Shomyo: Buddhist Ritual Chant du JAPON

Shomyo: Buddhist Ritual Chant

33,458 views•Feb 3, 20142045ShareSaveJapanSocietyNYC 312K subscribers MUSIC Shomyo: Buddhist Ritual Chant Thursday, March 6, 7:30 PM http://www.japansociety.org/event/sho… North American Debut Shomyo no Kai–Voices of a Thousand Years Co-presented with the Mid-Manhattan Performing Arts Foundation at St. Bartholomew’s Church. The glorious, reverberating voices of two dozen Buddhist priests in colorful robes fill the grand hall of St. Bartholomew’s Church. One of the oldest living forms of vocal music, shomyo is believed to have originated in India before traveling along the Silk Road and eventually entering Japan in the 6th century, where it has been practiced ever since. The critically acclaimed group Shomyo no Kai–Voices of a Thousand Years, comprising priests from the Shingon and Tendai sects whose mission is to showcase the beauty of shomyo as an art form, performs the contemporary shomyo work Life in an Autumn, written in the aftermath of 9/11 by New York- and Tokyo-based composer Ushio Torikai. Pre-performance Lecture on shomyo’s history and musical form led by composer Ushio Torikai. Open to ticket holders only. Begins one hour prior to the concert in the St. Bart’s Chapel. Space is limited, first come, first served. Acclaimed composer Ushio Torikai is known for her wide ranging works and for being one of the rare contemporary composers to compose for Buddhist chant groups. The New York Times applauded Torikai’s music as “…exuberant and spectacular.” TICKETS $30/$24 Japan Society and St. Bartholomew’s Church/Friends of Great Music members. General admission. Advance Tickets available through the Japan Society Box Office. Walk-up tickets in the evening of the concert available through the St. Bartholomew’s Church box office, based on availability. OFFSITE EVENT St. Bartholomew’s Church Park Ave. at 51st St.

【歌ってみた】ホーミーでアメージンググレイス[Tried to sing] Amazing Grace with Homy

【歌ってみた】ホーミーでアメージンググレイス (

[Utattemita] hōmī de amējingugureisu 
[Tried to sing] Amazing Grace with Homy

Kotaro William Tokuhisa is with Tran Quang Hai.58 mins

With a variety of ho me ho may techniques,
I sang the amazing grace.

