 1/8, BASF Chromdioxid 60, compact cassette) Nastro Tesi su Demetrio Stratos (magnetic tape 1/8, BASF Cromdioxid 90, compact cassette) Spectrograph7 (Stratos) (magnetic tape, BASF Scotch, plastic flange) Spectrograph 20 (magnetic tape, BASF, aluminium flange) Stratos Ferrara (magnetic tape 1/,BASF Chromdioxid 90, compact cassette) Stratos Milano (magnetic tape 1/8, TDK, SF60, compact cassette) Stratos suo nastro (magnetic tape 1/8, TDK KR C60, compact cassette) Slides (mixed), ISTC archive, Padua Lo strumento voce, demo Lecce 14/4/94, transparencies, ISTC archive, Padua Transparencies, no date, ISTC archive, Padua (two parcels) Abbreviation daa-cv daa-ct daa-d daa-svl daa-m daa-n daa-nc75/78 daa-npt daa-ntd daa-s7 daa-s20 daa-sf daa-sm daa-ssn dav-d dav-lsv dav-l (two parcels)

6 SOURCE Accordi M., Croatto L., Ferrero F. E., Analisi spettrografica di alcuni vocalizzi di Demetrio Stratos. In Il Valsalva, bollettino italiano di audiologia e foniatria, Vol. V N. 1, January – April 1982, pp. 2-8 Accordi M., Croatto L., Ferrero F. E., Descrizione elettroacustica di alcuni tipi di vocalizzo di Demetrio Stratos. In Rivista Italiana di Acustica, Vol. IV N , pp Accordi M., Croatto L., Ferrero F. E., Descrizione elettroacustica di alcuni tipi di vocalizzo di Demetrio Stratos. In Rivista Italiana di Acustica, Vol. IV N , pp , copy of the original typewritten publication Accordi M., Ferrero F., Ricci Maccarini A., Tisato G., Il canto difonico, un esempio delle possibilità del tratto vocale, comunicazione presentata al XVIth Congress of Union of the European Phoniatricians, Salsomaggiore, Ottobre In Quaderni del centro di studio per le ricerche di fonetica, vol. IX, 1990, pp Baroni Vittore, Cometa Rossa: la Musica è un Gioco Rischioso, pp , no date Battain Valeria, Un archivio di documenti sonori non convenzionale: il fondo Demetrio Stratos dell’istc (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, ex Istituto di Fonetica e Dialettologia) del CNR di Padova. Thesis of the Academic year , Università degli studi di Udine, Supervisor: Professor Sergio Canazza Targon Cantare la voce, poster, congress programme and brochure, Monday 29th e Tuesday 30th May 1989, ISTC archive, Padua Copiello Laura Demetrio Stratos, una vocalità riscoperta. Thesis of the Academic year , Università degli studi di Venezia, Supervisors: Professori Giovanni Morell, Graziano Tisato e Domenico Stanzial Fariselli Loretta, Fariselli Patrizio, Demetrio Stratos Area, dieci anni di musica ed impegno, programme of the demonstration on the 4th of July at 9.00 pm in Piazza Mercato, Marghera, unpuplished work Ferrero E. Franco, Attività di studi e ricerca sulla voce cantata, study presented at Seminario CIRM, 5 Febbraio 1997, unpublished work Ferrero E. Franco, Caratteristiche elettroacustiche di alcune singolari vocalizzazioni di Stratos Demetriou, Centre for the study of phonetic researches (CNR) in Padua, unpublished work Ferrero E. Franco, Elenco delle pubblicazioni, 30 Settembre 1997, ISTC archive, Padua Ferrero F., Ricci Maccarini A., Tisato G., I suoni multifonici nella voce umana, article presented at XIX Convegno Nazionale Aprile 1991, Napoli, pp Ferrero Franco, Elementi di Fonetica, publication n. 85 from the list of publications, pp Ferrero Franco (hypothesis of the autor based on the hand writing), Fonetografia e costo vocale, study, without date, ISTC archive, Padua, unpublished work Ferrero Franco, La fonetica strumentale in funzione della diagnostica foniatrica e della riabilitazione logopedica, notepad bound by hand, handwriting by Ferrero, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Ferrero Franco, Lo strumento voce, study, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Ferrero Franco, three lists of thesis (supervisor F. Ferrero), ordered by location, Academic year and alphabetical order of the titles, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Tissue paper sheets, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Sheet of paper with the description of vocalizes 18 and 6 (copy of a page Caratteristiche elettroacustiche di alcune singolari Abbreviation dav-l1 (first parcel) dav-l2 (second parcel) dc-val82 dc-riv80 dc-riv80/cp dc-cdif dc-com dc-t/batt dc-cv/l (poster) dc-cv/p (congress programme) dc-cv/o (brochure) dc-t/cop dc-far/09 dc-cirm dc-ce/cnr dc-ep dc-sm dc-ef dc-fon dc-fs/lib dc-sv dc-t/el dc-fcv dc-l1 SOURCE vocalizzazioni di Stratos Demetriou attached to the first parcel of transparencies), without date, ISTC archive, Padua Fortunato Roberto, Rinasce la ricercata etichetta Cramps. In Il mattino, Tuesday 11th July 1989, pp. 41 Gatti Roberto, In alto la voce. In L’Espresso, 4th of June 1989, pp Kemp Alan, Linsdey Geoff, Verhoeven Jo, Practical Phonetics, Edinburgh University Linguistics Department, pp. 1-8, without date La musique religieuse du Thibet, Bulletin du Groupe d’acoustique Musicale, 58, Université Paris VI, 1972 Lo strumento voce, demo Lecce 14/4/94, sheets with notes Transparencies, paper copy, without date, ISTC archive, Padua, (two parcels) Mangiarotti Marco, Stratos: la musica è gioia e rivoluzione. In Il giorno, Sunday 25th June 1989 Mattarelli Luca, Demetrio Stratos, una nuova vocalità. Thesis of the Academic year , Università degli studi di Bologna, Supervisor: Professor Gino Stefani Nastro cantanti 75/78, cover with notes, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Ricci Maccarini Andrea, Il canto difonico. Thesis of the Academic Year , Università degli studi di Padova, Supervisor: Professor Maurizio Accordi, Co-Relatore: Dott. Franco Emilio Ferrero Receipt of payment to Franco Ferrero for the conference he held on the 29th of September in the auditorium San Rocco Vocal Music Festival called Caratteristiche elettroacustiche di alcuni tipi di vocalizzo di Demetrio Stratos Sonagrams (mix), ISTC archive, Padua Spectrograph 7 (Stratos), white cardboard with notes and writings, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Spectrograph 20, sheet with notes, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Vocalizzi di Stratos (pre-tesi), sheet with notes, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Vocalizzi Tesi, sheet with notes, without date, ISTC archive, Padua Zecchin Franca, Studio elettroacustico di alcuni vocalizzi di Demetrio Stratos. Thesis of the Academic Year , Università degli studi di Padova, Supervisor: Professor Franco Ferrero Copia disco dimostrazione Titze, conservative copy CIF0001 of the ISTC archive (DVD-data: 2+2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz- 24bit) Demetrio, conservative copy CIF0002 of the ISTC archive (DVD-data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Nastro cantanti 75/78, conservative copy CIF0008_CCIR of the ISTC archive (DVD-data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96Hz-24bit) Nastro cantanti 75/78, conservative copy CIF0008_NAB of the ISTC archive (DVD-dati: 2 tracks, WAV, 96Hz-24bit) Nastro cantanti 75/78, conservative copy CIF0008_V of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 1 track, MOV) Nastro tesi su Demetrio Stratos, conservative copy CIF0006 of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Spectrograph7 (Stratos), conservative copy CIF0007 of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 1 track, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Spectrograph7 (Stratos), conservative copy CIF0007_V of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 1 track, MOV) Spectrograph 20, conservative copy CIF0009_CCIR of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Abbreviation dc- R.CRAMPS/M at dc-iav/esp dc-pp dc-mr/th dc-sv/app dc-lc (two parcels) dc-l1 (first parcel) dc-l2 (second parcel) dc-mgr/gio dc-t/matt dc-nc75/78 dc-t/ric dc-ric DC-SON DC-SP7 dc-sp20 dc-voc/pt dc-voc/t dc-t/zecc DDA-1 DDA-2 DDA-8/C DDA-8/N DDA-8/V DDA-6 DDA-7 dda-7/v DDA-9/C Spectrograph 20, conservative copy CIF0009_NAB of the DDA-9/N

