Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009) by Tran Quang Hai

Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009) by Tran Quang Hai

1
Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009)
by Tran Quang Hai


ABITBOL, J., 2005: L’Odyssée de la Voix, 516 p., Robert Laffont, Paris.
ADACHI, S. and M. Yamada, 1997: “An Acoustical Study of Sound Production in Biphonic Singing, Xöömij,” Proceedings of 1997 Japan – China Joint Meeting on Musical Acoustics: 21-26,
Tokyo.
AKSENOV, A.N., 1964: Tuvinskaja Narodnaja Muzyka, Moscou.
– 1967: “Die Stile der Tuvinischen zweistimmigen Sologesanges”, Sowjetische Volkslied- und Volksmusikforschung: 293-308, Berlin.
– 1973: “Tuvin Folk Music”, Journal of the Society for Asian Music 4(2): 7- 18.
BADRAA, Z., 1981: “Xöömij” i “Urtyn duu”, specificeskie Javienija Mongol’skoj tradicionnoj klassiceskoj muzyki”, Professional’naja Muzyka Ustoj Tradicij Narodov Bliznevo Vostoka i
Sovremennost: 116-119, Tachkent.
– 1986: “L’art Xöömij”, Les Nouvelles de Mongolie (9): 18-19, Mongol Press.
BARNETT, B. M., 1977 : “Aspects of Vocal Multiphonics”, Interface 6: 17-149.
BATZENGEL, 1978: “Urtyn duu, Xöömii and Morin Xuur”, Musical Voices of Asia: 52-53, Tokyo.
BELFER, R., 1986: “Chant harmonique: découvrer votre deuxième voix”, Médecines Douces (77): 50-53, Paris.
BLOOTHOOFT, G. et al., 1992: “Acoustics and Perception of Overtone Singing”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 4: 1827-1836.
BOREL-MAISONNY S. et CASTELLENGO, M., 1976: “Etude radiographique des mouvements oro-pharyngée pendant la parole et le jeu instrumental”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique
Musicale (86): 35 p, Unversité de Paris VI.
CHERNOV, B. and V. MASLOV, 1979: “The Secret of a “Solo Duet”, Soviet Anthropology and Archeology 18: 82-88.
– 1987: “Larynx -double sound generator,” Proc. 11th Int’1. Cong. Phonetic Sci.: 40-43, Tallin, Estonia.
CURTET, J., 2006: Le Xöömij ou chant diphonique mongol: Aspects spectral, acoustique et musical d’une vingtaine de techniques, Master 2 de l’Université de Rennes, supervisor: Tran Quang
Hai, 3 CD, 350 p.
DARGIE, D., 1985: “Some Recent Discoveries and Recordings in Xhosa Music”, Papers presented at the 5th Symposium on Ethnomusicology, University of Cape Town, International Library of
African Music (ed): 29-35, Grahamtown.
– 1988: Xhosa Music / Its Techniques and Instruments, with a Collection of Songs, David Philip, 235 p., Cape Town & Johannesburg.
– 1991: “Umngqokolo: Xhosa overtone singing and the song Nondel’ekhaya”, African Music 7(1): 33-47, Grahamtown.
DESJACQUES, A., 1985: “Une considération phonétique sur quelques techniques vocales diphoniques mongoles”, Bulletin du Centre d’Etudes de Musique Orientale 31: 46-55, Paris.
– 1993: Chants de l’Altai Mongol, thèse de doctorat, sous la direction du Prof. Manfred Kelkel et du Prof. Jacques Legrand, Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne, 389 p., Paris. (chapitre 1: Le Xöömij:
7-108), avec une cassette audio.
DEUTSCH, W.A. et FÖDERMAYR, F., 1992: “Zum Problem des zweistimmigen Sologesanges Mongolischer und Turk Völker”, Von der Vielfalt Musikalischer Kultur, Festschrift für Josef
Kuckerts (Wort und Musik 12), Verlag Ursula Müller-Speiser, Anif/Salzburg: 133-145, Salzburg.
DMITRIEV, L. CHERNOV, B. & MASLOW, V., 1983: “Functioning of the Voice Mechanism in Double Voice Touvinian Singing”, Folia Phoniatrica 35: 193-197.
EDGERTON, M. & LEVIN, Th., 1999: “Le Chant des Touvas”, Pour la Science 265: 50-58, Paris.
EL HAOULI, J., 1999: Demetrio Stratos: Alla della voce-musica, Auditorium, 120 p, Milan.
ELLINGSON, T., 1970: “The Technique of Chordal Singing in the Tibetan Style”, American Anthropologist 72: 826-831.
FÖDERMAYER, F., 1983: “Zum Konzept einer vergleichend-systematischen Musikwissenschaft”, Musikethnologische Sammelbände 6: 25-39.
GUNJI, 1980: “An Acoustical Consideration of Xöömij”, Musical Voices of Asia: 135-141, The Japan Foundation (ed), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo.
HAMAYON, R., 1980: “Mongol Music”, New Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians 12: 482-485, Stanley Sadie (ed), MacMillan Publishers, London.
HARVILAHTI, L., 1983: “A Two Voiced Song With No Word”, Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran aikakauskirja 78: 43-56, Helsinki.
HARVILAHTI, L. & KASKINEN, H., 1983: “On the Application Possibilities of Overtone Singing”, Suomomen Antropologi 4: 249-255, Helsinki.
HIGGINS, A., 1995: “Tunes of War as Throat Singers Go for the Jugular”, The Independent, London.
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KYRGYS, Z. K., 1992: “Pesennaia kul’tura tuvinskogo naroda” (The vocal culture of the Tuvan People), Kyzyl.
LANERI, R., 1983: “Vocal Techniques of Overtone Production”, NPCAQuarterly Journal 12(2-3): 26-30.
– 2002: La Voce dell’arcobaleno : origini, tecniche e applicazioni pratiche del canto armonico, 288 p. Edizioni Il Punto di’incontro, Vicenza.
LEIGHTON, R., 2000: Tuva or Bust! Richard Feynman’s Last Journey, W.W. Norton & Company, 260 p., New York.
LEIPP, E., 1971: “Considération acoustique sur le chant diphonique”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale 58: 1-10, Paris.
LENTIN, J-P., 1986: “Je fais chanter tout mon corps”, Actuel 81-82: 142-145, Paris.
LEOTAR, F., 1998: Etudes sur la musique touva, maîtrise de l’Université de Nanterre – Paris X, 128 p., 2 cassettes.
LEOTHAUD, G., 1989: “Considérations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant diphonique”, Le chant diphonique, dossier n° 1: 17-43, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
LEVIN, Th. & EDGERTON, M., 1999: “The Throat Singers of Tuva”, Scientific American 281 (3): 70-77.
– 1999: “Le Chant des Touvas”, Pour la Science 265: 50-58, Paris.
LEVIN, Th. & Valentina Süzükei, 2006: Where Rivers and Mountains Sing / Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond, 1 CD/DVD, Indiana University Press, 281 p., Bloomington.
MOULINIE, M., 1999: Pratique de la method Vittoz et du chant diphonique, 25 p. Mémoire VITTOR IRDC, supervisor: Tran Quang Hai, Paris.
MURAOKA, T., K. Wagatsuma, and M. Horiuchi, 1983: “Acoustic Analysis of the Mongolian singing Xöömij,” Preprint of the Acoustical Society of Japan 2-3-9, pp. 385-386.
MURAOKA, T., K. Wagatsuma, Y. Tsuchikane, and M. Horiuchi, 1984: “On a Consideration of Mongolian Singing Xöömij and its Specialities,” Preprint of the seminar on Musical acoustics, The
Acoustical Society of Japan MA84-1, pp. 1-6.
MURAOKA, T., S. Takeda, and M. Itoga, 2000: “Analysis of Acoustic Features of Mongolian Xöömij Singing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, Vol. 56-5: 308-317, Tokyo.
PAILLER, J.P., 1989: “Examen video du larynx et de la cavité buccale de Monsieur Trân Quang Hai”, dossier n°1, Le Chant diphonique: 11-13, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
PEGG, C., 1992: “Mongolian Conceptualizations of Overtonesinging (xöömi)”, The British Journal of Ethnomusicology (1): 31-53, London.
– 2001: Mongolian Music, Dance and Oral Narrative, University of Washington Press.
RACHELE, R., 1996: “Overtone Singing Study Guide”, Cryptic Voices Productions (ed), 127 p., 71 transcriptions musicales, 15 sonagrammes, 1 CD, Amsterdam.
REIMANN, M., 1998: Entdecke die Musik in dir, 1 CD, 191 p., Kösel, Germany.
RIES, M. 2006: Le chant diphonique: une voix, deux chants, mémoire, 27 p., supervisor: Tran Quang Hai, Lycée Fabert MP, Metz.
SAKAKIBARA, K.-I, T. Konishi, K. Kondo, E. Z. Murano, M. Kumada, H. Imagawa, and S. Niimi, 2001: “Vocal fold and false vocal fold vibrations and synthesis of khoomei”, Proc. of International
Computer Music Conference 2001: 135-138. http://www.brl.ntt.co.jp/people/kis/paper/icmc2001.pdf (PDF: 622 kbytes)
SAKAKIBARA, K.-I, H. Imagawa,T. Konishi, and S. Niimi, 2001: “Glottal Source Model for Throat Singing Based on Vocal Fold and False Vocal Fold Vibrations”, Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 1-6-
14: 255-256, Tokyo.
SAKAKIBARA, K.-I, H. Imagawa, S. Niimi, and N. Osaka, 2002: “ Synthesis of the laryngeal source of throat singing using a 2×2-mass model,” Proc. of International Computer Music Conference
2002: 5-8. http://www.brl.ntt.co.jp/people/kis/paper/icmc2002.pdf (PDF: 558 kB)
SAKAKIBARA, K.-I, Tomoko Konishi, Hiroshi Imagawa, Emi Z. Murano, Kazumasa Kondo, Masanobu Kumada, and Seiji Niimi, 2002: “Observation of the laryngeal movements for throat
singing – Vibration of two pairs of folds in human larynx”, Lay Language Paper for First Pan-American/Iberian Meeting on Acoustics in Cancun, Acoust. Soc. Am. http://www.acoustics.org/press/
