JACQUELINE KANIA : The Phenomenon of Throat-Singing

The Phenomenon of Throat-Singing

 

Below is definitely one of the more memorable videos from class and my previous blog.  As unique as the performance is, the Inuit are not the only groups with this throat-singing tradition.

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

The Basics

 

Throat-singing is a “guttural style of singing or chanting” and “one of the world’s oldest forms of music” according to a Smithsonian Folkways webpage about the culture surrounding it (http://www.folkways.si.edu/explore_folkways/throat_singing.aspx).  In the Western world, most people only hear or imagine singers to be singing one note at a time, however we have multiple vocal chords that can actually produce different pitches simultaneously. Throat-singing is most often seen in the countries of Central Asia—especially among the Tuvans on the Southern Russia/Northern Mongolian border. However there are two other groups, the Xhosa people of southeastern South Africa and the Inuit of Northern Canada, who also practice throat-singing in different settings and among different groups of performers. Throat-singing even has a place in popular music and television—we shall see some examples later in this post.

The Smithsonian Folkways article goes into more detail about these groups. Let us take a look at the three primary practicing groups of throat-singing:

 

The Tuvans

 

Tuva is a predominantly rural region of Russia located northwest of Mongolia. They call throat-singing Khoomei. Khoomei performers are primarily male due to a superstition that throat-singing women will have fertility problems. They are also taught to throat sing from a young age. The Khoomei throat-singers use a form of circular breathing which allows them to sustain singular notes for longer periods of time. The Tuvans originate from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and the sounds they make, such as the Tuvan singing group Huun Huur Tu playing in the style of “Sygyt” (or “whistle”) below at a Philadelphia Folk Festival in 2006, are very reminiscent of the nature that surrounds them:

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

According to the article “Overtone Singing Music” on National Geographic’s Music webpage, the Tuvans separate various overtone styles into 3 categories based on what part of nature they imitate:  Sygyt, which imitates birds and breezes/gentle winds. Xoomei alludes to stronger winds, and kargyraa is meant to portray storms (http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/overtone_singing_763/en_US).

 

While not raised in the Tuvan culture, a YouTuber named Alex Glenfield has taught himself how to master several types of overtone singing.  In the video below he demonstrates 7 styles: the classic Khoomei style at :10, Sygyt at 1:08, Dag Kargyraa at 2:11, Steppe Kargyraa at 3:12, Ezenggileer at 4:05, Khoomei Borbangnadyr at 4:47, and the Chylandyyk at 5:35:

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

The Inuit

 

The Inuit are the indigenous native people of northern Canada. In contrast to the throat-singing of the Tuvans, Inuit throat-singing (also called katajjaq) is almost always performed by females.  It is often performed in groups of two or more women, and the techniques used are reliant upon staccato, rhythmic inhalations and exhalations of the breath. The tradition with Inuit folksinging originated as a competition or a game among female friends while the males were out hunting for the families. Over a century ago Inuit throat-singing was condemned by local Christian priests, but it is gaining a recent revival among the youth of Canada. Performers even submit throat-singing audition tapes to be shown at the Winter Olympic games.

 

The clip shown below is of two Inuit women, Janet Aglukkaq and Kathy Keknek, filming a throat-singing audition tape for the 2008 Winter Olympic Games:

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

The Xhosa

 

The Xhosa people of Bantu origins live and thrive in southeastern South Africa. Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu are famous Xhosas. Their style of deep throat-singing, called eefing, is composed of singing two notes that are only a step apart accompanying much higher notes simultaneously. The singing accompanies traditional call-and-response (antiphony) or group songs. The Xhosa often use these songs for joyful occasions such as parties and dances.