7 SOURCE ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Spectrograph 20, conservative copy CIF0009_V of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 1 track, MOV) Stratos Ferrara, conservative copy CIF0004 of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Stratos Milano, conservative copy CIF0003 of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Stratos suo nastro, conservative copy CIF0005 of the ISTC archive (DVD- data: 2 tracks, WAV, 96kHz-24bit) Abbreviation DDA-9/V DDA-4 DDA-3 DDA-5 Table 2. Sources for the study of Demetrio Stratos at the ITSC. Several additional sources are not listed here: these are articles, dissertations, projection papers, sleeves/sheets and annotations related to the audio material. The existence of documentations scattered over an extended period of time from the Seventies up to now tells not only the interest towards Stratos, it also ensure the importance of his musical research. 4.3Conservation and Preservation This project ultimate aim has been to preserve the entire documentation from obsolescence and deterioration; that is why, following the typology of sources, a digital archive has been made, which is now available at the ISTC. The digital archive purpose is: 1) to preserve a specific order (folders e.g. digitization of paper materials are maintained in the same sequence of the original sources), so that the sources cannot get lost in different places; 2) to preserve the chronology of their creation; 3) to guarantee the accessibility to whoever is interested; 4) to avoid damages to the authentic sources that could be caused by an incorrect use. The archive refines and benefits of a previous research. In 2007 Valeria Battain created digital conservative copies of the entire documentation related to Demetrio Stratos at the ISTC [15]. The storage in digital format included three magnetic open tape reels (daa-nc75/78, daa-s7, daa-s20) and six compact cassettes (daa-ct, daa- D, daa-ntd, daa-sf, daa-sm, daa-ssn). Battain s study provides a descriptive paper and picture for each original source; it also includes other papers with technical information related to the process. It was however incomplete. The new digital archive is divided into two parts: the first one is labeled ARCHIVIO Demetrio Stratos, ISTC (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione), CNR, Padova ; it relates to a selected space inside one of the shelves at the ISTC; it correspond to tangible documents (e.g. thesis, tapes, compact-cassettes, DVD with recordings made by the eng. Sergio Canazza, etc.); the second part is an external HD USB with the whole sources that have been digitized during this work. For the moment, the archive can be accessed only locally through the computers of the Institute (ISTC). The structure of the archive reflects the choice made in organizing the whole sources. It simply systematizes them in 4 macrocategories: analogue audio document (daa), visual analogue document (dav), paper document (dc), audiovisual digital document (dda). Each folder is a container for the digitalized documents. These are: 14 analogue audio documents, 14 audiovisual documents (digital), 4 visual documents ( analogue ), 40 paper documents. The documents are identifiable through the abbreviated text extension given during this research, instead of verbose and long names (see Table 2). 5. CONCLUSIONS The reconstruction of Stratos experience in Padova has been made possible by the collection, the description, the analysis and the comparison of sources. Yet, this study is needless to say the first step toward investigating Stratos contribute to XX century vocal research. Just as an example, Stratos position in the avant-garde vocal research is almost completely unknown, but many aspects of his life are critical. Area member Paolo Tofani recalls the precise moment when Stratos realized the novelty of the overtone singing [19]. It was in 1976/77, when a journalist brought to the group an audiocassette with sounds sung by Mongolians: Demetrio tried and tried until he finally succeeded, because he had been influenced by John Cage; they also went to meet Cathy Berberian repeatedly and took lessons from Tran Quang Hai [19]. Also, his friendship with Nicola Bernardini, member of Prima Materia Group, is crucial. And needless to say, the milieu and historical period in which Stratos research took place are again crucial: the Seventies, when the youth movement reached Italy and the children of the second world war began their protest against the established culture and lifestyle. It is easy to state that this social rebellion reflects in the complete nonconformity and subversion of Stratos technique, an aspect that affected Stratos position in the musical industry, since his voice did not respect standardized vocal production, did not consider language s rules and, on the contrary, tried to get loose from the detention of the communicative act. Future studies need to take into account all aspects of this issue. The investigation of Stratos vocal effects may develop in two directions. The first one is related to the systematic investigation of the complete series of Stratos vocalizes, which had not been analyzed so far (as said in 3.4). The second one could help in deducing Stratos phonatory attitude: Voice Quality (VQ) methodologies and glottal source modelization techniques should be applied to the existing glottal tracks. In addition to the traditional parameters (Shimmer, i.e. the amplitude perturbations of the wave form; Jitter, i.e. the pitch perturbations; the Waveform Matching Coefficient, i.e. the cross-correlation between near periods; the Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio, i.e. the energy ratio between the harmonic partials and the noise components; etc.), it is in fact possible to extract more meaningful information: for example, the Glottal to Noise Excitation Ratio (GNE), which is used to discriminate among normal and pathological voices [20]. The available glottic tracks could give precious information about the glottal flow, in term of Open Quotient Oq = Te / T0, i.e. the ratio between the maximum excitation instant Te and the sound period T0, and the Return phase quotient Qa, the ratio between the return phase (in which the glottal flow reaches zero) and the closed phase of the vocal folds. The Return phase quotient proved to be the

8 most effective index of VQ, for it determines the sound Spectral tilt, i.e. the slope of the frequency envelope [21]. Another development is the one mentioned before. A web page of the archive would also be desirable (possibly at: with the audio vocal material and the PDF documents (of course in agreement with the authors). Accessing the stock of documents via metadata would be imperative. The web access would guarantee a more large accessibility to the sources; this also should adhere to Stratos personal interest in the study and dissemination of his own personal research. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Piero Cosi, Alberto Benin, Nicola Bernardini, Ferdinando Bersani, Maurizio Accordi, Oskar Schindler, Francesco Avanzini, Area members Paolo Tofani, Ares Tavolazzi, Patrizio Fariselli and Claudio Rocchi, Valeria Battain, Kyriaki Vagges and Franca Zecchin, Sergio Canazza Targon and Daniela Ronconi Demetriou. This research would not have been possible without their help and advice. 6. REFERENCES [1] J. El Haouli (1999), Demetrio Stratos, alla ricerca della voce-musica, Milano, Casanova e Chianura edizioni, 1999/2009. [2] N. Bernardini, A. Vidolin, Sustainable live electro-acoustic music, Cdrom proceedings Sound and Music Computing 2005 XV, CIM – Nov , Salerno, Italy, [3] L. Zattra, Studiare la computer music. Definizioni, analisi, fonti, (collana biblioteca contemporanea), libreriauniversitaria.it, 2011, ISBN [4] L. Zattra Sources and philological problems in the study of Computer Music, in Elektroakustische Musik: Technologie, Aesthetik und Theorie als Herausforderung an die Musikwissenschaft, T. Boehme-Mehner, K. Mehner, M. Wolf eds., Essen, Die Blaue Eule Verlag, 2008, pp [5] E. Ceolin, Demetrio Stratos a Padova: la storia, le fonti, l archivio, Graduation Thesis, DAMS, Supervisor: S. Durante, L. Zattra, March [6] D. Ronconi Demetriou, interview given to Elena Ceolin, June 25, [7] M. Accordi, interview given to Elena Ceolin, October 5, [8] K. Vagges, interview given to Elena Ceolin, February 18, [9] F. Zecchin, Studio elettroacustico di alcuni vocalizzi di Demetrio Stratos, graduation thesis, , Università degli studi Padova, Supervisor: Prof. Franco Ferrero, [10] G. Tisato, interview given to Elena Ceolin, February 7, [11] F. Zecchin, interview given to Elena Ceolin, February 17, [12] M. Accordi, L. Croatto, F. Ferrero, Descrizione elettroacustica di alcuni tipi di vocalizzo di Demetrio Stratos, in «Rivista Italiana di Acustica», Vol. IV N. 3, 1980, pp [13] M. Caraci Vela, La filologia musicale. Istituzioni, storia, strumenti critici, Vol. 1, LIM, [14] F. Ferrero, A. Ricci Maccarini, G. Tisato (1991), I suoni multifonici nella voce umana, in XIX Convegno Nazionale AIA Aprile 1991, Napoli, 1991, pp [15] L. Battain (2007), Un archivio di documenti sonori non convenzionale: il fondo Demetrio Stratos dell’istc (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, ex Istituto di Fonetica e Dialettologia) del CNR di Padova, Graduation Thesis , Università degli studi di Udine, Supervisor: Prof. Sergio Canazza Targon, [16] L. Copiello, Demetrio Stratos, una vocalità riscoperta. Graduation Thesis , Università degli studi di Venezia, supervisors: Proff.s G. Morelli, G. Tisato e D. Stanzial, [17] N. Bernardini, interview given to Elena Ceolin, June 8, [18] G. Tisato, Analisi e sintesi del Canto Difonico, in Proceedings VII Colloquio di Informatica Musicale (CIM), Cagliari, 1989, pp [19] P. Tofani, interview given to Elena Ceolin, March 21, 2011 (in the presence of G. Tisato and Giovanni Floreani). [20] D. Michaelis, M. Froehlich, H.W. Strube, Selection and combination of acoustic features for the description of pathologic voices in J. of the Acoust. Soc. Am., 103(3), 1998, pp [21] B. Doval, C. d’alessandro, N. Henrich, The spectrum of glottal flow models in Acta Acustica, 92, 2006, pp , age_2


Laura Zattra (Musicologist) obtained her PhD (2003) in Music and Musicology at the Sorbonne Paris IV under the direction of Marc Battier and in Musical Sciences at Trento University under the direction of Rossana Dalmonte. She pursued post-doctoral studies at the University of Padova, she obtained research grants from the same university (2006-2012), from EHESS Lyon (2002-3), De Monfort University (2008-9), Calgary University (2011), from CNRS France (2012) and IRCAM in Paris (2017). Her writings include the book Studiare la computer music. Definizioni, analisi, fonti (2011), Musica e famiglia. L’avventura artistica di Renata Zatti (2010), Invenzione Musicale (L.Zattra ed., 2012), the co-edition of Presenza storica di Luigi Nono (2011) and Vent’anni di musica elettronica all’università di Padova (2002) as well as articles and book chapters (Computer Music Journal, Contemporary Music Review, Musicae Scientiae, Journal of New Music Research, Organised Sound, Musimédiane…; she recently curated two entries for the Italian Encyclopedia Treccani). She is a member of the Associazione di Informatica Musicale Italiana, the APM équipe at IRCAM Paris, the IReMus at Sorbonne Paris IV, the Electroacoustic Music Studies Network. Her musicological expertise covers the twentieth century and particularly of the post-World War II period and XXI century, the analysis of electroacoustic music, the philology of music, the interaction of music and technology, ethnography and oral history applied, women composers, the analysis of compositional process.

Graziano Tisato :


Intervista a Graziano Tisato, ricercatore CNR Padova

“Il canto difonico” ne parliamo con Graziano Tisato, ricercatore CNR Padova

Graziano Tisato

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Demetrio Stratos

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Demetrio Stratos
Demetrio Stratos - Ευστράτιος Δημητρίου.jpg
Background information
Birth name Efstratíos Dimitríou (Greek: Ευστράτιος Δημητρίου)
Also known as Demetrio Stratos
Born April 22, 1945
Alexandria, Egypt
Died June 13, 1979 (aged 34)
New York City
Genres Progressive rock, art rock, experimental, world
Occupation(s) Singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, music researcher
Instruments Vocals
Steel drums
Years active 1963–1979
Labels Ricordi
Numero Uno
Associated acts I Ribelli
Website link

Efstratios Dimitriou (Greek: Ευστράτιος Δημητρίου; April 22, 1945 – June 13, 1979), known professionally as Demetrio Stratos, was a Greek-Italian lyricist, multi-instrumentalist, music researcher, and co-founder, frontman, and lead singer of the Italian progressive rock band Area – International POPular Group.