World Wide Press Room.
SAUS, W., 2004: Oberton Singen: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst. Traumzeit-Verlag, 132 p, 1CD, Germany.
SAUVAGE, J.P., 1989: “Observation clinique de Monsieur Trân Quang Hai”, dossier n° 1, Le Chant diphonique: 3-10, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
SMITH, H., STEVENS, K.N., and TOMLINSON, R. S., 1967: “On an unusual mode of singing of certain Tibetan Lamas”, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 41 (5): 1262-4.
SMITH, H., STEVENS, K.N., 1967: “Unique Vocal Abilities of Certain Tibetan Lamas”, American Anthopologist: 209-212.
SUNDBERG, J., 1977: “The Acoustics of the Singing Voice”, Scientific American 236: 82-91.
– 1987: The Science of the Singing Voice, 216 p., Northern Illinois University Press.
TAKEDA, S., M. Itoga, Y, Sato and Y, Ueda, 1992: “Analysis of Acoustical Features of Mongolian Singing
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“Khöömij”, Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 2-7-15: 605-606, Tokyo.
TAKEDA, S., M. Itoga, 1993: “On the differences in Spectra in Accordance with the Phonemic and Tone-height Differences in Mongolian Singing “Khöömij”, Proc. Acoust. Soc. Jap. 2-3-3: 499-
500, Tokyo.
– 1993: “Analysis of Acoustic Features of Mongolian Singing “Khöömij”, Technical Report on Musical Information Sci.1-4: 1-4, Tokyo.
TAKEDA, S., T. Muraoka, 2002: “Analysis of Acoustical Features of Biphonic Singing Voices: Male and Female Xöömij and Male Steppe Kargiraa”, http://www.soundtransformations.btinternet.
co.uk/AnalysisOfAcousticalFeaturesOfBiphonicSingingVoicestakedandmuraoka.htm
TATARINTSEV, B., 1998: Tuvinskoe gorlovoe penie. Problemy proiskhozhdeniya (Problems of the Origin of Tuvan Throat Singing (bilingual edition), 79 p.,International Scientific Centre
“Khoomei”, Kyzyl.
TISATO, G. & MACCARINI, A. R., 1991: “Analysis and Synthesis of Diphonic Singing” (Analyse et synthèse du chant diphonique), Nouvelles Voies de la Voix, 1ère partie, Bulletin
d’audiophonologie 7(5&6): 619-648, Besançon.
TISATO, G., 1989: “Analisi digitale dei suoni multifonici”, Proc. of III CIM (Colloquio di Informatica Musicale): 107-128, Padova.
– 1989: “Il canto degli armonici”, Nuove tecnologie et documentazione etnomusicologica, Culture Musicali n° 15 & 16.
TISATO, G. & COSI, P., 2003: “On the Magic of Overtone Singing”, Voce, Canto, Parlato / Studi di Onore di Franco Ferrero: 83-100, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione Sezione di
Padova “Fonetica e Dialettologia”,
UNIPRESS, Padova.
TOKUMARU, Y., 1994: Review of Hugo Zemp and Trân Quang Hai, “The Song of Harmonics”, ETHNOMUSICOLOGY, 38 (2): 387-389.
TRAN QUANG HAI & GUILOU, D., 1980: “Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in Connection with the Xöömij Style of Biphonic Singing”, Musical Voices of Asia: 162-173, The
Japan Foundation (éd), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo.
TRAN QUANG HAI & ZEMP, Hugo, 1991: “Recherches expérimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de Musiques traditionnelles: VOIX vol.4: 27-68, Ateliers d’ethnomusicologie /AIMP,
Genève.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1975: “Technique de la voix chantée mongole: xöömij”, Bulletin du CEMO (14 &15): 32-36, Paris.
– 1983: “Note à propos du chant diphonique mongol”, Catalogue de l’exposition Mongolie-Mongolie, Musée de l’Homme (éd),Paris.
– 1989: “Réalisation du chant diphonique”, dossier n°1 Le Chant diphonique : 15-16, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
– 1990: “Les Musiques vocales”, L’Esprit des Voix, C.Alès (éd), La Pensée Sauvage: 43-52, Grenoble.
– 1991: “La voix dans les cultures extra-occidentales”, La Voix dévoilée: 164-186, éditions Romillat, Paris.
– 1991: “Les différents styles du chant diphonique”, Actes de l’Universon: 45-52, Narbonne.
– 1991: “New Experimental About the Overtone Singing Style”, (Nouvelles Expérimentations sur le chant diphonique),Nouvelles Voies de la Voix, 1ère partie, Bulletin d’adiophonologie 7(5&6):
607-618, Besançon.
– 1992: “Instruments traditionnels et musiques à bourdon : la voix diphonique”, Autour de l’instrument de musique (2ème Colloque départemental d’éducation musicale en Seine et Marne): 15-
21, Melun.
– 1992: “Pratique du chant dysphonique ou du chant diphonique chez les personnes âgées”, Rééducation orthophonique (3ème Colloque d’étude clinique du langage en gériatrie: La voix du sujet
âgé 30 (171): 299-311, Paris.
– 1995: “Le chant diphonique: description, historique, styles, aspect acoustique et spectral”, EM, Annuario degli Archivi di Etnomusicologia dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, 2:123-
150, Rome.
– 1997: “Recherches Introspectives sur le chant diphonique et leurs applications”, Penser La Voix, (ed) La Licorne: 195-210, Poitiers.
– 1997: “Overtones in Central Asia and in South Africa (Xhosa Vocal Styles)é, Confluences: Cross-Cultural Fusions in Music and Dance, Proceedings of the First South African Music and Dance
Conference and 15th Symposium on Ethnomusicology: 422-432, (ed) Université de Cape Town.
– 1998: “Survey of overtone singing style”, Die Ausdruckswelt der Stimme, 1-Stuttgarter Stimmtage/ Horst Gunderman, Hüthig (éditeur): 77-83.
– 1999: “Overtones used in Tibetan Buddhist Chanting and in Tuvin Shamanism”, Ritual and Music, Lithuanian Academy of Music, Department of Ethnomusicology (ed.): 129-136, Vilnius.
– 2000: “Some Experimental and Introspective Researches on Xoomij Overtone Singing”, Proceedings WESTPRAC VII: 593-598, University of Kumamoto, Japan.
– 2001: “Chant diphonique”, Science et Conscience 2: 42-44, Luxembourg.
– 2001: “Voix d’autres cultures”, Cinq Sens dans un corps 284: 36-37, CNRS, Paris.
– 2002: “A la découverte du chant diphonique”, Moyens d’investigation et pédagogie de la voix chantée: actes du colloque tenu les 8, 9 et 10 février 2001 au Conservatoire National de region de
Lyon, 1 CD Rom, ed. Guy Cornut, Symétrie: 117-132, Lyon.
– 2002: Polyphony in Overtone Singing Khoomei in Central Asia: the Case of Mongolia and Tuva, 16 p. International Forum of Ethnomusicology: Polyphonic Singing in Traditional Societies –
Behaviors and Aesthetics, Taipei.
– 2003: “Polyphony in one Throat”, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Traditional Polyphony (2-8 october 2002): 274-287, Tbilisi, Georgia.
TSAI, C.G., Shau, Y.W., and Hsiao, T.Y., 2004: “False vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a hypothesis (oral)”. International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics,
August 18-20, Marseille, France.
TSAI, C.G., 2004: “Physical Modeling of the Vocal Tract of a Sygyt Singer / Source Theory v.s. Resonance Theory”
http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~gim/gia/overtonesinging/sygyt.html
– 2005: “Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing (oral)”. International Symposium on Body & Cognition, June 4-5, Taipei.
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– 2005: “Kargiraa and Meditation: Pipe model of a Kargyraa Singer’s Vocal tract”, http://www.soundtransformations.btinternet.co.uk/KargyraaandmeditationchenGiaTsai.htm
VAN TONGEREN, M., 1994: Xöömij in Tuva: New Developments, New Dimensions, Master degree supervised by Ernst Heins, Ethnomusicologisch Centrum “Jaap Kunst”, Universiteit van
Amsterdam.
– 1995: “A Tuvan Perspective on Throat Singing” in Oideion, The Performing Arts Worldwide, 2: 293-312, Centre of Non Western Studies, Université de Leiden.
– 2004: Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics in East and West, Revised 2nd Edition, 281 p, 1 CD, Fusica, Amsterdam.
VARGYAS, L., 1968: “Performing Styles in Mongolian Chant”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council: 70-72, Kingston.
VLACHOU, E., 1985: Recherches Vocales contemporaines: chant diphonique, Maîtrise à l’Université de Paris VIII-Saint Denis, sous la direction de Daniel Charles, 90 p., Paris.
WALCOTT, R., 1974: “The Chöömij of Mongolia – A Spectral Analysis of Overtone Singing”, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 2(1): 55-59, UCLA, Los Angeles.
YAMADA, M., 1998: “Mongolian biphonic singing Xöömij,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, Vol. 54-9, pp. 680-685, Tokyo.
ZARLINO, G., 1558: Institutioni harmoniche, Venise (cf. Tisato, G.).
ZEMP, H & TRAN QUANG HAI, 1991: “Recherches expérimentales sur le chant diphonique” (see TRAN QUANG HAI & ZEMP, Hugo).