 

Shown below is a clip of Xhosa women practicing eefing:

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

Here is another clip. The blonde woman is Kendall, the assistant producer of a play called “MoLoRa” that is based in Johannesburg, South Africa. She enlists this Xhosa group of women, called Ngqoko, to help provide musical clips for her play. In her interview with them around 2:31, they begin harmonizing together:

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

Throat-Singing in the Western World/Culture:

 

Chances are if you have heard of throat-singing prior to this blog, you are a watcher of The Big Bang Theory, a well-known American sitcom series. In the episode “The Large Hadron Collision” one of the main characters Sheldon, a quirky but highly intelligent man, demonstrated his skill of Tuvan throat-singing:

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

The substyle of Tuvan throatsinging Sheldon performs above is Dag Kargyraa.

 

Throat-Singing has been sampled throughout a few popular Western artists’ songs as well. New-age and folk-tunes singer Bjork enlisted the help of Inuit throat-singer Tanya Tagaq in her song “Isobel” (Tanya Tagaq can be clearly heard starting around 2:30):

 

Click here to view the embedded video.

 

A blind blues guitarist named Paul Pena, who wrote the 1970’s Steve Miller Band hit “Jet Airliner” and was the former sideman to famous blues artists B.B. King and John Hooker, was listening and messing with the wires of his radio in 1984. He accidentally tuned into a station featuring the Khoomei throat-singing styles of Tuva, and was stunned. This occurrence started him into an 11-year journey to study throat-singing, and eventually he was able to master several styles and starred in a documentary called “Genghis Blues” (“Genghis” from the belief that many Tuvans were descendants of the infamous leader Genghis Khan.) The article about Paul Pena can be found on genghisblues.com under the article “Blind U.S. bluesman masters throat-singing of Tuva”.

 

Quick Summary:

 

To summarize this post, while throat-singing may not be extremely popular in the Western music and popular culture world, it is certainly not a new style by any means. I believe more artists (particularly new-age, country and blues artists) will begin to learn these techniques. I hope you have learned many new facts and have a new appreciation for this unique vocal style. Thanks for reading my final blog!

 

Works Cited:

Alex Glenfield. ” Seven Styles of Overtone Singing (Tuvan Throat Singing).”Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 April 2013.

Ari Vineberg. ” Inuit throat-singers from Nunavik.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 08 Feb. 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

“Blind U.S. bluesman masters throat-singing of Tuva.” Wadi Rum Productions. Genghis Blues, 1999. Web. 28 April 2013.

Cultureproject. ” “We can even teach you.” – Ngqoko Cultural Group.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 15 July 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

FrancesWindward. ” Inuit Throat Singing: Kathy Keknek and Janet Aglukkaq (long).” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 13 Dec. 2007. Web. 28 April 2013.

Kevinambjork. ” Björk-Isobel-Live at Belgium 2001-With Tanya Tagaq -Isobel-Live at Belgium 2001-With Tanya Tagaq.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 26 Sep. 2011. Web. 28 April 2013.

Matias Martinez. ” Sheldon Cooper Throat Singing.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 09 Feb. 2010. Web. 28 April 2013.

“Overtone Singing Music.” Bruce Miller. National Geographic Music, n.d. Web. 28 April 2013.

QuangHai Tran. “OVERTONE SINGING UMNGQOKOLO by Xhosa women from SOUTH AFRICA .” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 16 May 2012. Web. 28 April 2013.

Smithsonian Folkways. “Throat Singing:A unique vocalization from three cultures.” Smithsonian Folkways by the Smithsonian Institution (2013): n. pag. Web. 28 April 2013.

Tantsev. ” Huun Huur Tu at Philadelphia Folk Festival, August 2006.” Online video clip.
YouTube. YouTube, 15 Sep. 2006. Web. 28 April 2013.