Born and raised in Alexandria, Egypt, of Greek parents, he studied piano and accordion at the “National Conservatoire“. In 1957 he was sent to Nicosia, Cyprus, and, at the age of 17, moved to Milan, Italy, to attend the Politecnico di Milano University at the Architecture Faculty, where he formed his first musical group. In 1967, Demetrio Stratos joined the Italian beat band I Ribelli, and in 1972, founded Area.

Stratos recorded many records, and toured festivals in Italy, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Netherlands, Cuba, and the United States with Area, as well as a solo artist and in collaboration with other artists. He worked with Mogol, Lucio Battisti, Gianni Sassi, Gianni Emilio Simonetti, Juan Hidalgo, Walter Marchetti, John Cage, Tran Quang Hai, Merce Cunningham, Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Grete Sultan, Paul Zukofsky, Nanni Balestrini, Claude Royet-Journoud, and Antonio Porta.

He studied ethnomusicology, vocal extensions, Asian music chant, compared musicology, the problem of ethnic vocality, psychoanalysis, the relationship between spoken language and the psyche, the limits of the spoken language. He was able to reach 7,000 Hz, and to perform diplophony, triplophony, and also quadrophony. Daniel Charles has described him as the person who decimated monody by the demultiplication of the acoustic spectrum. His vocal abilities were explored and documented.

Stratos died in New York City Memorial Hospital on June 13, 1979 at the age of thirty–four. His self-proclaimed mission was to free vocal expression from what he considered to be the slavery of language and classical lyrical melody. He considered the exploration of vocal potential as a tool of psychological and political liberation. His studies and recognition of the voice as musical instrument carried this ethos to the edge of human vocal ability. His work is considered by many critics and vocalists as important in the progression of experimental and novel vocal techniques.[1][2][3]


The early years 1945–1971

Demetrio Stratos was born as Efstratios Demetriou in Alexandria, Egypt on April 22, 1945, of Greek parents (Janis Demetriou and Athanassia Archondoyorghi).[4] He spent his first 13 years in Alexandria where he studied piano and accordion at the prestigious Conservatoire National d’Athènes (“National Conservatoire of Athens“),[1][4] and studied English at the British Boys School. As he later said, the fact that he was born in Alexandria made him feel like a special and privileged “porter” in an international hotel, destined to live the experience of peoples’ passages and to assist in the true “traffic” of culture in the Mediterranean area, so full of various ethnic groups and intense musical practices. His family was of Greek Orthodox religion, so during his infancy he listened to religious Byzantine songs, traditional Arabic music and then the early beginnings of rock and roll. All of those sounds strongly influenced him for the rest of his life.[4] In 1957, because of the political events that upset Egypt, he was sent to the Catholic College of the Holy Land in Nicosia, Cyprus where, two years later, his family joined him.[3][5]

In 1962, he and his family moved to Milan, Italy where he attended the Politecnico di Milano University at the Architecture Faculty.[6] In 1963 he formed his first musical group and performed live at the “Casa dello studente” (“Student’s House”) Festival in Milan, then in some of the local pubs such as the Santa Tecla and the Intra’s al Corso.[7] Fortuitously, the original singer of the group was unable to sing one night due to a minor car accident, so Stratos stepped in to replace him, which began his venture into singing.[7] His repertoire at that time was a mixture of soul, blues and rhythm and blues.[7] In this period, Stratos also worked in many recording studios in Milan, playing keyboards.[1][3][7]

In 1967, he joined the Italian beat band I Ribelli (“The Rebels”) as the keyboard player. With I Ribelli, he recorded many hit singles like “Chi mi aiuterà”, “Oh Darling!” and “Pugni chiusi”, a song that became a symbol of the Italian 1960s, and Stratos’ fame rapidly grew in Italy.[8] In 1969, the band released their self-titled studio album, I Ribelli.[1][3]

In 1970, he left I Ribelli and formed a musical group with some English musicians including the drummer Jan Broad, and started to dedicate himself to his work on music and voice research, experimenting with vocal phenomena.[9] His interest in this research started when he observed his daughter, Anastassia (who was born in 1970), during her “babbling” phase, when a child is not yet able to speak correctly. Stratos noticed by watching his daughter that a child initially “plays” and “experiments” with her or his own voice, but then the richness of the vocal sound gets lost in the acquisition of verbal language. “The child loses the sound in order to organize the words“. This observation by Stratos was fundamental for his poetry. This language-voice connection and his experimentation with it was the hallmark of his entire artistic career.[9]

In 1971, he recorded the solo single “Daddy’s dream” which was published by Numero Uno, a record company owned by Mogol and Lucio Battisti. His involvement with commercial music definitively ended after this one commercial recording.[1][10]

Area 1972–1978

For more information about the Italian progressive rock band, please, see Area (band).

In 1972, Demetrio Stratos and drummer Giulio Capiozzo founded Area, a well-known Italian progressive rock, jazz fusion band.[1][11] The original line-up included Eddie Busnello (saxophone), Patrick Djivas (bass), Leandro Gaetano (piano) and Johnny Lambizzi (lead guitar).[12] Soon after, Busnello and Djivas left the group, and Patrizio Fariselli and Paolo Tofani joined the group. Djivas joined Premiata Forneria Marconi (PFM), and he was replaced by Ares Tavolazzi. Stratos recorded many records with Area, as well as in collaboration with Gianni Sassi, the owner of Cramps Records, on solo artist albums.[3][13][14][15]

In 1973, Stratos took part in the eighth Biennale de Paris, and Area released their first studio album, Arbeit macht frei (“Work Brings Freedom”),[16] taken from the inscription that was on the gate at the entrance of Auschwitz Nazi concentration camp.[1][3][16]

In 1974, Area toured festivals in France, Portugal, and Switzerland. Stratos gradually became more and more deeply involved in the mysterious world of vocal sounds, resuming and widening his immense work on the importance of the voice in the Asian and Middle Eastern civilizations. In Milan, he worked together with Gianni Emilio Simonetti, Juan Hidalgo, and Walter Marchetti,[17] founders of the group Zaj (an experimental music and performance art group formed in 1959), in the context of the Fluxus experience (an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines), and he then became involved with John Cage‘s music when he recorded Cage’s “Sixty-Two Mesostics Re Merce Cunningham” in a version for a solo voice and microphone,[17] subsequently performed at numerous festivals in front of large audiences mainly consisting of young people. At the festival of the proletarian youth in Lambro Park, Milan, Stratos introduced the Mesostics in front of 15,000 people.[17] Later, this piece was partially included in the recordings dedicated to the music of Cage, Nova Musicha N. 1: John Cage (CRSLP 6101), which were published by Cramps Records and inaugurated the “Nova Musicha” series. In the meantime, Area recorded and released their second studio album, Caution Radiation Area.[1][3][13][14][17]

In 1975, Stratos was involved with compared musicology and studied the problems of ethnic vocality, the vocal methods in East Asian music, and—in particular—the overtone singing techniques. He gradually became more and more deeply involved in the mysterious world of vocal sounds, widening his immense work on the importance of the voice in the Asian and Middle Eastern civilizations.[1] Also in 1975, Area released their third studio album, Crac!.[3][18]

In 1976, Stratos released his first studio album as a solo artist, Metrodora, which was the result of his vocal studies and research.[19] Its title and the single lyric that was included were inspired by Metrodora, a Byzantine woman physician of the 6th century.[19] In Paris, Stratos contacted Emile Leipp, the director of the Laboratory of Acoustics at the Paris VI University (Faculty of Sciences).[19] Area released their fifth studio album, Maledetti (Maudits), and the band went on tour, giving exhibitions at some festivals in France and Portugal.[19] Together with Patrizio Fariselli (prepared piano), Paolo Tofani (guitar and synthesizer), Paul Lytton (percussion), and Steve Lacy (sax soprano), he performed a concert in the “Aula Magna” at the University of Milan. The live recording of that performance, Event ’76, was published by Cramps Records in 1979.[3][19]

In this period, Stratos was involved in the study of psychoanalysis and was researching the relationship between spoken language and the psyche. Stratos spoke at several seminars at the Istituto di Glottologia e Fonetica[20] (“Institute of Glottology and Phonetics”) at the University of Padua, in Italy, formulating his own and true “pedagogy of the voice”. In Padua, he worked together with Ferrero and Lucio Croatto from the Centro Medico di Foniatria[21] (“Medical Centre of Phoniatrics”), on research related to language and vocal techniques. Stratos underlined the link between language and the psyche, and he highlighted the connection between them with the sounds made by his own vocal cords, which he considered to be a musical instrument.[13][14]

In 1977, his vocal abilities were explored and documented by Professor Franco Ferrero at the University of Padua,[13][14][22] a study that produced two scientific publications. He also found the time to do some live performances at the “Arsenale” Theater and at the Marconi’s Gallery in Milan.[23]

Albert Hera asked Tran Quang Hai in an interview, “What do you think about Demetrio Stratos?” Tran Quang Hai answered:

He learned from me in 1977, in France. He came to me with a manager who told me that the Master Demetrio Stratos wanted to learn my singer’s techniques. He stayed with me for two hours and he learned everything. Then, he returned to Italy and used the exercises learned for its personal searches.