TRAN QUANG HAI: BIBLIOGRAPHY / CHANT DIPHONIQUE / OVERTONE SINGING / HAT DONG SONG THANH

CHANT DIPHONIQUE / OVERTONE SINGING / HAT DONG SONG THANH
BIBLIOGRAPHIE
AKSENOV, A.N. 1964: Tuvinskaja Narodnaja Muzyka, Moscou.
AKSENOV, A.N 1967: “Die Stile der Tuvinischen zweistimmigen
Sologesanges”,Stockmann, E. (editeur): Sowjetische Volkslied- und Volksmusikforschung : 293-307, Berlin
AKSENOV, A.N. 1973: “Tuvin Folk Music”, Journal of the Society for Asian
Music 4(2):7- 18, New York.
BADRAA, Z. 1981: “Xöömij” i “Urtyn duu”, specificeskie Javienija
Mongol’skoj tradicionnoj klassiceskoj muzyki”, Professional’naja Muzyka
Ustoj Tradicij Narodov Bliznevo Vostoka i Sovremennost : 116-119,
Tachkent.
BADRAA, Z. 1986: “L’art Xöömij”, Les Nouvelles de Mongolie (9): 18-19,
Mongol Press.
BATZENGEL 1978: “Urtyn duu, Xöömii and Morin Xuur”, Muscial Voices of Asia:52-53, Tokyo.
BELFER, R. 1986: “Chant harmonique: découvrer votre deuxième voix”,
Médecines Douces (77): 50-53, Paris.
BLOOTHOOFT G., BRINGMANN E., van CAPELLEN M., Van LUIPEN, J.B., THOMASSEN, K.P. 1992: “Acoustic and Perception of Overtone Singing”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, JASA 92 (4), Part.1: 1827-1836, USA
BOREL-MAISONNY S. & CASTELLENGO, M.1976: “Etude radiographique des
mouvements oro-pharyngée pendant la parole et le jeu instrumental”,
Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale (86): 35p, Unversité de Paris VI.
COSI, P. & TISATO, G. 2003 : « On the Magic of Overtone Singing », Voce, Canto, Parlato / Studi in Onore di Franco Ferrero , Unipress (publisher): 83-100, Padova, Italie

DARGIE, D. 1985: “Some Recent Discoveries and Recordings in Xhosa Music”,
Papers presented at the 5th Symposium on Ethnomusicology,University
of Cape Town, International Library of African Music (ed):29-35,Grahamtown.
DARGIE, D. 1988: Xhosa Music / Its Techniques and Instruments, with a
Collection of Songs, David Philip, 235p, Cape Town & Johannesburg, Afrique du Sud
DARGIE, D. 1991:”Umngqokolo: Xhosa overtone singing and the song
Nondel’ekhaya”, African Music 7(1): 33-47, Grahamtown. Afrique du Sud
DARGIE, D. 1993: “Thembu Xhosa Umngqokolo Overtone Singing: The Use of the Human Voice as a Type of “Musical Bow”, paper for the ICTM Conference, manuscript, Berlin, Allemagne .
DESJACQUES, A. 1985: “Une considération phonétique sur quelques techniques
vocales diphoniques mongoles”, Bulletin du Centre d’Etudes de Musique
Orientale 31: 46-55, Paris.
DESJACQUES, A. 1993: Chants de l’Altai Mongol, thèse de doctorat , nouveau
régime, sous la direction du Prof. Manfred Kelkel et du Prof. Jacques
Legrand, Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne, 389p., Paris. (chapitre 1: Le
Xöömij : 7-108), avec une cassette audio.
DEUTSCH, W.A. et FÖDERMAYR, F.1992: “Zum Problem des zweistimmigen
Sologesanges Mongolischer une Turk Völker”, Von der Vielfalt Musikalischer
Kultur, Festschrift für Josef Kuckerts (Wort und Musik 12), Verlag Ursula
Müller-Speiser, Anif/Salzburg :133-145, Salzburg.
DMITRIEV, L.B., CHERNOV, B.P., & MASLOV, V.T.1983: “Functioning of the Voice
Mechanism in Double Voice Touvinian Singing”, Folia Phoniatrica 35 : 193-197.
DMITRIEV, L.B., CERNOV, B.P., & MASLOV? V;T. 1992: “Tajna tuvinskovo “dueta” ili svojstvo gortazni celoveka formirovatj mechanism aerodinamiceskovo svista”, Novosibirsk, Russie .
EDGERTON, M. & LEVIN , Th. 1999: “Le Chant des Touvas”, Pour la Science
265: 50-58, Paris.
FERRERO, F., CROATTO, L., ACCORDI, M. 1980: “Descrizione elettroacustica di alcuni tipi di vocalizzo di Demetrio Stratos”, Rivista Italiana di Acustica 4(3): 229-258, Italie
FERRERO, F., RICCI MACCARINI, A., TISATO, G. 1991 : « I Suoni Multifonici Nella Voce Umana », Proceedings of XIX Convegno AIA : 415-422, Naples, Italie
FÖDERMAYER, F.1983: “Zum Konzept einer vergleichend-systematischen
Musikwissenschaft”, Musikethnologische Sammelbände 6: 25-39.
FUKS, L., HAMMARBERG B., SUNDBERG, J. 1998: „A Self-Sustained Vocal-Ventricular Phonation Mode: Acoustical, Aerodynamic and Glottographic Evidences“, KTH TMH- QPSR 3: 49-59, Stockholm, Suede .
GRAWUNDER, S. 1999: Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs – Obertongesang versus Kehgesand. Diplomarbeit, Universität Halle, unveröffentlicht (aktualisierte electronische version unter : http://www.fonetik.de/dip/index.htm)
GRAWUNDER, S. 2003: „Unusual Phonetic and Acoustic Features in Certain Tuvan Throat Singing Styles”, Scientific Center of Research “Xoomei”, Kyzyl, Tuva (to be published)
GRAWUNDER , S. 2003: “Revitalizations, Modern Performance Forms and Disappearances of Hakas, Altai, Tuvan and Mongolian Oral Traditions”, Eingereicht zur Intern.Conference on Contemporary Oral Traditions in Central Asia, University of Manchester, Angleterre, (postponed reporté)
GRAWUNDER S. 2003: “Der Südsibirische Kehlgesang als Gegenstand Phonetischer Untersuchungen“, Gegenstandsauffassung und Aktuelle Phnotische Forschungen der halleschen Sprechwissenschaft: 53-91, Peter Land (publisher), Halle, Allemagne .
GUNJI, 1980: “An Acoustical Consideration of Xöömij”, Musical Voices of
Asia : 135-141, The Japan Foundation (éd), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo.
HAMAYON, R. 1980: “Mongol Music”, New Grove’s Dictionary of Music and
Musicians 12: 482-485, Stanley Sadie (éd), MacMillan Publishers, Londres.
HARVILAHTI, L.1983: “A Two Voiced Song With No Word”, Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran aikakauskirja 78: 43-56, Helsinki.
HARVILAHTI, L. & KASKINEN, H. 1983: “On the Application Possibilities of
Overtone Singing”, Suomomen Antropologi 4: 249-255, Helsinki.
KAVASCH, D. 1980: “An Introduction to Extended Vocal Techniques”, Report of CME, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), 1(2) : 1-20, San Diego, USA
KYRGYS, Z. 1994: “Hoomej-pamjatnik samobytnoj kultury tuvinskovo I drugich narodov Asii “, Meloii “Hoomeja” : 13-16, Kyzyl, Tuva
LANERI, R. 1983: “Vocal Techniques of Overtone Production”,NPCAQuarterly
Journal 12(2-3): 26-30.
LEIPP, E. 1971: “Considération acoustique sur le chant diphonique”,
Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale 58: 1-10, Paris.
LENTIN, J-P. 1986: ” Je fais chanter tout mon corps”, Actuel 81-82:142-145, Paris.
LEVIN, Th. – EDGERTON, M. 1999: “Le Chant des Touvas”, Pour la Science
265: 50-58, Paris
LEOTAR, F. 1998: Etudes sur la musique touva, maîtrise de l’Université de
Nanterre – Paris X, 128 pages, 2 cassettes.
LEOTHAUD, G. 1989: “Considérations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant
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(Xhosa Vocal Styles), Confluences: Cross-Cultural Fusions in Music and
Dance, Proceedings of the First South African Music and Dance Conference
and 15th Symposium on Ethnomusicology: 422-432, (ed) Université de Cape
Town, Afrique du Sud.
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Tuvin Shamanism”, Ritual and Music, Lithuanian Academy of Music, Department of Ethnomusicology (editeur): 129-136, Vilnius
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diphonique”, (voir TRAN QUANG HAI & ZEMP, Hugo).