31 views•May 3, 2020 31ShareSave倍音系パフォーマー WILLY 1.07K subscribers 生徒さんが、ホーミーでアメージンググレイスを練習し始めたので、お手本として動画をアップしました。 この曲は、ホーミーの練習曲として定番なので、 ぜひやってみてください ◆  一度に2つの音を出す驚異の歌唱法! ホーミー・ホーメイ・倍音唱法入門 その1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNgXm… カルグラ(ホーミー・ホーメイ)のやり方 https://youtu.be/uYNE6f0UfPM ★体験クラスの予定こちら https://note.com/voiz/n/ndf159d518c20 ★声の大学のメルマガこちら https://t-william.net/np/usf/75rw2d10… 声の大学の情報を確実にGETしたい場合はメルマガがおすすめ!!読者限定企画や特典もあり! ★ amazonの著者ページ http://www.amazon.co.jp/-/e/B01GNW181I 4冊合計でAmazonカテゴリ累計27部門1位! ★youtubeチャンネル https://www.youtube.com/user/voiznoiz 人気は「ホーメイ入門1〜3」。合計再生回数6万回!! チャンネル登録者数860人。目指せ1000人!是非チャンネル登録してね〜 ★声の大学のブログ(note) https://note.com/voiz 旧ブログ https://ameblo.jp/koenodaigaku/ ★インスタグラム https://instagram.com/tokuhisawilliam/ ★Twitter https://twitter.com/koenodaigaku/ ★Facebook https://www.facebook.com/koedai/ ============== 徳久ウィリアムプロフィール VOIZBIZ代表。声の大学主催。コエダイr合唱団主宰。 早稲田大学卒業後、1999年から本格的に音楽活動を開始。 ・20年以上のキャリアを持つ倍音系ボイスパフォーマー・ボイストレーナー。「よくわからないけど面白かった!、涙が出た」という感想をよく貰う。 ・ホーミー・ホーメイ歴20年以上。ホーメイの本場「トゥバ共和国」の国際ホーメイフェスティバルグループ部門で3位入賞(「倍音S」として)。江波戸昭明治大学名誉教授、トランカンハイ氏といった、国内外の民俗学者などから高い評価を得ている。 ・ホーミーホーメイに限らず、古今東西の特殊発声のスペシャリスト。1000の声を持つと異名をもつ。 ・指導人数は述べ1000人以上。倍音系ボイスパフォーマーをプロレベルにまで育てた人数は日本一。指導大好き&評価が高い ・講演・レクチャー実績:慶応大学、静岡県芸術劇場、明治大学、ミューズ音楽院、舞台芸術の学校(文化庁委託事業「平成27年度次代の文化を創造する新進芸術家育成事業」)など ・日本で唯一(もしかしたら世界でも)のレパートリーを持つ倍音合唱団「コエダイr.合唱団」を主宰。レパートリーの一つである「テノーレス」の本場のイタリア・サルディーニャ島公演を成功させ、現在、おそらく島で一番有名な日本人 ・演奏:バンド「TaikuhJikang」メンバーとして、細野晴臣(YMO)、KenIshii、Afraと共演、国際交流基金の助成を得てバリ・マレーシアツアー参加。「SuaraSana」としてフジロック、a-nationといったフェスに出演、 ・映画出演:カンヌ受賞監督の依頼でディーンフジオカにホーメイを直接指導。その縁でディーン主演の同監督作品(「海を駆ける」)にて、ディーンの「声の代役」で出演、映画「モヒカン故郷に帰る」主演の松田龍平の声の代役として録音に参加、映画「小名木川物語」主演 ・録音実績:ゲーム音楽○the last story○SIREN〇モンハン、ベネッセ TLC ・メディア出演:和田アキ子・原田龍二のラジオ番組出演、進め電波少年(CS)に出演、共同通信発信にて「口琴」に関する連載記事を執筆。多数の地方新聞に掲載される、ドイツ国営ラジオ放送のラジオドラマに出演 ・倍音系Youtuberとして、動画タイトル「ホーメイ入門」が4.8万回再生(2020年3月時点)

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara∗1, Hiroshi Imagawa∗2, Tomoko Konishi, Kazumasa Kondo, Emi Zuiki Murano∗2, Masanobu Kumada∗3, and Seiji Niimi∗Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing and synthesis of khoomei

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara∗1,

Hiroshi Imagawa∗2,

Tomoko Konishi, Kazumasa Kondo, Emi Zuiki Murano∗2,

Masanobu Kumada∗3,

and Seiji Niimi∗4
∗1 NTT Communication Science Laboratories, ∗2 The University of Tokyo, ∗3 National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, ∗4 International University of Health and Welfare

KEN-ICHI SAKAKIBARA

Introduction

Throat singing is a traditional singing style of people who live around the Altai mountains. Kh¨ o¨ omei in Tyva and Kh¨ o¨ omij in Mongolia are representative styles of throat singing. Throat singing is sometimes called biphonic singing, multiphonic singing, overtone singing, or harmonic singing because two or more distinct pitches (musical lines) are produced simultaneously in one tone. One is a low sustained fundamental pitch, called a drone, and the second one is a whistle-like harmonic that resonates high (in the range from 1 kHz to 3 kHz) above the drone. Many variations of singing styles in throat singing are classified according to singers and regions. However, it is possible to objectively classify these variations in the terms of a source-filter model in speech production. The laryngeal voices of throat singing can be classified into (i) a pressed voice and (ii) a kargyraa voice based on listener’s impression, acoustical characteristics, and the singer’s personal observation on voice production. The pressed voice is the basic laryngeal voice in throat singing and used as drone. The kargyraa voice is a very low pitched voice that ranges out of the modal register. The production of the high pitched overtone is mainly due to the pipe resonance of the cavity from the larynx to the point of articulation in the vocal tract [1]. In Tyvan kh¨ o¨ omei, sygit is a style where singers articulate by touching the tongue to the palate and kh¨ o¨ omei is one where they articulate by pursing the lips. We have also physiologically observed two different laryngeal voices and estimated the patterns of the vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations [6]. We have simulated the vibration patterns by a physical modeling of the larynx: 2 × 2-mass model. Based on the physiological observations and the simulation, we propose a new laryngeal voice model and synthesis system for throat singing

https://www.academia.edu/14948935/Vocal_fold_and_false_vocal_fold_vibrations_in_throat_singing_and_synthesis_of_khoomei?email_work_card=view-paper