— Tran Quang Hai to Albert Hera (in Italian)[24]

Area live in Castelmassa (Rovigo), Italy, August 1978

In 1978, Area left Cramps Records and moved to Ascolto, a record label owned by CGD. For Ascolto, they released their sixth studio album, 1978 Gli dei se ne vanno, gli arrabbiati restano!, the last one that included Demetrio Stratos.[3][25] In the meantime, Stratos continued with Cramps and Gianni Sassi as a solo artist, releasing Cantare la Voce.[25] In February, representing Greece, he did a concert at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, organized by the Atelier de Création Radiophonique for the X Internationals Biennale of Young Artists, entitled “Musics at an Exhibition” created by Daniel Caux.[25] Then, he performed live as a solo artist at the Pre-Art Gallery of Milan and went on tour in Portugal with Area.[25] His international fame grew when, at the invitation of John Cage, he took part in concerts given at the Roundabout Theatre in New York City on 18 and 19 March. This was the time of “Event” a show by Merce Cunningham, and the Dance Company, under the artistic direction of Jasper Johns, with Cage’s musical direction and contribution, and also featuring scenography and costume designs by Robert Rauschenberg, Mark Lancaster, and Andy Warhol.[1][25] In this, Stratos produced an astonishing array of sounds and sound effects using only his voice.[26]

On June 2, Stratos was in Bologna for the second International Week of the Performance.[25] In Amsterdam, on June 15, Stratos participated in “Sounday” by John Cage, an uninterrupted performance of approximately ten hours, from 7:00 am to 5:00 pm, which was organized at the Centrum Bellevue by Dutch Radio KRO Radio Hilversum IV. In Amsterdam, Stratos held a seminar with a live performance at the Stedelijk Museum.[25] On 26, 27, and 28 June, Stratos participated at the Cage’s show “Il Treno di John Cage – Alla ricerca del silenzio perduto” (“John Cage’s Train – In search for (or Raiders of) the lost silence”)”, three musical rides on a prepared train, stuffed with microphones, monitors, 210 tape records, amplifiers and random sounds, all directed by Cage himself with the assistance of Walter Marchetti and Juan Hidalgo.[25][27][28] On July 4, he was on stage with Grete Sultan and Paul Zukofsky for a John Cage concert at the Margherita theatre in Genoa.[25]

From July 28 to August 5, Area participated at the World Festival of Youth and Students (for Anti-Imperialist Solidarity, Peace and Friendship) in Havana, Cuba.[15] Stratos was invited by the local Ministry of Culture to meet the delegation of Mongolian musicians and to participate in discussion on vocal methods in East Asian music.[1][25] Upon returning from Cuba, Stratos recorded a sound poem, O Tzitziras o Mitziras, for the historical-critical anthology Futura, released by Cramps Records, in which he explored the onomatopoeic force of the song of the cicadas suggested by a Greek tongue-twister.[25] In September, he did a live performance at the Elfo theatre in Milan, which was featured in “Settimana John Cage” (“John Cage Week”) at the Opéra Louis Jouvet in Paris.[25] He was invited by John Cage to teach a course related to the possibilities of the human voice for the Center for Experimental Music at University of San Diego in California.[25]

Death and legacy 1979–present

In January 1979, Stratos recorded Le Milleuna, a one-hour interpretation with lyrics written by Nanni Balestrini, with the mimic interpretation and action performed by Valeria Mallets.[29] In February, he was in Paris to perform the Antonin Artaud character in a theatrical review organized by France Culture.[29] In the same month, from the 8th to the 11th, he was at the Alberico theatre in Rome for a series of recitals.[29] Stratos planned the show “Rock’ n’ roll Exhibition” with Paolo Tofani and Mauro Pagani in order to bring back to the light the great musicians of the ’50s rock and roll years.[29] A live test session with an audience at the “Porta Romana” theatre in Milan had been recorded, and it was later released on LP in the following June.[29] Also with France Culture, in the series “Poésie Ininterrompue” (“Uninterrupted Poetry”) directed by Claude Royet-Journoud, Stratos had a long interview with Daniel Charles, where he performed many vocal sequences and provided explanations.[29] Stratos left Area in order to dedicate himself exclusively to vocal research, experimentation, and the pursuit of his solo career.[1][29] At the Music Conservatory “G. Verdi” of Milan, he held a course of Semiotics of Contemporary Music on the voice.[29] The series of lessons continued until March. On Friday 30 March, Stratos held his last concert, performing solo, at the “Teatrino di Villa Reale” (“little” Theater of the Royal Villa) in Monza.[29]

In April, Demetrio Stratos was diagnosed with a severe case of aplastic anemia. On April 2, he was hospitalized at the Milan Polyclinic, but his condition deteriorated rapidly and he was transferred to New York City Memorial Hospital for treatment. Meanwhile, in Italy, his friends organized a concert to pay for his medical expenses. Many musicians accepted the invitation to perform, and the concert was planned for June 14, 1979. It was to become Demetrio Stratos’ memorial concert, where over hundred musicians played in front of an audience of 60,000 at the Arena of Milan, the first great and spontaneous reunion of youth in Italy. He died in New York City Memorial Hospital on June 13, 1979 at the age of thirty–four, while waiting for a bone marrow transplant (the official cause of death was a myocardial infarction, more commonly known as heart attack).[1][3][11][22][29]

His death cut short a collaboration with poet Antonio Porta, another Novissimo, on a project set to the music of Stratos’ voice[11] upsetting not only the avant-garde and experimental musicians who saw Stratos as one of their most important and representative members, but the entire show business community. The news spread in all directions, including media that was not so aware of alternative music.[1] At the time of his death, rumors circulated that his illness was caused by his secret and dangerous vocal practices. People wanted to believe that Demetrio Stratos had died due to daring too much and wandering outside the limits of human possibilities, as if he was a modern Icarus, punished for flying too close to the Sun.[22]

Stratos’ memorial, inscribed with the beginning of the Odyssey: “Musa, parlami di quell’uomo di multiforme ingegno” (“Tell me, Muse, of the man of many devices”),[30] is at the Cemetery of Scipione Castello (44.833815°N 9.958291°E), a little village that is a fraction of Salsomaggiore Terme, a town in northern Italy, which is located in the province of Parma, in the Emilia-Romagna region. Every year since 2000, Scipione Castello organizes a musical festival in memory of Demetrio Stratos.[1]

 to have haD
     the idEa
       his Music
    would nEver
       the Range
       of hIs
would have
   no limitS
         foR him
      to leArn was
        in Tibet
after that Out
into vocal Space

John Cage, Mesostic for Demetrio Stratos (1991)

Area, Demetrio Stratos, Patrizio Fariselli, and Paolo Tofani were included in the Nurse with Wound list, a list of musicians and bands that accompanied the first album by Nurse with Wound, entitled Chance Meeting on a Dissecting Table of a Sewing Machine and an Umbrella and released in 1979. Shortly after his death Italian progressive rock band Premiata Forneria Marconi dedicated to Demetrio Stratos “Maestro della voce” (“Master of the Voice”), a song that is featured on their 1980 album Suonare suonare. The auditorium of Radio Popolare, a Milan-based radio network, was entitled to Demetrio Stratos.[1] The Rassegna di Musica Diversa – Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos (“Review of Different Music – Homage to Demetrio Stratos”) is a review that was born in 1996 and every year promotes many Italian emerging musical groups and ideas, especially those who are more innovative. This homage review takes place in Alberone di Cento, a city in northern Italy, that is located in the province of Ferrara, in the Emilia-Romagna region.[1][31]

In 2002, the progressive rock, jazz rock Italian band Picchio dal Pozzo discovered the tape recordings made in 1979 by the band with Stratos performing at the IPPAI Theatre (Institute for Youth’s Protection and Assistance) in Genoa, Italy. Stratos’ performances were featured on Picchio dal Pozzo’s 2004 album, Pic_nic @ Valdapozzo, whose songs are built around Stratos’ voice. The effect is particularly striking on the song “Epitaffio”, in which Stratos creates a sweet melody with his “Flautofonie” technique, while a subtle beat, harmony and night sounds are provided very gently as not to shadow the voice.[32]

The “Demetrio Stratos” International Prize for experimental music, established in 2005 and promoted by his wife Daniela Ronconi Demetriou, Area‘s member Patrizio Fariselli, Claudio Chianura, Walter Prati and Gerd Rische, awards emerging musicians and new projects for music experimentation, and career achievements in experimental music. The award for the emerging artist best project has been assigned to Romina Daniele in 2005.[33] The Career Awards have been received by Diamanda Galás in 2005,[34][35] Meredith Monk in 2007,[36] Fred Frith in 2008,[37][38][39] Fátima Miranda in 2009,[40] and Joan La Barbara in 2011.[41][42]

La voce Stratos (“The Voice Stratos”) is a book and a documentary on the life and career of Demetrio Stratos released in 2009 and directed by Luciano D’Onofrio and Monica Affatato, and with the collaboration of Stratos’ wife Daniela Ronconi Demetriou. It includes over thirty interviews with Stratos’ collaborators, musicians, artists and phonetics researchers, as well as photos, videos, and previously unseen footage.[43][44] The second edition of Suonare la voce: tributo a Demetrio Stratos (“Playing the Voice: Tribute to Demetrio Stratos”) was held in Genoa in the same year. The two days of seminars and concerts culminated with a performance by Spanish artist Fátima Miranda.[45][46]

On 25 August 2009 in Siena, the remaining Area members, Patrizio Fariselli, Ares Tavolazzi, and Paolo Tofani together with Capiozzo’s son, Christian on drums, and Mauro Pagani on vocals and violin reunited for the first time in over a decade during the ninth edition of the festival La Città Aromatica (“The Aromaric City”), dedicated to Demetrio Stratos thirty years after his death.[47] On 29 and 30 January 2010, there was another tribute to Stratos and another reunion of Area with UT Gandhi (Umberto Trombetta) on drums. They played at the San Lazzaro di Savena (Bologna) theatre as part of StratosFerico: Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos (“StratosPheric: Tribute to Demetrio Stratos”).[48][49]

Demetrio Stratos’ life perfectly incarnates the spirit of the ’70s.[11] Recently, the Italian director Gabriele Salvatores announced his intention to produce a movie exploring music and politics in Italy during those years through the life of the charismatic singer.[22]

Phonetics research studies

Vocal gimmicks aside, Stratos’ mission was to free vocal expression from the slavery of language and pretty melodies. From the observation of his daughter Anastassia, he concluded that humans have enormous expressive potential that is progressively reduced to just a few socially appropriate functions during verbal development, such as language and harmonic singing. He considered the exploration of vocal potential as a tool of psychological and political liberation.[50] He, literally, wanted individuals and social groups to find their own voice.[22]

If a new vocality can exist, it must be lived by all, and not singularly: an attempt to get freed by the condition of listener and spectator to which the culture and politics have accustomed us. This work does not be assumed as a passively listening, but as “a game in which life is at risk”.