DISCOGRAPHIE

Cette discographie sélective ne comporte que des disques compacts (CD).

GENERALITES

” Les Voix du Monde “, Le Chant du Monde CMX 374 1010-12, collection CNRS- Musée de l’Homme, 3 CD avec un livret bilingue de 188p., Paris, 1996.

TUVA

“Tuva: Voices from the Center of Asia” ,Smithsonian Folkways CD SF 40017,
Washington, USA, 1990.

“Tuva: Voices from the Land of the Eagles” , Pan Records, PAN 2005 CD,
Leiden Hollande, 1991.
“Tuva- Echoes from the Spirit World” , Pan Records, PAN 2013CD, Leiden,
Hollande, 1992.

“Tuvinian Singers and Musicians – Ch’oomej: Throat Singing from the Center
of Asia”, World Network, vol.21, Etats-Unis, 1993.

“Huun Huur Tu/ Old Songs and Tunes of Tuva”, Shanachie 64050, Etats-Unis,
1993.

“Huun Huur Tu / The Orphan’s Lament”, Shanachie 64058, Etats-Unis, 1994.

“Shu-De, Voices From the Distant Steppe “, Womad production for RealWorld,
CD RW 41, Pays Bas, 1994.

“Musiques Traditionnelles d’Asie centrale/ Chants harmoniques Touvas” ,
Silex Y 225222, Paris, France, 1995.

“Shu-de / Kongurei/ Voices from Tuva” , New Tone NT6745, (ed) Robi Droli,
San Germano, Italie, 1996.

“Chirgilchin: The Wolf and the Kid”, Shanachie Records, Etats-Unis, 1996.
“Deep in the Heart of Tuva”, Ellipsis Arts, Etats-Unis, 1996.
“Huun Huur Tu – If I’d Been Born An Eagle”, Shanachie Records, Etats-Unis,
1997.

MONGOLIE

“Mongolie: Musique et Chants de tradition populaire” , GREM G 7511, Paris,
France, 1986.

“Mongolie : Musique vocale et instrumentale” , Maison des Cultures du
Monde, W 260009, collection INEDIT, Paris, France, 1989.

“Mongolian Music”, Hungaroton, HCD 18013-14, collection UNESCO, Budapest,
Hongrie, 1990.

“White Moon, traditional and popular music from Mongolia” , Pan Records,
PAN 2010CD, Leiden, Hollande, 1992.

“Folk Music from Mongolia / Karakorum” , Hamburgisches Museum für
Völkerkunde, Hambourg, Allemagne, 1993.

“Vocal & Instrumental of Mongolia” , Topic, World Series TSCD909, Londres,
Grande Bretagne, 1994.

“Jargalant Altai/ Xöömii and other vocal and instrumental music from
Mongolia” , Pan Records PAN 2050CD, Ethnic Series, Leiden, Hollande, 1996

SIBERIE

“Uzlyau : Guttural singing of the Peoples of the Sayan, Altai and Ural
Mountains” , Pan Records PAN 2019CD, Leiden, Hollande, 1993.

“Chant épiques et diphoniques : Asie centrale, Sibérie, vol 1″, Maison des
Cultures du Monde, W 260067, Paris, France, 1996.

TIBET

” The Gyuto Monks: Tibetan Tantric Choir ” , Windham Hill Records WD-2001,
Stanford, Californie, USA, 1987.

” The Gyuto Monks: Freedom Chants from the Roof of the World ” , RYKODISC RCD 20113, Salem, Maryland, USA, 1989.
” Tibet: The Heart of Dharma/ Buddha’s Teachings and the Music They Inspired ” Ellipsis Arts 4050, New York, USA, 1996.

FILMOGRAPHIE

LE CHANT DES HARMONIQUES
http://www.canalu.com/canalu/affiche_programme.php?programme_id=1440745852&chaine_habillage=512&vHtml=0&cycle_id=&num_sequence=&largeur=1024

film en 16mm, couleurs, 38 minutes, réalisé par Hugo Zemp, co-auteurs : TRAN Quang Hai et Hugo ZEMP, produit par le CNRS Audio Visuel, Paris, 1989. Existe également en version video VHS, version française et anglaise . Contact : http://www.videotheque.cnrs.fr

Sites Web pour avoir des informations sur le chant diphonique

http://www.tranquanghaisworldthroatsinging.com
http://www.tranquanghai.info
http://tranquanghai1944.com
http://haidiphonie.com
http://www.khoomei.com
http://www.oberton.org

Moteur de recherche

http://www.google.fr
Taper un des mots suivants : tran quang hai , chant diphonique, overtone singing, throat singing, khoomei, harmonic singing, canto difonico, canto diplofonico,

TRAN QUANG HAI : Throat Singing vs. Overtone Singing / Tradition vs. Experiment : A Case of Harmonic Singing

Throat Singing vs. Overtone Singing / Tradition vs. Experiment : A Case of Harmonic Singing

Tran Quang Hai

Department of Ethnomusicology
Musee de l’Homme, Paris
tranqhai@mnhn.fr

Abstract
The Western world discovered overtones during the 60’s in Tibetan chanting of the Gyuto monks. Stockhausen, the first ‘German composer, used overtones in his compostion « Stimmung » in 1968. Mongolian throat voice with 6 different styles in the 70’s and Tuvan throat voice with 5 main styles in the 80’s amazed Western singers, composers and researchers in many fields (acoustics, ethnomusicology, phoniatrics).
Throat Singing from Central Asia (Tuva, Mongolia, Bashkiria, Altai, Khakassia) is characterized by soft fundamental (contraction of vocal folds), loud overtones (suppression of undesired harmonics), and numerous specific styles, while overtone singing from the Western world (Europe / America) is focused on strong fundamental (relaxation of vocal folds), soft overtones (presence of many undesired harmonics) , and only one style.
In Central Asia, throat singing is sung by one person (mostly male) or sometimes a quartet without or with an accompaniment of an instrument (lute, fiddle, flute, drum), and sung melodic overtones in oral tradition. In Western world, overtone singing is sung by one person (male or female very often for healing voice) or by an ensemble ( the Harmonic Choir with David Hykes in New York created in 1975, and the Oberton-Chor Dusseldorf with Christian Bollmann in Germany founded in 1985), without or with an accompaniment of an instrument (Indian lute tampura, Australian trump didjeridu, Tibetan bowls), and polyphonic fundamentals and overtones in written tradition. In South Africa, Xhosa women have the throat singing discovered in 1980 . In New Guinea, the Dani tribe possesses throat singing with three simultaneous levels. Experimental overtone research carried out for 30 years by the author of this paper will show new aspects of overtones and undertones never heard before.
Spectral analyses , sound documents and live demonstration of different experimental examples of overtones/undertones will accompany this paper .

Introduction

The Western world discovered overtones during the 60’s in Tibetan chanting of the Gyuto monks. K.Stockhausen, the first German composer, used overtones in his composition “Stimmung” in 1968.
Mongolian throat voice with 6 different styles in the 70’s and Tuvan throat voice with 5 main styles in the 80’s amazed Western singers, composers, and researchers in many fields (acoustics, ethnomusicology, phoniatrics, contemporary music).