TRAN QUANG HAI on JAPANESE TELEVISION, part 2, December 26, 2012

TRAN QUANG HAI on JAPANESE TELEVISION, part 2, December 26, 2012

Ajoutée le 14 avr. 2012

14 avril 2012 par tranquanghai Dans le cadre de cette émission à caractère documentaire et culturel, la chaîne NTV (Nihon Television) a présenté l’émission à laquelle Tran Quang Hai avait participé “SEKAI MARUMIE TOKUSOBU” (Regardez le Monde de près). Tran Quang Hai y a fait la démonstration de différents types de voix. Cette émission fut diffusée le 26 décembre 2011 au Japon. In the framework of this TV program of documentary and cultural aspect, the NTV channel presented this program in which Tran Quang Hai had participated “SEKAI MARUMIE TOKUSOBU” (Have a close look at the world). Tran Quang Hai gave a demonstration of different types of voices in that program. Site officiel de l’émission / Official website: http://www.ntv.co.jp/marumie

TRAN QUANG HAI on JAPANESE TELEVISION , part 1, december 26,2012.wmv

TRAN QUANG HAI on JAPANESE TELEVISION , part 1, december 26,2012.wmv

Ajoutée le 14 avr. 2012

Dans le cadre de cette émission à caractère documentaire et culturel, la chaîne NTV (Nihon Television) a présenté l’émission à laquelle Tran Quang Hai avait participé “SEKAI MARUMIE TOKUSOBU” (Regardez le Monde de près). Tran Quang Hai y a fait la démonstration de différents types de voix. Cette émission fut diffusée le 26 décembre 2011 au Japon. In the framework of this TV program of documentary and cultural aspect, the NTV channel presented this program in which Tran Quang Hai had participated “SEKAI MARUMIE TOKUSOBU” (Have a close look at the world). Tran Quang Hai gave a demonstration of different types of voices in that program. Site officiel de l’émission / Official website: http://www.ntv.co.jp/marumie

 

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara,Leonardo Fuks,Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama : Growl voice in and pop styles

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31st to April 3rd 2004 (ISMA2004), Nara, Japan

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara , Leonardo Fuks , HiroshiImagawa , Niro Tayama
NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan
Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
School of Music, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
kis@brl.ntt.co.jp leofuks@serv.com.ufrj.br
imagawa@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp ntayama@imcj.hosp.go.jp

Growl voice in ethnic and pop styles

Article (PDF Available) · May 2 with 356 Reads

Cite this publication

 

 

 

 

  • Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    International Medical Center of Japan, Japan
    Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Abstract
Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supra-glottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or sub-harmonic co-oscillation. This paper examines growl mechanism using vide-ofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousit-cal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simu-lation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, includ-ing the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

1. Introduction

The term growl is originally referred to as low-pitched
sounds uttered by animals, such as dogs, or similar
sounds by humans, and therefore is mainly described
by auditory-perceptual impression. Growl is widely ob-
served in singing as well as in shouting and aroused
speech.
The growl phonation has been also referred to as the
phonation observed in some singing styles, such as the
jazz singing style of Louis Armstrong 1and Cab Cal-
loway, [2, 3]. Many jazz, blues, and gospel singers often
use growl in a similar manner. Besides such pop musics
from North America, growl styles are widely found in
pop music of other areas: in Brazil, samba singers, par-
ticularly in carnival lead voices, pop star Elza Soares, and
country singing duoBruno& Marrone; in Japan, Enka (a
popular emotive style) singers, such as Harumi Miyako,
employ it frequently. Some singers use growl extensively
through a song, while others use it as a vocal effect for
expressive emphasis.
In ethnic music, one of the most prominent use of
growl is found in umngqokolo, which is a vocal tradition
of the Xhosa people in South Africa [11]. In Japanese
theatre, Noh percussionist’s voice, Kakegoe, may present
growl at the beginning of phonation.
Growl may have perceptual similarities with the
rough or harsh voice. In terms of phonetics, growl
is sometimes described as the voiced aryepiglottic trill
[3]. However, there is no clear evidence of its produc-
tion mechanism, such as physiological observation of the
aryepglottic vibration.
In throat singing (Tyvan khoomei and Mongolian
khoomij), ventricular and vocal fold vibration was ob-
served for the two different laryngeal voices (drone and
kargyraa) [4, 9]. In drone, the basic voice in throat
singing with a whistle-like high overtone, the ventricular
fold vibration is at the same frequency as the vocal fold
vibration. In kargyraa, which usually sounds one octave
(or more) lower than the modal register, the ventricular
folds vibrate at when the vocal folds vibrate at .
Moreover, some singers can do triple-periodic kargyraa
in which the ventricular folds vibrate at .
In this paper, the phonation mode with ventricular and vocal fold
vibration is called VVM (vocal-ventricular mode) [4]. In
growl, there is no clear evidence of the ventricular fold
vibration.