— Demetrio Stratos from Metrodora (in Italian)[51]

Besides the official Area discography, for which Stratos is remembered, it is important to remember his solo works, a massive set of productions full of experimentation and vocal research. His study of the voice used as a musical instrument carried him to reach for the limits of human capabilities. Stratos was able to reach 7,000 Hz, when a tenor normally reaches 523 Hz and a woman soprano 1,046 Hz (C6). He would hold notes for long periods of time, modulate them vibrato-like, and leap and dive from low to high and back again, with pinpoint accuracy. Using various overtone singing and other extended techniques, he was able to perform diplophony, triplophony, and also quadrophony, the ability to produce two, three, and even four sounds simultaneously (multiphonic) using only the human voice as the musical instrument.[52] In collaboration with the CNR of Padua, he has released many studies in ethnomusicology, vocal extensions and Asian music chant.[1][3]

Looking at what I have found during the emission, the vocal folds did not vibrate. The frequency (for a human voice) was very high (vocal folds do not succeed to exceed the frequencies of 1,000–1,200 Hz). In spite of that Demetrio obtained not one, but two not harmonic hisses, one that descended from 6,000 Hz, and the other that climbed from 3,000 Hz. Therefore, it could not be supposed that one hiss was the next harmonic of the other. I observed also the emission of three hisses simultaneously

— Professor Franco Ferrero (in Italian)[30]

The amazing research of Stratos brings many suggestions of unexplored fields of research that are still to be studied such as the particularly stimulating and innovative pre-eminence of the meaning over the meant, and the ritual value of the voice.[30] His research into the field of phonetics (Articulatory phonetics, Acoustic phonetics, and Auditory phonetics), and experimental poetry[11] led to him freeing his voice of every naturalistic restraint, restoring its depth and dimension. The result of this can be heard in the two recordings of his compositions Metrodora and Cantare la Voce where what sounds like an instrument is in fact his voice.[13][14]

(human) Voice in today’s music is a transmission channel that does not transmit anything. The western vocal hypertrophy has rendered almost insensitive the modern singer to the various aspects of the vocality, isolating him in the fencing of determined linguistic’s structures

— Demetrio Stratos from Metrodora (in Italian)[30]

The pre-eminence of the signifier over the signified

The pre-eminence of the signifier over the signified is an issue of which linguistics and pragmatics are fond of, and has brought to the turning point in both semantics and semiotics. The value of language is not to be researched in the connections among the signs or in the relation between the signifier (signifiant) and the signified (signifié), but in the usage of the language in the context. For example, there is a metacommunicative meaning in a change in pitch, volume, timbre, or tone of the sound produced by the voice that can nullify the semantic value of a sentence (the words).

Stratos grasped the semantic increase produced by the voice. It is not only in function of the meanings but it is its own primal mode of body expression. The voice has a communicative meaning by itself which deserves to be listened to regardless of the meanings it may convey. The signifier “voice” becomes semiogenetic, that is producer of new signification when verifying it in its bare essence, in its “phoné“. The “magic” sound of voice is independent from meanings, so Stratos produces sounds without codified meanings, which yet create new possible worlds.

As the petrified Oread Echo, his research for this lost voice explores the human cry, the breath, the noise. It intends to go back to the corporeal reality, to the instinctive materiality, to the animal Dionysian base, suppressed by a codified objectiveness. The insistence on the “significant voice” takes value away from the subjective production of the signified. Stratos carries to a dissolving of “the I” by a creatively repetitive modulation in advantage of an intersubjective union of the sources of life.

The nomadic voice represents the liberation, it aspires to the body vocalization subtracted to the fixed inflections of the bel canto. In “Mirologhi I”, “Mirologhi II” and “Criptomelodie Infantili”[53] the voice tends to be declined plurally, it whispers, it moans, it imitates, it becomes diplophonia and triplophonia. It is a polyphonic vocalism without a subject, androgynous, where both genders, masculine and feminine, coexist.

Stratos sings the voice, mere appearance, pharmakon, poisonous, and curative, without anything else except the voice, a pure ludic act, only voice as voice itself. “By this way the subversive sovereignty of the voice as an event, pharmakon communication challenge leaves the subject in an ingenuous anthropolatry somewhere between unconditioned enjoyment and consumption.”

The praise of the voice signifier supports an epistemology of the perception, it states “the error of Descartes” who reduced reason to conceptual word. It’s in line with the “Praktognosia” (practical knowledge) of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, which sets the starting pointing the sensible perceptions of our bodies.[30]

The ritual value of the voice

Stratos refers to the aulos, the double-reeded flute used during the old rites in the ancient Greece; it produces two sounds and it is able to keep persons in a state of trance. In his “Flautofonie ed Altro”, a track that it is featured on his 1978 album, Cantare la voce,[54] there are two not harmonic voices that cause to the listener a state of trance, similar to the trance during the religious rites, and a sense of estrange. So, the Stratos’ voice-music is a sort of lay rite that produces to the listeners the ability to reach their primordial origin.

“The Stratos’ flute-voice plays a circular theme, a modal inspiration that brings us filler to an experience of communion, ritual interaction and sacrifices. That repetition suggests something of hypnotic that should be propitious to the trance state. Stratos seems to wish a participated, spontaneous and also generous listening. Through these, always different, repetitions, he aimed to abolish, to dissolute, to dissolve the “ego”, as the basic element for the sacrifice. In this dissolution of the identity we (the group of listeners) are in communion with gods (divinities), Earth and life.” — Janete El Haouli (translated from Spanish to Italian to English)

In the years of the desecration and secularization of the Christianity, Stratos proposed a new lay sacredness, in the name of the ancient Greeks, a return to the true rituality. The binomial voice-music had forgotten that rituality because in today’s world it is only used to propose human’s thoughts, ideas, and ideologies rather than the sacred experiences of the intimate communion between humans and the nature that surrounds us.

The search of the triplophonies and quadriphonies is used by Tibetan’s monks and some knights of Mongolia. “It is a ritual use of the voice”, wrote Stratos, and this purpose is maintained in his works. There are four ritual elements: the repetition, the escape from the ordinary, the loss of the ego, and the communitarian dimension. Perhaps, reading Gilles Deleuze, Stratos had been convinced that the repetition was not the ill-famed co-action to repeat the obsessive neurosis, but it should become a technique to escape from the ordinary, from the temporary flux, to access to another order of truth. Therefore, the trance with the abolition of the ego and the known world increased the horizon on other worlds. The result was a collective scene, an estranging and mystic performance at the same time.

In Stratos’ works, we can find the standard-bearer of the lay rituals in the rock mega-concerts, where the audience is not exhausted by the spectacular of the mimetic model of the super star, but in the nearly to religious fruition of the voice-music that allows to feel us in the scene the ice cold shiver chilling of our belongings to life.[30]

Because of his great ability, his acquired techniques and his studies with the CNR, he was able to produce results that are still unattainable by others. Daniel Charles has described him as the person who decimated monody by the demultiplication of the acoustic spectrum. He achieved a diplophony which is triplophonic, even quadraphonic. His vocalization became micro orchestrations (voice instrument) without any technological amplification or manipulation.[13][14] He elevated rock singing to new heights with his vocal gymnastics.[3]


For recordings made with Area, please, see Area Discography.

Demetrio Stratos has released several studio albums and singles as a solo artist, and is featured on several albums recorded by other artists.[55]


Year Album Additional information
1968[56] I Ribelli Album by I Ribelli.
1972 Radius Album by Alberto Radius. Demetrio Stratos features on track A2. “To the Moon I’m Going” – 7:28.
1974 Nova Musicha N. 1 Album by John Cage. Demetrio Stratos features on track B3. “Demetrio Stratos – Sitxy–Two Mesostics Re Merce Cunningham (Frammenti)” – 9:00.Originally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, CRSLP 6101; re–released in 2007 in CD Sized Album Replica, Gatefold, Limited Edition format and published in Japan by Strange Days, POCE–1205.
1976 Metrodora Originally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, CRSLP 6205; re-released in 2007 in CD Sized Album Replica, Limited Edition format and published in Japan by Strange Days, POCE-1197.Track listing

Side one

  1. “Segmenti Uno” – 3:36
  2. “Segmenti Due” – 4:04
  3. “Segmenti Tre” – 4:01
  4. “Segmenti Quattro” – 4:31

Side two

  1. “Mirologhi 1 (Lamento d’Epiro)” – 4:23
  2. “Metrodora” – 8:55
  3. “Mirologhi 2 (Lamento d’Epiro)” – 4:10
1976 Cantata Rossa per Taal al Zaatar Album by Gaetano Liguori, Giulio Stocchi and Demetrio Stratos, featuring Concetta Busacca, Pasquale Liguori and Roberto Del Piano. Originally released in vinyl LP format.
1978 Futura: Poesia Sonora Antologia storico critica della poesia sonora (“Critical-historical anthology of sound poetry”). Sound poems, many of them performed by their authors. Edited by Arrigo Lora-Totino; introduction by Renato Barilli. Demetrio Stratos features on disc 7, track A2. “O Tzitziras o Mitziras” – 4:01Originally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, 5204-001; re–released in 1989 in CD format and published in Italy by Cramps, CRSCD 091-095.
1978 Cantare la voce Originally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, 520.6119.Track listing

Side one

  1. “Investigazioni (Diplofonie e Triplofonie)” – 14:41
  2. “Passaggi 1,2” – 5:16

Side two

  1. “Criptomelodie Infantili” – 6:23
  2. “Flautofonie ed Altro” – 6:17
  3. “Le Sirene” – 6:19
1978 Mauro Pagani Ascolto.