Khomei Styles

KHOMEI comprises three major Thorat singing styles called Khomei, Kargyraa and Sygyt, two main sub styles called Borgangnadyr and Ezengileer and other sub styles
Khomei means “throat” or “pharynx” is a general term for throat singing and also a particular style of singing. Khomei is the easiest technique to learn and the most practised in the West. It produces clear and mild harmonics with a fundamental usually within the medium range of the singer’s voice. Technically the stomach remains relaxed and there is a low level tension on larynx and ventricular bands. The tongue remains seated flatly between the lower teeth as in the single cavity technique or raises and moves as in the two cavities technique . The selection of the wanted harmonics is the result of a combination of different lips, tongue and throat movements .
SYGYT means “whistle” and sounds like a flute . This style creates strong harmonics .Sygyt is sung with the tip of the tongue under the middle of the roof of the palate . Either the the tongue moves under the roof and is fixed while the lips move to change harmonic pitches .To produce a flute like overtones, one must learn how to filter out the fundamental and lower harmonic components. A very strong pressure from the abdomen acting as a bellows to push the air through the throat . Significant tension is required in the throat as well, to bring the arytenoids near the root of the epiglottis. The fundamental and the lower harmonics are consequently attenuated to be softly audible .
KARGYRAA (means “hoars voice”) style emits a very low fundamental; Overtones are amplified by varying the shape of the mouth cavity and is linked to vowel productions. The supraglottal structures begin to vibrate with the vocal folds, but at a half rate . The arytenoids also can vibrate touching the root of the epiglottis , hiding the vocal folds and formoing a second “glottic” source . The perceived pitch is one octave lower than normal, but also one octave and a 5th lower . In my voice’s case, the fibroendoscopy reveals the vibration and the strong constriction of the arytenoids that hide completely the vocal folds
Tibetan Buddhist prayer of Yang style (Gyuto and Gyume schools of Gelugpa monastery) is produced with the vocal folds relaxed completely, and without any supraglottal vibration .The men’s voices are pitched so low that one wonders if this can really be human beings singing. In terms of the Western scale, the pitches sung by the performers fall within the range of an octave with the lowest note situated at A two octaves and a third below middle C. In the Western bel canto tradition, the lowest pitch in the bass tessitura is generally considered to be the E an octave and a sixth below middle C. However, the lowest pitch sung out so resplendently by these Tibetan monks is a full fifth below this. The technique of singing at such subterranean pitches is not one acquired overnight. The monks undergo rigorous vocal training which involves going down to the banks of surging river and producing extremely loud sounds which can be heard above the roar of the water..The use of vowell O is very important. It enables the monks to produce the harmonic 10 The research of harmonic10 (major third of 3 octaves higher than the fundamental) is intentional. Only the vowell O can get the harmonic.Only the monks of the Gyuto and Gyume monasteries could practise the overtones in their prayers.
Borbangnadyr and Ezengileer are a combination of effects applied to one of the three styles mentioned above .

Recent Researches in the West

In the recent years, some researches have been carried out on the analyses of Khomei and more on Overtone Singing. The focus on these researches has been on the effort to discover exactly how overtone melodies are produced. Hypotheses as to the mechanics of Overtone singing range from ideas as to the necessary physical stance and posture used by the singer during a performance, to the actual physical formation of the mouth cavity in producing the overtones .
Acoustically, a vowel is distinctive because of its formant structure. In Overtone Singing, the diphonic formant is reduced to one or a few harmonics, often with surrounding harmonics attenuated as much as possible (filtered vocal style).
In the Western world, the Overtone singing style has suddenly become very popular starting with new ideas in contemporary compositions and later on with meditation, relaxation, music therapy, voice healing. Karlheinz Stockhausen was the first in the West using simple overtones in his composition “Stimmung” (1968), followed by the EVTE (Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble) group at the San Diego University in 1972, Roberto Laneri and his Prima Materia group in 1973, Tran Quang Hai with his electro-acoustical composition (1975) “Vê Nguôn” (Return to the Sources, in collaboration with Nguyen Van Tuong), Michael Vetter in 1976, Demetrio Stratos in 1977, Meredith Monk in 1980, David Hykes and his Harmonic Choir in 1983 with the famous LP “A
l’ecoute du vent solaire” (Hearing the Solar Wind) in 1983, Joan La Barbara in 1985, Christian Bollman in 1985, Noah Pikes in 1985, Michael Reimann in 1986, Tamia in 1987, Bodjo Pinek in 1987, Josephine Truman in 1987, Quatuor Nomad in 1989, Iegor Reznikoff in 1989, Valentin Clastrier in 1990, Rollin Rachelle in 1990, Thomas Clements in 1990, Sarah Hopkins in 1990, Bernard Dubreuil in 1990, Steve Sklar in 1995, Mark Van Tongeren in 1995, Leo Tadagawa in 1995, Todoriki Masahiko in 1996, Les Voix Diphoniques in 1997 .The most renowned overtone singer of this type of singing is David Hykes . He experimented with numerous innovations including changing the fundamental (moveable drone) and keeping fixed the diphonic formant , introducing text, glissando effects, in many musical works with his Harmonic Choir .
Western overtone singers often use soft overtones with combination of polyphonic system, and additional musical instruments (tempura, didjeridu, Jew’s harp, Tibetan bowls) with different purposes (relaxation, meditation, healing, contemporary musical creations) while traditional Siberian singers exploit the filtered overtone voice with strong pressure at abdomen and throat in order to pruduce strong ,crystalized and flute like harmonics

Personal Experimental Research

My experimental research on overtone/undertone productions has lead me to create new possibilities
1. To use one harmonic as a drone and to create a melody with fundamentals
The fundamentals can be sung from 110 Hz to 220 Hz in the diatonic scale while keeping the same pitch of the selected overtone at 1320 Hz. In order to obtain this result, the tip of the tongue strongly touches the meeting point of the hard palate and the soft palate or velum under the roof of the palate and should not make any movement . In that case, the two buccal cavities obtained by the position of the tongue inside of the mouth have the same volume and get the same overtone pitch in spite of the changing pitch of the fundamentals .
2. To create a parallel between fundamentals and overtones
The overtones are always 3 octaves higher than the fundamentals while singing the ascending and descending diatonic scale with the fundamentals . If the fundamental is at 110 Hz , the overtone will be heard at 880 Hz. If the fundamental is moved up to 220 Hz , the overtone will be at 1760 Hz . For this experiment,, not only the tip of the tongue is hardly pressed against the roof of the palate and moves from the velum to the hard palate when the fundamentals moves from A2 (110 Hz) to A3 (220 Hz) in order to create the same pitched distance of 3 octaves in parallel .
3. To create the opposite direction between overtones and fundamentals
In this experiment , when the fundamental is sung at A2 (110 Hz) the overtone is at H16 (4 octaves above the fundamental). When the fundamental goes up to A3 (220 Hz) , the overtone goes down to H4 (2 octaves above the fundamental). Thus, this creates the opposite movement of fundamentals and overtones . To obtain this result, the position of the tip of the tongue touches near the teeth under the roof of the palate (H16 will be heard) and moves back slowly to the velum (H4) while the fundamentals start with low pitch (A2) and ends with high pitch (A3) of the A tonality
1. To write words with overtones (such words like MINIMUM, WIN )
A certain number of words can be written with overtones . With the same pitch of the fundamental , the written words can be obtained by various overtones at three levels (under 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 3,000 Hz)
2. To create UNDERTONES (F-2, F-3, F-4 while singing a melody)
Some traditional throat voices like Tuvan Kargyraa, Xhosa Umngqokolo from South Africa, the Tenore voice of the Sardinian Quintina (the fusion of 4 main voices creates the virtual fifth overtone voice) use the undertone going down one octave lower than the real fundamental . Leonardo Fuks from Brazil arrived to go down to F-5 (2 octaves and a major third below the fundamental) but he could not sing a tune with that way . I have succeeded in dividing the fundamental pitch into 2, 3, and 4 . With the use of arytenoids inside of my throat , I could sing one octave lower (F-2), one octave and a fifth lower (F-3) and two octaves lower (F-4) than the real fundamental pitch (between 110 Hz and 150 Hz) . It is not possible to create the undertones above 220 Hz .
3. To combine OVERTONES and UNDERTONES while singing a melody
In Tuvan kargyraa, and Xhosa umngqokolo from South Africa, the combination of overtones (melody) and undertones (real fundamental split into two – F-2) can be produced simultaneously . With my experiment, I could sing an overtone melody with the fundamental divided into 3 (F-3) simultaneously . The perception is consequently not the same
4. To create overtones corresponding to 7 chakras in Yoga
In Yoga, there exist 7 chakras corresponding to 7 vowels, 7 sounds or pitches, 7 overtones and 7 points of the human body. I carried out experimen-tal research in the presence of overtones in Yoga. The result of my three-year study was presented at the International Congress of Yoga in France in 2002 .
According to my research, the fundamental of voice should be at 150Hz .
1 Mulâdhâra coccyx H n° 4 U 600Hz
2 Svâdhishthâna genitals H n° 5 O 750Hz
3 Manipûra navel H n° 6 Ö 900Hz
4 Anâhata heart H n° 8 A 1200Hz
5 Vishuddha throat H n° 9 E 1350Hz
6 Ajnâ between eyebrows H n°10 AE 1500Hz
7 Sahasrâra top of head H n°12 I 1800Hz

Conclusion
The phenomenon “overtones/undertones” has been studied by researchers, acousticians, used by music therapists, composers for contemporary music, at meditation lessons. More and more recordings have been made during the last 10 years all over the world . All musical sounds contain overtones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. These overtones create tone color, and enable us to understand the sounds of this peculiar vocal style which is KHOMEI or throat singing or overtone singing . This short presentation cannot be considered as an exhausted study, but as a beginning of the new approach of how to develop overtone/undertone research in general. This is what I intend to show you here about my new attempts in research on experimental aspect of throat singing .
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Levin, T.C., Edgerton, M.E. 1999 : « The Throat Singers in Tuva », Scientific American : 80-87, USA
Sundberg, Johan 1987 : The Science of the Singing Voice , Northern Illinois University Press, USA
Lindestat, P.-A, Sodersten, M., Merker,B., Granqvist, S. 2001: “Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “Throat Singing” Studied with High-Speed Imaging Technique, Acoustic Spectra, and Inverse Filtering”, J.Voice 15: 75-85.
Sakakibara, K.-I., Adachi, S., Konishi, T., Kondo, K., Murano, E.Z., Kumada, M., Todoriki, M., Imagawa, H., Niimi, S. 2000: “Vocal Fold and False Vocal Fold Vibrations and Synthesis of Khoomei” Proc. Of ICMC :135-138
Tisato G., Cosi, P. 2003: “On the Magic of Overtone Singing”, in Voce, Canto Parlato : 83-100, Unipress (publisher), Padova, Italy
Tongeren , van M. 2002 : Overtone Singing / Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West , 271 pages, Fusica publisher, 1 CD , Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Tran Quang Hai , Guillou D. 1980 : « Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in connection with the Xöömij style of Biphonic Singing “, in Musical Voices of Asia : 163-173, The Japan Foundation (ed), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
Tran Quang Hai , Zemp H., 1991: “Recherches experimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles, 4 (Voix) : 27-68, Ateliers d’Ethnomusicologie, Geneva , Switzerland .
Tran Quang Hai 2002 : « A la decouverte du chant diphonique », in Moyens d’investigation et Pedagogie de la voix chantee : 117-132, with a CD Rom, Guy Cornut (ed), Symetrie publishers, Lyon, France