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228485036_Growl_voice_in_ethnic_and_pop_styles

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara, Leonardo Fuks, Hiroshi Imagawa, Niro Tayama: Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles

CLICK ON THIS LINK TO READ THE WHOLE PAPER :

https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3A528dbdd7-5280-4bf2-b448-c79009c9a6d2

Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles

Ken-Ichi Sakakibara (1 2), Leonardo Fuks (3), Hiroshi Imagawa(4), Niro Tayama(5)

1NTTCommunication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan

2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Tokyo, Japan School of Music,

3Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

4Department of Speech Physiology, The University of Tokyo, Japan

5International Medical Center of Japan, Japan

Abstract

Among the so-called extended vocal techniques, vocal growl is a rather common effect in some ethnic (e.g. the Xhosa people in South Africa) and pop styles (e.g. Jazz, Louis Armstrong-type) of music. Growl usually consists of simultaneous vibrations of the vocal folds and supraglottal structures of the larynx, either in harmonic or subharmonic co-oscillation.

This paper examines growl mechanism using videofluoroscopy and high-speed imaging, and its acousitcal characteristics by spectral analysis and model simulation. In growl, the larynx position is usually high and aryepiglottic folds vibrate. The aryepiglottic constriction is associated to a unique shape of the vocal tract, including the larynx tube, and characterizes growl.

Ken-ichi Sakakibara, Hiroshi Imagawa, Seiji Niimi: Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing and synthesis of khoomei

 

 

Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing and synthesis of khoomei
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Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations in throat singing andsynthesis of kh¨omei
Ken-Ichi Sakakibara
1
, Hiroshi Imagawa
2
,Tomoko Konishi, Kazumasa Kondo,Emi Zuiki Murano
2
, Masanobu Kumada
3
, and Seiji Niimi
4
1
NTT Communication Science Laboratories,
 ∗
2
The University of Tokyo,
3
National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled,
 ∗
4
International University of Health and Welfare
Abstract
We observed laryngeal movements in throat singing using physiological methods: the simultaneous recording of singing sounds, EGG, and high-speed digital images. We observed vocal fold and false vocal fold vibration and estimated the vibration patterns. We also estimated the laryngeal voices by using an inverse filtering method and simulated the vibration pattern using a new physical model:
 2
×
2
-mass model. From these observations, we propose a laryngeal voice model for throat singing and synthesis system of throat singing.
1 Introduction
Throat singing is a traditional singing style of peo-ple who live around the Altai mountains. Kh¨omeiin Tyva and Kh¨omij in Mongolia are representa-tive styles of throat singing. Throat singing is some-times called biphonic singing, multiphonic singing,overtone singing, or harmonic singing because two ormore distinct pitches (musical lines) are produced si-multaneously in one tone. One is a low sustainedfundamental pitch, called a drone, and the secondone is a whistle-like harmonic that resonates high (inthe range from 1 kHz to 3 kHz) above the drone.Many variations of singing styles in throat singingare classified according to singers and regions. How-ever, it is possible to objectively classify these varia-tions in the terms of a source-filter model in speechproduction.The laryngeal voices of throat singing can be clas-sified into (i) a pressed voice and (ii) a kargyraa voicebased on listener’s impression, acoustical character-istics, and the singer’s personal observation on voiceproduction. The pressed voice is the basic laryngealvoice in throat singing and used as drone. The kar-gyraa voice is a very low pitched voice that rangesout of the modal register.The production of the high pitched overtone ismainly due to the pipe resonance of the cavity fromthe larynx to the point of articulation in the vo-cal tract [1]. In Tyvan kh¨omei, sygit is a stylewhere singers articulate by touching the tongue tothe palate and kh¨omei is one where they articulateby pursing the lips.We have physiologically observed two different la-ryngeal voices and estimated the patterns of the vo-cal fold and false vocal fold vibrations [6]. We havealso simulated the vibration patterns by a physicalmodeling of the larynx: 2
×
2-mass model. Basedon the physiological observations and the simulation,we propose a new laryngealvoice model and synthesissystem for throat singing.
2 Physiological observations
2.1 Methods
We observed laryngeal movements in throat singingdirectly and indirectly by simultaneous recording of high-speed digital images, EGG (Electroglottogra-phy) waveforms, and sound waveforms (Fig. 1). Thehigh-speed digital images were captured through afiberscope inserted into the nose cavity of a singerat 4501 frames/s. Sound and EGG waveforms weresampled at 12 b/s and 18 kHz sf [4]. Two singers,who are normal, participated as subjects. One stud-ied kh¨omei in Tyva and the other studied kh¨omij in Mongolia.
EGG
Fig.1: High-speed digital image system.
2.2 Results
Common laryngeal movements are observed amongtwo singers for each of the two laryngeal voices.
contact: K.-I. Sakakibara,
 kis@brl.ntt.co.jp
, NTT Communication Science Labs, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, 243-0198, Japan
Pressed voice
In pressed-voice production, the following features of the laryngeal movements were observed. (1) Overallconstriction of the supra-structures of the glottis wasobserved, thus it was difficult to directly observe vi-brations of vocal folds (VFs). (2) Vibration of thesupra-structures of the glottis, whose edges are pre-sumably false vocal folds (FVFs), was observed indigital high-speed images. (3) The period of FVFsvibrations was almost equal to the period of the EGGwaveform. (4) The slope of the EGG curve changedin the beginning of the closed phase of the FVFs, theimpedance of the EGG reached the maximal valuewhen the FVFs were open, and reached the minimalvalue when they were closed (Fig. 2). The graph atthe bottom of Fig. 2 depicts the locus of the edge of FVFs. The upper line (the lower line) is the locus of the left (right, respectively) edges of FVFs.
Kargyraa voice