  • “L’albero di canto”
  • “L’albero di canto II”
1979 Le Milleuna Text written by Nanni Balestrini. Originally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, 7243 8 57442 2 8; re-released in 1990 in CD format and published in Italy by Cramps, CRSCD 034; re-released in 2007 in CD Sized Album Replica, Limited Edition format and published in Japan by Strange Days, POCE-1170.Track listing

  1. “Le Milleuna” – 63:13
1979 Carnascialia Polygram.

  1. “Canzone numero uno (c’è chi batte i denti, chi prende il ritmo e ci balla sopra)” (Pasquale Minieri, Piero Brega)
  2. “Fiocchi di neve e bruscolini” (Antonio Vivaldi, Demetrio Stratos)
  3. “Almeisan” (Minieri)
  4. “Kaitain (22 ottobre 1962)” (Vivaldi, Minieri, Stratos, Maurizio Giammarco)
  5. “Cruzeiro Do’ Sul” (Giammarco)
  6. “Gamela” (Minieri, Brega)

Compilations and lives

Year Album Additional information
1979 Rock’n roll exhibition Live in 1978 with Paolo Tofani, Mauro Pagani, Walter Calloni, Stefano Cerri and Paolo Donnarumma. Cramps.Track listing

Side one

  1. “Mean Woman Blues” – 4:27
  2. “Hound Dog” – 3:55
  3. “Blueberry Hill / I Can’t Stop Loving You” – 4:50
  4. “Long Tall Sally” – 3:35

Side two

  1. “Boom Boom” – 10:00
  2. “Barefootin'” – 5:32
  3. “25 Miles From Nowhere” – 11:30
1980 Recitarcantando Live album recorded in Cremona, Italy on September 21, 1978, with Demetrio Stratos on vocals and Lucio Fabbri on violinOriginally released in vinyl LP format and published in Italy by Cramps, 520.6501; re-released in 2007 in CD Sized Album Replica, Gatefold, Limited Edition format and published in Japan by Strange Days, POCE-1171.

Track listing

Side one

  1. “Flautofonie ed altro” – 4:45
  2. “Passaggi” – 2:05
  3. “Cometa Rossa” – 9:19
  4. “Le sirene” – 5:02

Side two

  1. “Flautofonie ed altro” – 8:10
  2. “Investigazioni (diplofonie triplofonie)” – 7:05
  3. “Mirologhi 1” – 5:30
  4. “Investigazioni” – 1:35
1995 Concerto all’Elfo Live performance (of Cantare la voce), originally released in CD format and published in Italy by Cramps, 300 037-2; re-released in 2007 in CD Sized Album Replica, Limited Edition format, and published in 2007 in Japan by Strange Days, POCE-1172.
1999 La Voce-Musica
2004 Stratosfera 5-CD box set containing all Stratos’ solo recordings: Metrodora, Cantare la Voce, Recitaracantando (with Lucio Fabbri), Le Milleuna, and Concerto all’Elfo. Akarma R 624296[57]


Year Single Additional information
1966 “Come Adriano / Enchinza Bubu” Single by I Ribelli.
1966 “Per Una Lira / Ehi… Voi!” Single by I Ribelli. Two issues.
1967 “Chi Mi Aiuterà / Un Giorno Se Ne Va” Single by I Ribelli.
1967 “La Follia / Pugni Chiusi” Single by I Ribelli.
1969 “Goodbye / Josephine” Single by I Ribelli.
1969 “Obladì Obladà / Lei m’ama” Single by I Ribelli.
1969 “Oh Darling / Il vento non sa leggere” Single by I Ribelli.
1972 “Daddy’s dream / Since you’ve been gone” 7″ vinyl published in Italy by Numero Uno, ZN 50142.
1978 O Tzitziras o Mitziras Cramps Records.


Year Title Additional information
2006 Suonare la voce Originally released in VHS and DVD Video formats and published in the European Union by Cramps, 7243 4 91955 3 0Track listing

  1. “Investigazioni (diplofonie e trifonie)”
  2. “Passaggi 1, 2”
  3. “Criptomelodie infantili”
  4. “Flautonie ed altro”
  5. “Le sirene”
  6. “Sixty two Mesostics Re Merce Cunningham”
  7. “Cometa rossa”
  8. “Luglio, agosto, settembre (nero)”
  9. “Mean Woman Blues”
  10. “Hound Dog”
  11. “Long Tall Sally”
  12. “Metrodora”
2009 La voce Stratos

See also



  • it:Demetrio Stratos
  • Daniela Ronconi; Demetriou Anastassia. “Demetrio Stratos” (in Italian). http://www.demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
  • Borella, Mike; Sjef Oellers (2001-02-25). “Area: International POPular Group”. Ratings. Gnosis. Retrieved 2009-05-21. Originally written in the Spring of 1995 and published in Expose #7, pp. 4-7; updated in February 2001
  • “1945” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1957” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1962” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1963” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1967” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1970” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1971” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1972” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “DEMETRIO STRATOS discography, MP3, videos and reviews” (ASP). Prog Archives. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  • “UbuWeb Sound – Demetrio Stratos”. UbuWeb. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  • “Biografia Area” (in Italian). Fariselli Project. Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
  • “1973” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1974” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1975” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “1976” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • “ISTC History”. Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies. Archived from the original (SHTML) on 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  • “Centro Medico di Foniatria” (in Italian). Centro Medico di Foniatria. Archived from the original on 2009-02-06. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • Pavese, Antonella. “The life and times of Demetrio Stratos”. AntonellaPavese.com. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
    a) In 1977, his vocal abilities were explored and documented by Professor Franco Ferrero at the University of Padova.
    b) In April 1979, Demetrio Stratos had been diagnosed with a severe case of aplastic anemia. He was 34 years old. His condition deteriorated rapidly and he was transferred to New York City Memorial Hospital for treatment. Back in Italy, his friends organized a concert to pay for his medical expenses. Many musicians accepted the invitation to perform, and the concert was planned for June 14, 1979. It was to become Demetrio Stratos’ memorial concert: he died in New York City on June 13, 1979, while waiting for a bone marrow transplant.
    c) At the time of his death, rumors circulated that his illness was caused by his secret and dangerous vocal practices. People wanted to believe that Demetrio Stratos had died for daring too much and wandering outside the limits of human possibilities: a modern Icarus, punished for flying too close to the Sun.
    d) Demetrio Stratos’ life perfectly incarnates the spirit of the ’70s. Recently, film director Gabriele Salvatores‘ (Mediterraneo; I’m Not Scared) announced his intention to produce a movie exploring music and politics in Italy during those years through the life of the charismatic singer.
    e) Vocal gimmicks aside, Stratos’ mission was to free vocal expression from the slavery of language and pretty melodies. From the observation of his daughter Anastassia, he concluded that humans have enormous expressive potentials that are progressively reduced during verbal development to just a few socially appropriate functions such as language and harmonic singing. For Demetrio Stratos, the exploration of vocal potentials was a tool of psychological and political liberation: he literally wanted individuals and social groups to find their own voice.
  • “1977” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • Tonini, Marco; Hera Albert (2007-01-13). “Tran Quang Hai – Tertium Auris” (in Italian). WordPress.com. Retrieved 2007-12-14. Albert Hera: “Che cosa pensa di Demetrio Stratos?”
    Tran Quang Hai: “Aveva imparato da me nel 1977 in Francia. Venne da me con un impresario che mi disse che il maestro Demetrio Stratos voleva apprendere le mie tecniche di canto. Rimase con me per due ore e imparò tutto. Dopodichè, tornato in Italia, utilizzò gli esercizi appresi per le sue ricerche personali.”
  • “1978” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • Siegel, Marcia B.; Tileston Nathaniel (1991). “Cushioning the Minimalist Pew”. The Tail of the Dragon: New Dance, 1976–1982. Durham, N.C.: Duke University. p. 53. ISBN 0-8223-1156-9. OCLC 23253850. Cunningham entrusts the musical accompaniment for each Event to a different contemporary composer. At event #209 I heard John Cage’s “Mesostics re Merce Cunningham,” in which Stratos produced an astonishing array of sounds and sound effects using only his voice.
  • “Il Treno di John Cage – Programma e personaggi” (in Italian). iltrenodijohncage.it. Archived from the original (ASP) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  • “Il Treno di John Cage – Project” (in Italian). iltrenodijohncage.it. Archived from the original (ASP) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  • “1979” (in Italian). demetriostratos.it. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  • Stratos, Demetrio; Roberto Tagliaferri (December 2000). Scipione Castello 56, ed. La Voce Nomade (in Italian). Ludovico Calchi Novati. Milan, Italy: Edizioni D’ARS. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
    b) Il prof. Franco Ferrero, che frequentò Stratos nel Centro di Studio per le ricerche di Fonetica del CNR dell’Università di Padova, ammette: “Stando a quanto ho riscontrato durante l’emissione, le corde vocali non vibravano. La frequenza era molto elevata (le corde vocali non riescono a superare la frequenza di 1000-1200 Hz). Nonostante ciò Demetrio otteneva non uno, ma due fischi disarmonici, uno che da 6000 Hz scendeva di frequenza, e l’altro che da 3000 Hz saliva. Non si poteva supporre, quindi, che un fischio fosse l’armonico superiore dell’altro. Constatai anche l’emissione di tre fischi simultanei”.
    c, e) La strabiliante ricerca di Stratos porta molte suggestioni e piste di ricerca ancora da studiare. Vorrei limitarmi a due sottolineature particolarmente stimolanti ed innovative per il nostro tempo: la preminenza del significante rispetto al significato e il valore rituale della voce in ordine all’accesso alla scaturigine del corpo.
    d, f) “La voce, sostiene Stratos, è oggi nella musica un canale di trasmissione che non trasmette più nulla” e ancora: “L’ipertrofia vocale occidentale ha reso il cantante moderno pressoché insensibile ai diversi aspetti della vocalità, isolandolo nel recinto di determinate strutture linguistiche”.
  • “XIIª Rassegna di Musica Diversa “Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos” anno 2008″ (in Italian and English). modomusica.com. Retrieved 2007-12-13. This is a homage to the proporsi way and to work in the musical artistic field that was typical of Demetrio “outside from every constriction and in full creativity”.
  • “Picchio dal Pozzo’s Official Website”. aldodimarco.it. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
  • “Premio internazionale “Demetrio Stratos” per la sperimentazione musicale” (PDF) (in Italian). newsonstage.com. 2006-11-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-02-08. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • Paolo Ansali (2005-10-14). “Premio Demetrio Stratos alla carriera a Diamanda Galas” (PHP). Comunicati (in Italian). Musicalnews.com. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • “Musicalnews.com” (in Italian and English). diamandagalas.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • “COAST TO COAST MONK” (PDF). New York City, N.Y., U.S.: ejassociates.org. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • “Fred Frith Biography”. Mills Music Festival 2009. Oakland, California, U.S.: MILLS. 2009-01-21. Archived from the original (PHP) on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • “THE MUSIC OF FRED FRITH” (PDF). Oakland, California, U.S.: MILLS. 2009-01-21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • Andrew Gilbert (2008-12-12). “Every which way”. Music. Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.: The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  • Irene Jiménez (2009-11-16). “Fátima Miranda galardonada con el Premio Internazionale Demetrio Stratos” [Fátima Miranda (was) awarded the Internazional Prize Demetrio Stratos]. Noticias (in Spanish). Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain: Artezblai. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  • “Civica, “Voci senza confini” ricordando Demetrio Stratos” [Civic, “Voices without Borders” Remembering Demetrio Stratos] (in Italian). Gazzetta di Modena. 2011-09-17. p. 41.
  • “EXTENDED VOICES: A JOAN LA BARBARA IL PREMIO INTERNAZIONALE “DEMETRIO STRATOS [Extended Voices: “Demetrio Stratos” International Prize [2011 awarded] to Joan La Barbara] (in Italian). Galleria Civica di Modena. 2011.
  • La Voce Stratos DVD Out Now” (PHP). CD/DVD Releases. ProgressiveWorld.net. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • “AAVV – LA VOCE STRATOS (DVD+book)” (PHP). Catalog – DVDs – A. Ma.Ra.Cash Records. 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • “Suonare la voce: Tributo a Demetrio Stratos” [Playing the voice: tribute to Demetrio Stratos] (PHP). Guida di Genova (in Italian). Comune di Genova. Genova Urban Lab. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • Riccardo Storti (2009-10-19). “Suonare la voce: tributo a Demetrio Stratos al Teatro della Tosse” [Playing the voice tribute to Demetrio Stratos at the Theatre of Cough] (XHTML). C’era una volta il rock (in Italian). Mentelocale.it. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • Valentina Cervelli (15 August 2009). “Siena, dedicata a Demetrio Stratos degli area “La città aromatica 2009 [The 2009 edition of “La città aromatica” (“The Aromatic City”) festival will be dedicated to the memory of Area’s founding member Demetrio Stratos] (in Italian). Italia in Musica. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  • Claudio Costantino (2010-01-24). “Reunion degli Area per due concerti a San Lazzaro in memoria di Stratos” [Area reunion for two concerts in San Lazzaro in memory of Stratos] (XHTML). Rock-progressive: Pro(g)tagonisti Special (in Italian). guide.supereva.it. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • Paolo Ansali (2010-01-20). “StratosFerico: l’omaggio a Demetrio Stratos a San Lazzaro di Savena (BO) con reunion degli Area” [StratosPheric: a tribute to Demetrio Stratos in San Lazzaro (BO) with Area reunion] (PHP) (in Italian). MusicalNews.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  • Tran Quang Hai. “TQH: Method of Learning Overtone Singing Khoomei” (PHP). Retrieved 2007-12-15. Demetrio Stratos (1945–1979) used the overtones to create the relationship between voice and subconscious.
  • Stratos, Demetrio (1976). “Gianni Sassi, Musica, Demetrio Stratos”. Metrodora (in Italian). Gianni Sassi. Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2007-12-16. Se una nuova vocalità può esistere dev’essere vissuta da tutti non da uno solo: un tentativo di liberarsi dalla condizione di ascoltatore e spettatore cui la cultura e la politica ci hanno abituato. Questo lavoro non va assunto come un ascolto da subire passivamente, ma come un “gioco in cui si rischia la vita”
  • “Ceolin Elena, Tisato Graziano, Zattra Laura, Demetrio Stratos rethinks voice techniques: a historical investigation at ISTC in Padova” (PDF). Proceedings of the SMC Conference 2011 (Sound and Music Computing), Padova 6–9 July 2011, pp. 48-55. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  • “Demetrio Stratos – “Criptomelodie Infantili. YouTube. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  • “Demetrio Stratos – “Flautofonie. YouTube. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  • “Albums by Demetrio Stratos – Rate Your Music”. rateyourmusic.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  • “I Ribelli” (in Italian). Discografia Nazionale della canzone italiana. Retrieved 25 June 2014.