Filmography

1990 Le chant des harmoniques (The Song of Harmonics), film 16mm and video cassette , 38 minutes, directed by H.Zemp, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Hugo Zemp), CNRS Audio Visuel (prod), France . Contact: Tran Quang Hai, email: tranqhai@mnhn.fr or tranquanghai@hotmail.com

2003 Le chant diphonique (the Diphonic Song), DVD , 27 minutes, directed by C.Beguinet, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Luc Souvet), Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique (CRDP), Saint Denis, Isle of the Reunion, contact: Luc Souvet, email : luc.souvet@wanadoo.fr

Weborama

www.tranquanghaisworldthroatsinging.com
www.tranquanghai.info
www.tranvankhe-tranquanghai.com
http://www.khoomei.com
http://www.oberton.org
www.google.com (type each of these words : overtone singing , throat singing , biphonic singing, diphonic singing, canto difonico, oberton, khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, harmonic singing,)

TRAN QUANG HAI : About the terminology used in overtone/undertone for the throat singing /overtone singing

About the terminology used in overtone/undertone for the throat singing /overtone singing

Tran Quang Hai (UMR 8574, National Center for Scientific Research, France)

“KHOOMEI” or “THROAT SINGING is the name used in Tuva and Mongolia to describe a large family of singing styles and techniques in which a single vocalist simultaneously produces two (or more) distinct tones . The lower one is the usual fundamental tone of the voice and sounds as a sustained drone or a Scottish bagpipe sound . The second corresponds to one of the harmonic partials and is like a resonating whistle in a high, or very high register . We transcribe in the simplest way the Tuvan term, for the lack of agreement between the different authors :
KHOMEI
KHÖÖMII
HO-MI
HÖ-MI
CHÖÖMEJ
CHÖÖMIJ
XÖÖMIJ

Throat Singing has almost entirely been an unknown form of art until rumours about Tuva and the peculiar Tuvan musical culture spread in the West, especially in North America, thanks to Richard Feynman, a distinguished American physicist, who was an ardent devotee of Tuvan matters (today, partly because of Feynman’s influence, there exists a society called „Friends of Tuva“ in California, which circulates news about Tuva in the West.

This singing tradition is mostly practised in the Central Asia regions including Bashkortostan or Bashkiria (near Ural mountains), Altai and Tuva (two autonomous republics of the Russian Federation), Khakassia and Mongolia . But we can find examples worldwide in South Africa between Xhosa women, in the Tibetan Buddhist chanting, in Rajasthan, and also among the Dani tribes in Papu Guinea

The Tuvan people developed numerous different styles . The 5 different techniques are :
Sygyt (like a whistle with a weak fundamental)
Khoomei ( general term for throat singing and a particular style)
Borbangnadyr (similar to Kargyraa with higher fundamental)
Ezengileer ( rercognizable by the quick rhythmical shifts between diphonic harmonics)
Kargyraa (with very low fundamentals obtained by undertones)

In Mongolia, most throat singing styles take the name from the part of the body where they suppose to feel the vibratory resonance
XAMRYN XÖÖMI (nasal XÖÖMI)
BAGALZUURYN XÖÖMI (throat XÖÖMI)
TSEEDZNII XÖÖMI (chest XÖÖMI)
KEVLIIN XÖÖMI (ventral XÖÖMI)
XARKIRAA XÖÖMI (similar to Tuvan Kargyraa)
ISGEREX (rarely used style it sounds like a flute)

The Khakash people practise three types of Throat singing
KARGIRAR like KARGYRAA (Tuva)
KUVEDER or KILENGE like EZENGILEER (Tuva)
SIGIRTIP like SYGYT (Tuva)

The peoples of the Altai Mountains use three terms
KARKIRAA like KARGYRAA (Tuva)
KIOMIOI like KHOOMEI (Tuva)
SIBISKI like SYGYT (Tuva)

The Bashkiria musical tradition uses the throat singing UZLAU similar to Tuvan EZENGILEER) to accompany epic song

The Tibetan GYUTO monks have also a tradition of diphonic chant, related to the religious beliefs of the vibratory reality of the universe . They sing in a very low register in a way that resembles the Tuvan KARGYRAA method . The aim of this tradition is mystical and consists in isolating the 10th harmonic partial of the vocal sound.

IN THE WESTERN WORLD

There are in the literature many terms to indicate the presence of different perceptible sounds in a single voice. If you have a look at the motor of reaearch (www.google.com ) , you will be astonished by the number of websites linked to throat singing KHOOMEI . I am going to establish a listing of unmbers of sites linked to each term according to GOOGLE motor research (28 December 2003 , date of consultation of GOOGLE)

KHOOMEI 1,710 sites
KARGYRAA 883 sites
SYGYT 673 sites
EZENGILEER 141 sites
BORBANGNADYR 129 sites
THROAT SINGING 8,980 sites
OVERTONE SINGING 2,500 sites
DIPHONIC SINGING 65 sites
BIPHONIC SINGING 121 sites
OVERTONING 615 sites
HARMONIC SINGING 901 sites
FORMANTIC SINGING
HARMONIC CHANT
MULTIPHONIC SINGING 158 sites
BITONALITY
DIPLOPHONIA 190 sites
VOCAL FRY

CANTO DIPLOFONICO 27 sites
CANTO DIFONICO 138 sites

OBERTONSEGANG 256 sites

According to the pioneer work in the domain of the vocal sounds made by the Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble (EVTE) of San Diego University and bearing in mind that there is little agreement regarding classifications, the best distinctive criterion for the diphonia seems to be the characterization of the sound sources that produce the perception of the diphonic or multiphonic sound

Following that principle, we can distinguish between BITONALITY and DIPHONIA

BITONALITY : in this case, there are two distinct sound sources that produce two sounds. The pitches of the two sounds could be or not in harmonic relationship. This category includes DIPLOPHONIA, BITONALITY , and VOCAL FRY

DIPHONIA : the reinforcement of one (or more) harmonic partials produces the splitting of the voice in two (or more) sounds. This category includes KHOMEI, THROAT SINGING, OVERTONE SINGING, DIPHONIC SINGING, BIPHONIC SINGING, OVERTONING, HARMONIIC SINGING, HARMONIC CHANT

BITONALITY

Diplophonia :
The vibration of the vocal folds is asymmetrical. It happens that after a normal oscillatory period, the vibration amplitude that follows is reduced. There is not the splitting of the voice in two sounds, but the pitch goes down one octave lower and the timbre assumes a typical roughness. For example, assuming as fundamental pitch a C3 130.8 Hz, the resulting pitch will be C2 65.4 Hz . If the amplitude reduction happens after two regular vibrations, the actual periodicity triplicates and then the pitch lowers one octave and a 5th. The diplophonic voice is a frequent pathology of the larynx (as in unilateral vocal cord paralysis), but can be also obtained willingly for artistic effects (Demetrio Stratos was an expert of this technique)

Bitonality
The two sound sources are due to the vibration of two different parts of the glottis cleft . This technique requires a strong laryngeal tension . In this case , there is not necessarily a harmonic relationship between the fundamentals of the two sounds. In the Tuvan KARGYRAA style, the second sound is due to the vibration of the supraglottal structures (false folds, aryepiglottic folds that connects the arytenoids and the epiglottis, and the epiglottis root). In this case generally (but not always) there is a 2:1 frequency ratio between the supraglottal closure and vocal folds closure. As in the case of Diplophonia, the pitch goes down on octave lower (or more)

Vocal fry
The second sound is due in this case to the periodic repetition of a glottal pulsation of different frequency . It sounds like the opening of a creaky door (another common designation is “creaky voice”) . The pulse rate of vocal fry can be controlled to produce a range from very slow single clicks to a stream of clicks so rapid to be perceived as a discrete pitch . Therefore vocal fry is a special case of bitonality : the perception of a second sound depends on a pulses train rate and not on the spectral composition of a single sound .

DIPHONIA

Diphonic and Biphonic refer to any singing that sounds like two (or more) simultaneous pitches, regarless of technique. Use of these terms is largely limited to academic sources . In the scientific literature the preferred term to indicated Throat Singing is Diphonic Singing .