In kargyraa-voice production, the following featuresof the laryngeal movement were observed. (1) Over-all constriction at the supra-structures of the glottiswas observed. (2) The constriction was looser thanthat in the case of the pressed voice. (3) Vibrationof the supra-structures of the glottis, whose edges arepresumably FVFs. (4) The phases of FVF vibrationsare observed to alternate between almost completelyclosed and open. (5) Vibration of the VFs was ob-served during the open period of the FVFs. (6) Thedouble period of vibration of the FVFs were equalto the period of the sound waveform. (7) When theFVFs almost completely closed, the power of soundbecame weaker. (8) In the EGG waveform, two dif-ferent shapes alternated, and the period of the EGGwaveform was equal to that of the sound waveform(Fig. 3).
Fig. 2: Pressed voice(from above, sound, EGG, edges of FVF).Fig. 3: Kargyraa voice(from above, sound, EGG, edges of FVF).
2.3 Discussion
Two common features were observed among themechanisms of the two different laryngeal voice pro-ductions: (1) Overall constriction of the supra-structures of the glottis and (2) vibration of thesupra-structures of the glottis, which presumably areFVFs. These features are not observed in vowel pro-duction in ordinary speech. The differences amongthe two different laryngeal voice productions are (1)narrowness of the constriction and (2) the manner of FVF vibration.The EGG waveforms for the pressed voice andkarygraa voice represent the contact area of thesupra-structures of the glottis as well as that of theVFs. However, taking into account the high-speeddigital images and sound waveforms, the EGG wave-forms can be assumed to mainly represent the contactarea of VFs. Thus, we can conclude that VF vibra-tions and FVF vibrations have the opposite phase inthe pressed-voice case . In the kargyraa voice, theFVFs can be assumed to close once for every two pe-riods of closure of the VFs, and this closing blocksairflow and contributes to the generation of the sub-harmonic tone of kargyraa.In a previous study, the open quotient (OQ) inthroat singing was estimated to be smaller from theacoustical feature [2]. However, for both the pressedand kargyraa voice, our physiological observationsuggests that the OQ is difficult to estimate becauseof the contribution of the supra-structuresof the glot-tis. Therefore the OQ was not estimated.In the synthesis of the throat singing sounds, aspointed out in [1], glottal source modeling is neededfor reproduction of the timber. Our physiological ob-servations suggests that the glottal source model of throat singing should include the FVF vibrations aswell as the VF vibrations [7].
3 Laryngeal voice model of throat singing
In this paper, we define the glottal airflow as the air-flow through glottis to the area between FVFs andthe laryngeal airflow as the airflow through the areabetween FVFs to the pharynx.
Glottal airflow estimation
From recorded sounds, we estimated laryngealairflowusing the inverse filtering technique. In the pressedvoice, the estimated laryngeal airflow curve had asmall notch just after the curve reached a peak, andthe closing of the VFs was apparently not complete
(Fig. 4). In the kargyraa voice, the estimated la-ryngeal airflow curve has two peaks in each period.From our physiological observation, the VFs vibratetwice in each period of the FVF vibration, and theestimated laryngeal airflow curve showed that in oneof the two vibrations of VFs, the closing of VFs werenot completed (Fig. 5).
SoundEGGLaryngealairflowAirflowderivative
Fig. 4: Inverse filtered laryngeal airflow of pressedvoices for two singers.
SoundEGGAirflowderivativeLaryngealairflow
Fig. 5: Inverse filtered laryngeal airflow of kargyraavoices for two singers.
All the power spectra of the estimated glottal air-flows showed an increase of power in the range from1 to 3 kHz, which is where the second formant fre-quency which corresponds the whistle-like overtoneappears in throat singing (Fig. 6–8).
Fig. 6: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of normal voicefor two singers.Fig. 7: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of pressed voicefor two singers.Fig. 8: Inverse filtered airflow spectrum of karygraavoice for two singers.
A 2
×
2-mass model
For a physical simulation of the VF and FVF vi-brations, we propose a 2
×
2-mass model as a self-oscillating model of VF and FVF vibrations (Fig.9). This model was devised by introducing a two-mass model for the FVFs to the ordinary two-massmodel for the VFs. The mechanical transmission of vibrations between the VFs and FVFs were not con-sidered. The laryngeal ventricle is a cylinder whosesectional area is uniformally 5 cm
2
and height is 16 cmand not deformed. In the simulation the 2
×
2-massmodel oscillated stably. The simulation of laryngealmovements using the 2
×
2-mass model agreed withthe above assumptions for the two laryngeal move-ment patterns of throat singing for both the pressedand kargyraa voices (Fig. 10). The 2
×
2-mass modelcan simulate ordinary glottal source in the same wayas the two-mass model by setting suitable model pa-rameters [3].
VocalfoldsFalsevocalfoldsLaryngealVentricleVocal tractTrachea
Fig. 9: 2
×
2-mass model for the VFs and FVFs.
Sound waveformLaryngeal airflow
1000 cc/s