  1. Thom Jurek. “Stratosfera – Overview”. allmusic.com. Retrieved 2009-03-15.

Further reading

  • D’Onofrio, Luciano; Monica Affatato (Directors) (March 2010). La voce Stratos [The Voice Stratos] (DVD) (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Feltrinelli. ISBN 88-07-74055-9. OCLC 659707810.
  • El Haouli, Janete (2006). Demetrio Stratos: En busca de la voz-música [Demetrio Stratos: In Search of the Voice-Music] (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Radio Educación. OCLC 83779306.
  • Laino, Andrea (2009). Demetrio Stratos e il teatro della voce [Demetrio Stratos and the Theater of the Voice] (in Italian). Milan: Auditorium Edizioni. ISBN 8886784589. OCLC 501976043.

External links

How to sing overtones ( Full Tutorial ! ) – also for women and children

How to sing overtones ( Full Tutorial ! ) – also for women and children

Published on Dec 3, 2017

The singing teacher Ilaria Orefice introduces the basic techniques of overtone singing. The tutorial is for everyone, especially for women and children! For a Skype lesson: sherden.oc@gmail.com


roberto laneri 2

roberto LANERI


Roberto Laneri compie studi di filosofia all’Università di Roma La Sapienza. Si diploma in clarinetto presso il Conservatorio S. Cecilia di Roma. Consegue un B.A. in performance (clarinetto), e un M.A. in composizione alla State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB), e un Ph.D in composizione alla University of California S. Diego (UCSD)

Tra i sui maestri Lejaren Hiller, Charlie Mingus (v. articolo per Bianco e Nero), William O. Smith, John Silber e Keith Humble hanno lasciato le tracce piu’ durature.

Esperienze professionali

Nell’ambito del jazz e della free-music. Suona in vari gruppi e numerose rassegne con Bruno Tommaso, Giancarlo Schiaffini, Mario Schiano, Marcello Melis, Franco Tonani (‘ 65 -‘ 68). Suona con Frederic Rzewski al festival Metamusik-Berlin ‘ 72.

Negli Stati Uniti: Fonda la JAZZ IN PROGRESS ORCHESTRA Diventa Creative Associate con il Center for the Creative e Performing Arts (un gruppo di giovani strumentisti altamente selezionati per la musica contemporanea diretto da Lejaren Hiller e Lucas Foss). Evenings for New Music (‘ 70 – ‘ 72), in tutto lo stato di New York, Carnegie Recital Hall. Membro del SEM Ensemble diretto Petr Kotick, con cui partecipa a varie tournées europee (prime europee dei SONGBOOKS di John Cage a Colonia e Berlino per il sessantesimo compleanno del compositore) (‘ 71 – ‘ 72). Compositore in residence della Company of Man di Graham Smith e Cristyne Lawson: realizzazione di Black Ivory, un balletto ispirato a Genet, per il decimo anniversario della Albright-Knox Art Gallery (‘ 72). Suona nella stagione Monday Evening Concerts, Los Angeles (‘ 72). Esegue in prima mondiale numerose opere di compositori contemporanei (George Perle gli dedica Sonata Quasi una Fantasia per clarinetto e pianoforte). Sue composizioni vengono pubblicate da Media Press (Entropic Islands, L’Arte del Violino) e Seesaw Corporation (Esorcismi n. 1). Dal ‘ 72 inizia lo studio delle culture musicali extra-europee ed il lavoro sulle tecniche vocali: membro fondatore dell’EVT (Extended Vocal Techniques), collegato con il Center for Music Experiment, presso l’Università di California, fonda nel ’73 il gruppo PRIMA MATERIA (v. LA VOCE/IL CANTO ARMONIC0), in attività fino al 1980, che usa tecniche vocali dell’Asia centrale e Tibet in lunghe improvvisazioni di grande fascino e intensità. Il gruppo debutta all’Autunno Musicale di Como, e per 7 anni partecipa ad eventi prestigiosi, con grande successo di critica e di pubblico. Parallelamente inizia l’attività di conferenze, articoli, seminari sul canto armonico.

Da allora appare solo in recitals e in una grande varieta’  di situazioni musicali, in genere eseguendo musiche proprie o che comunque gli sono congeniali.

1993: cura il progetto I POTERI DEL SUONO, per il festival Volterra-Teatro.
E’ una piccola, ma preziosa rassegna di conferenze e concerti di Peter Michael Hamel, Jacques Dudon, Jean During, Tran Quang Hai, Walter Branchi, Stefano Scodanibbio, Manfred Kage, Christian Bollmann e Michael Reimann e dello stesso Roberto Laneri che, fra una battuta e l’altra, oltre a regalarci un magnifico concerto per voce e nastro magnetico, ha tenuto ogni mattina un seminario di canto armonico per l’occasione assai frequentato. (…) Infine, altro apice delle giornate volterrane è stato il concerto di Roberto Laneri. (Deep Listenings n. 2, autunno 1993)

1994: ORIGINI (Orvieto, Palazzo del Popolo).
(…) Nel finale, un Roberto Laneri in forma strepitosa: due composizioni per sola voce (…) dimostrano quanto lontano sia arrivato questo grande artista. (Deep Listenings, inverno 1995, n. 2)

Vince il concorso di composizione Quattro passi nel delirio al festival di Roccella Jonica.