Multiphonic Singing indicates a complex cluster of non-harmonically related pitches that sounds like the vocal fry or the creaky voice. The cluster may be produced expiring as normal, or also inhaling the airflow .

Throat Singing is any technique that includes the manipulation of the throat to produce a melody with the harmonics. Generally, this involves applying tension to the region surrounding the vocal folds and the manipulation of the various cavities of the throat, including the ventricular bands, the arytenoids, and the pharynx .

Chant generally refers to religious singing in different traditions (Gregorian, Buddhist, Hindu chant , etc…). As regards the diphonia, it is noteworthy to mention the low singing practised by Tibetan Buddhist monks of the Gyutö sect . As explained before , they reinforce the 10th harmonic partial of the vocal sound for mystical and symbolic purposes . This kind of real diphonia must be distinguished from resonantial effects (enhancement of some uncontrolled overtones) that we can hear in Japanese Shomyo Chant and also in Gregorian Chant .

Harmonic Singing is the term introduced by David Hykes to refer to any technique that reinforces a single harmonic or harmonic cluster. The sound may or may not split into two or mor notes. It is used as a synonym of Overtone Singing, Overtoning, Harmonic Chant and also Throat Singing .

Overtone Singing can be considered to be harmonic singing with an intentional emphasis on the harmonic melody of overtones . This is the name used by Western artists that utilizes vowels, mouth shaping and upper throat manipulations to produce melodies and textures. It is used as a synonym of Harmonic Singing, Overtoning, Harmonic Chant and also Throat Singing .

OVERTONE SINGING IN THE WEST

In the West , the Overtone Singing technique has unexpectedly become very popular, starting into musical contests and turning very soon to mystical, spiritual and also therapeutic applications . The first to make use of a diphonic vocal technique in music was Karlheinz Stockhausen in STIMMUNG . He was followed by numerous artists and amongst them : the EVTE (Extended Vocal Techniques Ensemble) group at the San Diego University in 1972, Laneri and his Prima Materia group in 1973, Tran Quang Hai in 1975, Demetrio Stratos in 1977, Meredith Monk in 1980, David Hykes and his Harmonic Choir in 1983 , Joan La Barbara in 1985, Michael Vetter in 1985, Christian Bollmann in 1985, Noah Pikes in 1985, Michael Reimann in 1986, Tamia in 1987, Bodjo Pinek in 1987, Josephine Truman in 1987, Quatuor Nomad in 1989, Iegor Reznikoff in 1989, Valentin Clastrier in 1990, Rollin Rachele in 1990, Thomas Clements in 1990, Sarah Hopkins in 1990, Les Voix Diphoniques in 1997, Mark Van Tongeren in 2000, etc… The most famous proponent of this type of singing is David Hykes . Hykes experimented with numerous innovations including changing the fundamental (moveable drone) and keeping fixed the diphonic formant , introducing text, glissando effects , etc… in numerous works produced with the Harmonic Choir of New York .

CONCLUSION

All these sounds contain overtones or tones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. These overtones create tone color, and help us to differentiate the sounds of different music instruments or one voice and another
Different cultures have unique manifestations of musical traditions , but, what it is quite interesting, is that some of them share at least one aspect in common: the production of overtones in their respective vocal music styles .
The diversity of terminology designating this vocal phenomenon shows us the interest of people in discovering overtones /undertones .The most used term is THROAT SINGING (8980 websites linked according to GOOGLE motor of research) more than OVERTONE SINGING (2500 linked websites). This attitude is understandable because the term “Throat Singing” is the correct translation of the Tuvan and Mongolian terms KHOOMEI which means “pharynx”, or “throat”.