Fig. 10: Laryngeal airflow obtained by using 2
×
2-massmodel(left: pressed voice, right: kargyraa voice).
Laryngeal voice model
From the physiological observations and estimatedlaryngeal voices, we assume (1) in pressed-voice pro-duction, VFs and FVFs vibrate in almost oppositephase; (2) in karygraa-voice production, two closed
phases of the VFs appeared in one period of a glottalvolume flow waveform, and VFs were incompletelyclosed at one of the two closed phases. Under theseassumptions, we propose a laryngeal voice model forthroat singing and synthesized throat singing sounds.Our proposed laryngeal voice model is obtainedas follows: We generate almost sine-shaped glottalairflow, because the glottal flow of the throat singingmust be symmetric from Fig. 4 (Step 1). The glottalairflow is modulated by the vibration of the FVFs(Step 2). Turbulent noise is added according to theopen width of the FVFs (Step 3). The output is con-voluted with the transfer function of the laryngealventricle (Step 4)[3].
Laryngeal ventricle resonanceglottal airflowAg: glottal areaFalse glottalareaLaryngealairflow
Fig. 11: Block diagram for laryngeal voice model.
4 Synthesis of throat singing
Based on a Klatt synthesizer [5], we propose synthe-sis model for throat singing, which has the proposedlaryngeal voice model as source and time-varying for-mants obtained from recorded throat singing soundsas resonating filters (Fig. 12). Compared with an or-dinary glottal airflow model, some improvements of the timbre were observed.
Conclusion
We observed the laryngeal movements in throatsinging. The VF and FVF vibrations were observed.The FVF vibrations contribute to production of boththe two laryngeal voices of throat singing. We also es-timated the laryngeal voice source and simulated thelaryngeal movements by using a 2
×
2-mass model.Based on these observations, we proposed a laryn-geal source model and synthesis model for throatsinging. These models can also simulate the normalvoice. Consequently, all the power spectrum of thesimulated glottal airflows showed the increase of thepower on the range less than 3 kHz where the secondformant frequency which corresponds the whistle-likeovertone in throat singing. Our study indicates theglottal source also contributes the whistle-like over-tone production as well as the articulation of thetongue and lips.
Fig. 12: Block diagram of kh¨o¨omei synthesizer.Fig. 13: Synthesized laryngeal airflows, synthesizedsounds by kh¨omei synthesis system, and power spectraof sythesized souds (left: pressed voice, right: kargyraavoice).
Acknowledgments
We wish to thank Seiji Adachi, Zoya Kyrgys,Koichi Makigami, Naotoshi Osaka, Yoshinao Shiraki,and Masahiko Todoriki for their help and useful dis-cussion.
Bibliography
[1] S. Adachi and M. Yamada. An acoustical study of soundproduction in biphonic singing x¨omij.
 J. Acoust. Soc.Am.
, 105(5):2920–2932, 1999.[2] G. Bloothooft, E. Bringmann, M. van Cappellen, J. B. vanLuipen, and K. P. Thomassen. Acoustics and perceptionof overtone singing.
 J. Acoust. Soc. Am 
, 92(4):1827–1836,1992.[3] H. Imagawa, K.-I. Sakakibara, T. Konishi, E. Z. Murano,and S. Niimi. Throat singing synthesis by a laryngealvoice model based on vocal fold and false vocal fold vi-brations.
 Tech. Rep. IECE 
, SP2000-140:71–78, Feb. 2001.in Japanese.[4] S. Kiritani, H. Imagawa, and H. Hirose. Vocal cord vibra-tion in the production of consonants-observation by meansof high-speed digital imaging using a fiberscope.
 J. Acoust.Soc. Jpn. (E)
, 17:1–8, 1996.[5] D. H. Klatt. Software for a cascade/parallel formant syn-thesizer.
 J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
, 67(3):971–995, 1980.[6] T. C. Levin and M. E. Edgerton. The throat singers of tuva.
 Scientific America 
, (Sep.1999):80–87, 1999.[7] K.-I. Sakakibara, S. Adachi, T. Konishi, K. Kondo, E. Z.Murano, M. Kumada, M. Todoriki, H. Imagawa, and S. Ni-imi. Observation of vocal fold vibrations in tyvan and mon-golian throat singing.
 Tech. Rep. Musical Acoust., Acoust.Soc. Jpn 
, 19-4:41–48, Sep. 2000. in Japanese.
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Ken-ichi Sakakibara
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Seiji Niimi
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MAKIGAMI&MONGUN-OOL in Kyzyl, 2011

MAKIGAMI&MONGUN-OOL in Kyzyl

Published on Mar 26, 2011

トゥバ日本友好協会主催のコンサートが、トゥバ共和国の首都クズルのДНТのシアターで3月18日に行われた。 東日本大地震直後に日本を出発した巻上公一一行は、トゥバ国民に大きな印象を残した。トゥバ大統領は、日本に惜しみない支援をすると約束。 舞台は、MAKIGAMI Koichi(left)とOndar Mongun-oolのDuoである。 巻上は、尺八をヴォイスパフォーマンスとして使っている。
Un concert organisé par l’Association d’amitié Tuva Japon s’est tenu le 18 mars au théâtre de ДНТ, la capitale de la République de Tuba. Kuichi Muroko, qui a quitté le Japon peu après le séisme survenu dans l’est du Japon, a laissé une forte impression sur le peuple tuba. Le président Tuba a promis d’apporter un soutien généreux au Japon. La scène est MAKIGAMI Koichi (à gauche) et Ondar Mongun-ool Duo. J’utilise shakuhachi comme une performance vocale pour le volume.