1995/96/97: ideatore e direttore artistico del festival I POTERI DEL SUONO, realizzato a Orvieto con il contributo della Comunità Europea. E altre interessanti iniziative come I POTERI DEL SUONO, una rassegna inconsueta nel panorama visto finora; un’idea centrata sia sulle molteplicità culturali-etnico-sonore sia sull’uso e la ricerca sulla voce. (Oltre il Silenzio, dicembre 1995)

Nel 1999 forma un altro gruppo vocale, attualmente in attivita’, che si chiama “IN FORMA DI CRISTALLI”.

2002 – Scrive le musiche per il recital di David Riondino ‘La signorina Felicita’ (prima esecuzione: 13.03.02, Teatro degli Illuminati, Città di Castello); viene eletto ‘membro creativo’ del Club di Budapest, fondato da Ervin Laszlo per una coscienza planetaria.

Partecipa al laboratorio di tecniche tradionali di didjeridoo, condotto da Djalu Gurruwivi ad Eisenbach.

2002 Novembre 23 – Collabora con l’artista visivo Masssimo Luccioli alla realizzazione del lavoro multimediale “Armonie, elaborazioni sonore nel segno.” (prima: Roma, Museo d’Arte Contemporanea, Universita’  La Sapienza)

2003 – Collabora con Peter Pannke alla colonna sonora di Itinerarium Kircherianum, lavoro dedicato ad Athanasius Kircher, premiato al concorso di composizione della Westdeutscher Rundfunk di Colonia. (prima: 17.05.03, Kite-Museum, Detmold)

2003 Giugno 1 – Theo Otto Theater, Remscheid: prima tedesca dello spettacolo di danza contemporanea “Clinamen”, con la compagnia Moto Armonico, regia di Betty Lo Sciuto.

2004 Febbraio 14/15 – Suona al Palazzo dei Congressi di Tirana per la presentazione del CD “Ja ku jam” di Ardit Gjebrea.

2004 Maggio 23 – Radio3, gli viene dedicata una puntata della trasmissione “MAESTRI”, a cura di Beppe Sebaste.

2004 Giugno 21/24 – Universita’  di Bari, facolta’  di lettere e filosofia, dipartimento di psicologia, seminario: sinestesia, voce e movimento (con Betty Lo Sciuto).

2004 Luglio 18 – Anagni, Cisterna della Cattedrale di Anagni, Festival del teatro medievale e rinascimentale, XI ed. IN FORMA DI CRISTALLI, concerto di canto armonico.

2004 Novembre 7 – Berlino, Back-Fabrik: “Armonie, elaborazioni sonore nel segno.”

2005 – Nella prima parte del 2005 collabora con la poetessa Grazia Debe’ ad un CD/DVD di poesie (Uroboros, Manni editore) messe in musica, con Carolina Gentile, voce.

2005 Settembre 9/10/11 – Partecipazione a CONTEMPO – Un compositore contemporaneo a Montefalco – 1a Edizione, Terry Riley con il gruppo In forma di cristalli e suona nel concerto inaugurale.

2005 Dicembre – Festival Scelsi, Roma, Goethe Institut, 10 dicembre 2005, “Musica in forma di cristalli” percorso armonico-vocale, su testi di Giacinto Scelsi, tratti daIl sogno 10, II parte: il Ritorno con il gruppo “In forma di cristalli”, voce recitante Ilaria Drago.

2006 – 2009 Collaborazione con la scuola “BeVoice” di Milano

2006 Giugno – Esecuzione di “Flumen”, un pezzo per sei cori misti coordinato dall’autore e diretto dai rispettivi direttori; voce solista in “Molto presto di mattina”, 4 arie dal buio alla luce, di Walter Branchi “Ombre Sul Lupercale”, progetto Tevere Eterno. (Roma, Tevere Eterno, 21.06.06)

2007/2009 – Tiene il corso residenziale “L’esperienza armonica” a Chiusi della Verna.

2007 Maggio – Curatore degli incontri “Alle cinque e mezza della sera” per il Circolo del Golf di Sutri.

2007 – BREATH, solo performance per voce, tampura, soprano sax, didjeridoo.

2007/2010 – Redattore de “L’arte dell’ascolto”: rubrica mensile per la rivista in rete Kult Art Magazine (http://www.kultart.info).

2008 Maggio – New York, RIVER TO RIVER Festival.

2008 Novembre – “La Voyageuse” (Guadalupe, 27.11.08)

2009 – Tiene il corso di canto armonico al conservatorio Cherubini di Firenze.

2009 Luglio – Festival Moissons Vivantes “La Voyageuse” (Martinique, Fort de France; 7-8.07.2009)

Ha insegnato al Conservatorio Cherubini di Firenze fino al 2011.

2013 Agosto – Asti Musica.

2013 Settembre – Residenza artistica Castello di Casale Monferrato.

2014 Settembre – Torino Spiritualità.

2015 Roma, 21 giugno, giornata mondiale dello Yoga, canto armonico al Campidoglio

2015 Chiusi della Verna, 31 agosto-5 settembre, corso di canto armonico

2016 Marzo 18-19 – Il disagio esistenziale, tra musica, antropologia e letteratura, Laboratorio di Canto Armonico/Overtone Method – CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA DI COMO.

2016 Aprile 22-25 – XII Convegno Internazionale, Conferenza, seminario e perfomance (BREATH), Federazione Mediterranea Yoga, Acitrezza, Catania

2016 – fonda il coro di canto armonico NEL CIELO DI INDRA

2016 29 maggio – Basilica di San Giorgio al Velabro, Roma, concerto del coro armonico NEL CIELO DI INDRA

2016 1 giugno – il quartetto jazz WINDS OF CHANGE fondato da Roberto Laneri debutta al Music Inn, Roma

2016 28 agosto – Chiesa di Santa Maria di Portonovo, Ancona, concerto del coro armonico NEL CIELO DI INDRA

2016 29 agosto/3 settembre – Chiusi delle Verna, corso residenziale di canto armonico

2017-Fonda l’O(vertone) M(ethod) Academy ed inizia il corso di formazione biennale in canto armonico

2017 agosto-sett. ,Corso residenziale a Chiusi della Verna

fine del 2017-incide il CD WINDS OF CHANGE per la Da Vinci Editions.

Febbraio 2017, intervista per il giornale MUSICA, a cura di Davide Ielmini

5-6 marzo 2018: partecipa alla Voice Week del Consevatorio di Perugia con un solo recital, LA VOCE DELL’ARCOBALENO ed una master class.

23 marzo: WINDS OF CHANGE in concerto dal vivo per “La stanza della musica” (Radio 3)

12 maggio: Bologna, Spectrorama, solo recital


ROBERTO LANERI : La Voce e il Canto Armonico

La Voce e il Canto Armonico

roberto laneri.jpg

Roberto LANERI


Dal ’72 inizia lo studio delle culture musicali extra-europee ed il lavoro sulle tecniche vocali: membro fondatore dell’EVT (Extended Vocal Techniques), collegato con il Center for Music Experiment, presso l’Università di California, fonda nel ‘ 73 il gruppo PRIMA MATERIA, che usa tecniche vocali dell’Asia centrale e Tibet in lunghe improvvisazioni di grande fascino e intensità.
Il gruppo debutta all’Autunno Musicale di Como, e per 7 anni partecipa ad eventi prestigiosi, con grande successo di critica e di pubblico, tra cui: Autunno Musicale di Como, Metamusik-Berlin, Musik der Zeit (Colonia), Pro Musica Nova (Bremen), Zagreb Biennale, Nuova Consonanza, Teatro Musica (Roma), Holland Festival, Milano Estate, Oriente-Occidente (Lugano), L’Itineraire (Parigi) e molti altri.
PRIMA MATERIA registra per numerose emittenti radiofoniche: WBAI (New York), KPFK (Los Angeles), WDR (Colonia), RIAS-Berlin, BRT (Bruxelles), Radio Lugano, Radio Bremen, RAI,e incide l’LP THE TAIL OF THE TIGER per l’etichetta Ananda, fondata assieme ad Alvin Curran e Giacinto Scelsi (‘ 77). Nello stesso periodo inizia una folta attività di seminari, conferenze ed articoli sul canto armonico. Appare tra l’altro invarie trasmissioni televisive sui canali nazionali (“Alla ricerca dell’Arca”, “Incredibile”, “Maurizio Costanzo Show”).

PRIMA MATERIA si scioglie nel 1980, e da allora inizia l’attività concertistica come solista (voce, elettronica, clarinetto, clarinetto basso, sax soprano e sopranino), occasionalmente in duo con altri musicisti, tra cui Stephanie Wolff, Peter Michael Hamel, Giancarlo Schiaffini, Christina Kubisch, Daniele Patumi. La ricerca vocale non si limita al canto armonico, ma si estende a tecniche africane (yodel pigmeo) e al falsetto utilizzato in pezzi di musica antica:
Nel 1999 fonda il gruppo IN FORMA DI CRISTALLI N FORMA DI CRISTALLI che riunisce specialisti di canto armonico di Roma e di Firenze (v. progetti).Nel’ 91 inizia la stesura del libro LA VOCE DELL’ARCOBALENO: origini, tecniche e applicazioni pratiche del canto armonico, pubblicato nell’ aprile 2002 dalle Edizioni Il Punto di’Incontro, Vicenza (www.edizionilpuntodincontro.it): “un testo unico nel suo genere, con numerosi esercizi facilmente eseguibili, che ci aiuta a leggere il cammino della civiltà in Oriente come in Occidente, in chiave sonora e di filosofia armonicale”. LA VOCE DELL’ARCOBALENO è anche il titolo di una performance vocale (v. progetti) e di un seminario (v. Appuntamenti).
Nel 2013 appare il suo secondo libro, NEL CIELO DI INDRA, dedicato alla pratica del canto armonico, per l’editore Terre Sommerse (Roma).
Un nuovo gruppo, NEL CIELO DI INDRA, vede la luce alla fine del 2014 e se ne attende il debutto nel 2015.