Tran Quang Hai : Metodo per Imparare il Canto Armonico di Stile KHOOMEI

Metodo per Imparare il Canto Armonico di Stile KHOOMEI
Tran Quang Hai (Francia)
tran-quang-hai-s-portrait-in-2002
Negli ultimi 40 anni si sono prodotte un numero considerevole di ricerche riguardo questo peculiare fenomeno vocale, in particolare sulle modalità con le quali esso è praticato in Mongolia e a Tuva.
In mongolo e tuvano la parola KHOOMEI significa faringe, gola e KHOOMEILAKH è la tecnica di produrre armonici vocali. Questa tecnica piuttosto insolita, che porta la voce umana ai suoi limiti, comporta la produzione simultanea di due suoni: un suono grave o fondamentale che è ricco di armonici e la reminiscenza dello Jew’s harp[1] (motivo per cui questa tecnica è anche chiamata “ Jew’s harp voice”). Secondo i cantanti della Mongolia questa tecnica è molto faticosa. L’esecutore deve tendere i muscoli e gonfiare le guance. Variando la pressione dell’aria attraverso le corde vocali, il volume del cavo orale e la posizione della lingua, vengono ottenuti suoni diversi. In questo modo, armonici di diverse frequenze vengono prodotti formando melodie. La fondamentale viene prodotta nel retro della gola, passando attraverso il cavo orale e attraverso l’eccitazione delle labbra leggermente divise e in misura minore attraverso il naso.
La ricerca può essere eseguita in molti modi: dai sistemi di osservazione degli esecutori nativi dopo una o più visite nei paesi che interessano, o attraverso una pratica strumentale e un addestramento vocale che mirano ad una migliore comprensione della struttura musicale assunta dalla popolazione studiata.
La mia ricerca non appartiene a una di queste due categorie in quanto non sono stato in Mongolia e non ho imparato lo stile KHOOMEI (canto armonico) da un insegnante Mongolo.
Quello che ora vado descrivendo è il risultato dei miei propri esperimenti che abiliteranno chiunque a produrre due note simultaneamente in maniera simile allo stile Mongolo e Tuvano di canto armonico.
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DEFINIZIONE
La maniera con la quale viene tradotta la parola Mongola o Tuvana non è uniforme: HO-MI, HÖ-MI (Vargyas, 1968), KHOMEI, KHÖÖMII (Bosson, 1964: 11), CHÖÖMEJ (Aksenov 1973: 12), CHÖÖMIJ (Vietze 1969: 15-16), XÖÖMIJ (Hamayon 1973; Tran Quang Hai 1980: 162).
Ricercatori francesi hanno altri termini per descrivere questa peculiare tecnica vocale come per esempio CHANT DIPHONIQUE o BIPHONIQUE (Leipp 1971), Tran Quang Hai 1974, Gilles Leothaud 1989, VOIX GUIMBARDE, VOIX DEDOUBLEE (Helffer 1973, Hamayon 1973), e CHANT DIPHONIQUE SOLO (Marcel-Dubois 1979).
Altri termini esistono in Inglese come SPLIT-TONE SINGING, THROAT SINGING, OVERTONE SINGING, e HARMONIC SINGING. In Germania è chiamato ZWEISTIMMIGEN SOLOGESANG. in Italia CANTO DIFONICO O CANTO DIPLOFONICO.
Per convenienza, io ho impiegato il termine “OVERTONE SINGING[2]” per descrivere uno stile di canto eseguito da una singola persona che produce contemporaneamente una fondamentale che continua e un altro suono più acuto tra quelli della serie delle parziali o armoniche, che ricordano il suono del flauto .
Come sono giunto al “Canto Armonico” (“overtone singing”)
Nel 1970, al Department of Ethnomusicology (Musee de l’Homme), il Prof. Roberte Hamayon mi fece ascoltare le sue registrazioni fatte in Mongolia nel 1967 e nel 1969. Fui sorpreso dalla natura straordinaria e unica di questa tecnica vocale.
Per molti mesi compii ricerche bibliografiche negli articoli dove era trattato questo stile di canto nel tentativo di ottenere informazioni sulla pratica del Canto Armonico, ma ricevetti piccole soddisfazioni.
Spiegazioni meramente teoretiche e alcune volte di natura ambigua non fecero nulla di meglio che creare e incrementare la confusione col il che la mia ricerca fu abbandonata. A dispetto della mia completa ignoranza sul metodo impiegato per imparare il Canto Armonico praticato dai Mongoli, dai Tuvani e da altre popolazioni della Siberia, non mi scoraggiai minimamente per i risultati negativi ottenuti all’inizio dei miei studi dopo mesi di sforzo. Io lavorai interamente solo brancolando a mio modo nel buio per due lunghi anni, ascoltando frequentemente dalle registrazioni effettuate da Roberte Hamayon depositate nel Sound Archives del Department of Ethnomusicology del Musee de l’Homme. I miei sforzi non portavano risultati. Nonostante la conoscenza della tecnica dello scacciapensieri, il lavoro all’inizio fu difficile e scoraggiante.
Provai anche a fischiare mentre emettevo un suono grave con la voce come fondamentale. Comunque all’analisi spettrografica si vedeva che non era simile alla tecnica Xöömij dei Mongoli. Alla fine del 1972 mi resi conto che ero ancora molto lontano dalla mia meta.
Poi, un giorno, nel novembre del 1973, mentre cercavo di calmare i miei nervi nella terrificante congestione del traffico di Parigi, accadde che feci vibrare le mie corde vocali nella faringe con la bocca mezzo aperta recitando a memoria le lettere dell’alfabeto. Quando arrivai alla lettera “L”, e la punta della lingua stava quasi per toccare la cima del palato, sentii improvvisamente un suono armonico chiaro, puro e potente. Ripetei molte volte l’operazione ottenendo lo stesso risultato; tentai poi di cambiare la posizione della lingua sul palato mantenendo il suono di base. Una serie di palatali risuonò come un disturbo nelle mie orecchie. All’inizio trovai gli armonici dell’accordo perfetto. Lentamente, dopo una settimana di addestramento intensivo, slittando verso l’acuto o il grave con la fondamentale scoprii da me stesso il mistero del canto armonico, il cui stile appariva vicino a quello praticato dai Mongoli e dai Tuvani.
IL MIO METODO DI ADDESTRAMENTO
Dopo due mesi di “ricerca” e dopo numerosi esperimenti di vario genere, riuscii a creare una breve melodia di armonici. Questa è la mia “ricetta” per aiutare chiunque a fare questo primo passo per cantare gli armonici.
1. Intensificare la produzione vocale con una voce di gola
2. Pronunciare le lettere “I” e “U” collegandole insieme e ripetendo molte volte in un fiato.
3. Si faccia un suono nasale con la punta della lingua in posizione bassa.
4. In questo modo è possibile mettere a fuoco la linea degli armonici superiori sia in ordine ascendente che discendente.
Questa è la prima tecnica, quella che io chiamo “tecnica a una cavità”. Ciò è piuttosto facile da fare e chiunque può ottenere due suoni simultanei nel giro di un minuto di pratica.
La seconda “ricetta” aiuterà a produrre gli armonici chiari alla maniera dello stile Mongolo e Tuvano. Io chiamo questa “tecnica a due cavità”.
1. Si emetta il suono vocalico “E” più lungo possibile.
2. Si pronunci la lettera “L”. Mantenere la posizione con la punta della lingua che tocca il palato. In questa posizione la bocca è divisa in due cavità, una davanti e una dietro.
3. Si pronunci prima “LAANG” per diverse volte (primo esercizio) e poi “LOONG” per altrettante (secondo esercizio). Quando gli armonici sono udibili si canti tenendo la lingua contro il palato e contemporaneamente cambiando la forma della bocca come per pronunciare le vocali da “A” a “O” e successivamente da “O” a “A” eseguendolo molte volte in un fiato.
4. Si faccia un suono nasale.
5. In questa maniera si può produrre chiaramente la serie di armonici in stile Mongolo.
Per i principianti gli armonici dell’accordo perfetto (Do, Mi, Sol, Do) sono facili da ottenere.
Comunque, un allenamento particolarmente duro è necessario per ottenere scale pentatoniche. Ogni persona ha la sua altezza favorita che l’abilita a produrre una maggiore gamma di parziali. Questa fondamentale favorita varia secondo le qualita della voce del singolo cantante.
NUOVI ESPERIMENTI DI CANTO ARMONICO
Altri esperimenti dai quali ho appreso che è possibile ottenere due suoni simultaneamente in tre diversi modi:
1. nel primo modo la lingua è abbassata o leggermente curva, senza mai toccare in alcun modo il palato, e solo le labbra muovono il cavo orale. Con questa modalità del cavo orale, questa volta diviso in un’unica cavità, è possibile udire le parziali ma deboli e gli armonici più acuti non superano i 1200Hz.
2. La tecnica di base del secondo metodo è descritta sopra. Comunque, invece di tenere la bocca mezzo aperta è tenuta quasi chiusa con le labbra tirate indietro e molto strette. Perché le parziali siano molto chiare, la posizione delle labbra deve variare allo stesso tempo della lingua. Quando le parziali sono molto chiare e distinte allora la tecnica è esaurita. Gli armonici acuti possono arrivare alla zona dei 2600 Hz.
3. Nel terzo metodo la lingua è abbassata, e i denti stringono la lingua mentre si cantano le vocali “U” e “I”, con la contrazione dell’addome e dei muscoli della gola. Gli armonici più acuti possono giungere a 4200Hz.
Altri nuovi esperimenti che ho iniziato a mostrare è che io posso mantenere l’armonico allo stesso livello di frequenza usato come “nota tenuta” e cambiare la linea delle fondamentali (per esempio Do, Fa, Sol, Do). Sono anche riuscito a creare una linea di fondamentali e una di armonici che muovono contemporaneamente in direzioni opposte. In altre parole io produco una linea fondamentale ascendente e, allo stesso tempo, una linea discendente di armonici. L’effetto armonico è piuttosto inusuale ed eccezionale.
Nel 1989 io e il dottor Hugo Zemp abbiamo realizzato un film intitolato “THE SONG OF HARMONICS” che mostra una ripresa ai raggi X e una spettrografica, in tempo reale e con il suono sincronizzato, di brani di canto dei diversi paesi. Questo film prodotto dal CNRS –Audiovisivi e dalla French Society for Ethnomusicology, ottenne due premi (Grand Prize and Best Music Prize) al International Festival of Visual Anthropological Film in Estonia Ottobre 1990, un premio (Special Prize for Research) al International Festival of Scientific Film in Palaiseau (France) nel Novembre 1990, e il Grand Prize del International Festival of Scientific Film in Montreal (Canada) nel1991.
Nella musica contemporanea occidentale gruppi di cantanti sono riusciti ad emettere due note contemporaneamente e sono stati creati brani di musica d’avanguardia e nell’ambito della musica elettoacustica. David Hykes con il suo Harmonic Choir, fondato a New York nel 1975, usa il canto armonico per collegarsi con l’universo cosmico nelle sue composizioni. Demetrio Stratos (1945-1979) ha usato il canto armonico per creare una relazione tra la voce e il subconscio. Nelle mie composizioni – improvvisazioni io raccomando sempre di investigare gli armonici per arricchire il mondo dei suoni. Altri esecutori di canto armonico sono i tedeschi Michael Vetter, Christian Bollmann, Michael Reimann, l’italiano Roberto Laneri, l’olandese Rollin Rachele, l’australiano Josephine Truman, i francesi Les Voix Diphoniques , Thomas Clements, Iegor Reznikoff, Tamia, tutti costoro hanno utilizzato il canto armonico nei loro lavori.
Il canto armonico è praticato anche da numerosi gruppi (Oirat, Khakass, Gorno-Altai, Bashkir, Tuvin, Kalmuk) etnici al confine tra la Repubblica Russa e la Mongolia. In Rajasthan (India), in Taiwan presso il gruppo etnico Bunun, in Tibet presso i monaci dei monasteri Gyuto e Gyume, in Sud Africa presso la popolazione degli Xhosa, la pratica del canto armonico è nota e ovunque registrata.
Io spero che dopo questa breve introduzione al mondo degli armonici, si possa avere un’idea riguardo l’esistenza del canto armonico in differenti aree del mondo e la possibilità di sapere come ottenere armonici vocali.
Bibliografia
AKSENOV, A.N. 1973: “Tuvin Folk Music”, Journal of the Society for Asian Music 4(2):7-18, New York.
HAMAYON, R. 1980: “Mongol Music”, New Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians 12: 482-485, Stanley Sadie (éd), MacMillan Publishers,Londres.
LANERI, R. 1983: “Vocal Techniques of Overtone Production”,NPCA Quarterly Journal 12(2-3): 26-30.
LEIPP, E. 1971: “Considération acoustique sur le chant diphonique”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale 58: 1-10, Paris..
LEOTHAUD, G. 1989: “Considérations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant diphonique”, Le chant diphonique, dossier n° 1: 17-43, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
TRAN QUANG HAI & GUILOU, D. 1980: “Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in Connection with the Xöömij Style of Biphonic Singing”, Musical Voices of Asia : 162-173, The Japan Foundation (éd), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo.
TRAN QUANG HAI & ZEMP,Hugo. 1991: “Recherches expérimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de Musiques traditionnelles : VOIX vol.4: 27-68, Ateliers d’ethnomusicologie /AIMP, Genève.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1975: “Technique de la voix chantée mongole: xöömij”, Bulletin du CEMO (14 & 15): 32-36, Paris.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1983: “Note à propos du chant diphonique mongol”, Catalogue de l’exposition Mongolie-Mongolie, Musée de l’Homme (éd), Paris.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1989: “Réalisation du chant diphonique”, dossier n°1 Le Chant diphonique : 15-16, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1990: “Les Musiques vocales”, L’Esprit des Voix, C.Alès (éd), La Pensée Sauvage: 43-52, Grenoble.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1991: “New Experimental About the Overtone Singing Style”, (Nouvelles Expérimentations sur le chant diphonique), Nouvelles Voies de la Voix, 1ère partie, Bulletin d’adiophonologie 7(5&6): 607-618, Besançon.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1995: ” Le chant diphonique: de……ion, historique, styles, aspect acoustique et spectral”, EM, ANnuario degli Archivi di Etnomusicologia dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, 2:123-150, Rome.
TRAN QUANG HAI, 1995: “Survey of overtone singing style”, EVTA (European Voice Teachers Association, Dokumentation 1994 (actes du congrès): 49-62, Detmold
[1] Nome inglese dello scacciapensieri o maranzano.
[2] In Italiano utilizzeremo “Canto Armonico”.