Huun-Huur-Tu – Live

Huun-Huur-Tu – Live

Ajoutée le 15 juil. 2011

Huun Huur Tu Tour January 2017 13.1.17 — NL — Rotterdam — Lantaren Venster 14.1.17 — D — Köln — Yard Club 15.1.17 — D — Mannheim — Alte Feuerwache 16.1.17 — I — Bologna — Teatro San Leonardo 17.1.17 — I — Udine — Teatro S. Giorgio 18.1.17 — D — Lich — Kino Traumstern 19.1.17 — D — Baden Baden — Spitalkirche 20.1.17 — D — Bad Reichenhall — Casino 21.1.17 — D — Ravensburg — Zehntscheuer 22.1.17 — D — Wuppertal — Internationales Zentrum 24.1.17 — D — Kiel — Kulturforum 25.1.17 — SE — Malmö — Victoria Teatre 26.1.17 — SE — Göteborg — Oceanen 27.1.17 — D — Kopenhagen — Global 28.1.17 — D — Bremerhaven — Pferdestall 29.1.17 — D — Bremen — Moments 30.1.17 — D — Hannover — Pavillon http://www.jaro.de/artists/huun-huur-tu/ Huun-Huur-Tu at Fantasy Studios, Berkeley, California November 18, 2008 You can buy the CDs of Huun-Huur-Tu @ http://www.jaro.de

Listen to this ..Tuva throat singers meet Bulgarian Voices Angelite ENJOY Beyond the earth

Listen to this ..Tuva throat singers meet Bulgarian Voices Angelite ENJOY Beyond the earth

Ajoutée le 27 janv. 2018

Lonely Bird

Hey, what’s that sound: Throat singing

Hey, what’s that sound: Throat singing

A droning, pulverising sound of shamanic origin, this is ancient soul music from the east
Huun Huur Tu
Deep throat … Tuvan singers Huun Huur Tu featuring Sainkho

What is it? A catch-all term covering different disciplines of extreme vocal technique from around the world, often recognised as a low, pulverising, drone-growl that western ears sometimes interpret as “scary”. But the history behind the throat singing traditions of Inuit tribes and the people of Siberia has strong cultural significance, and the overlapping, oscillating vocal tones (several different notes are produced in the mouth of one singer simultaneously) can be transcendent and beautiful.

Who uses it? The Canadian Inuit throat singer Tanya Tagaq has fashioned a powerful, abstract music all of her own, catching the ears of Mike Patton, Kronos Quartet and Björk. Tuvan exile Sainkho Namtchylak uses elements of throat singing in her challenging Yoko Ono-type music, which melds pop, jazz and avant garde. Huun Huur Tu are perhaps the Ladysmith Black Mambazo of Tuvan throat singing, with a prodigious back catalogue and collaboration credits with everyone from Frank Zappa to Nina Nastasia. Yat-Kha are edgier, covering Motörhead and working with Asian Dub Foundation. Check out our Spotify playlist.

How does it work? The Tuvan overtone technique involves producing a droning note that is raised and lowered by opening and closing the vocal cords until harmonic resonances appear. It is the abrupt open-and-shut of the vocal cords that (through a process known as biofeedback) apparently charges the higher harmonics with increasing energy, resulting in separation between up to six simultaneous tones. Inuit katajjaq (and the now-extinct Japanese rekukkara) throat singing is less dependant on overtones, instead two women will stand holding and facing each other and alternately sing either words, or half-words, or just abstract tones, faster and faster into each others mouths, with the “receiving” woman modulating the incoming stream of sound by adjusting the shape of her open mouth.

Where does it come from? Tuvan throat singing, like the (not dissimilar-sounding) Aboriginal didgeridoo is said to physically connect the singers to the spirituality of the Tuvan mountainside. The singing styles were supposedly modelled on the harmonic resonances herders would find naturally occurring around valleys or waterfalls, with some vocal styles configured to mimic the sounds of animals, wind or water. Inuit tradition doesn’t actually posit throat singing as music in itself, it evolved and continues as a game or competition that Inuit women would play to pass the time, the first woman to lose pace, run out of breath or start laughing is the loser.

Why is it classic? Throat singers sound as though they have a whole orchestra of instruments, that could never be invented by human hands, caged inside their bodies. It is ancient soul music.

What’s the best ever throat singing song? It’s not really a “song” medium, so don’t expect it to click with you instantly, but start with Tagaq and Huun Huur Tu.

Five facts and things

Tanya Tagaq admits she was not good at traditional competitive Inuit singing. It was by removing the technique from its role as a game, and imbuing her singing with deep emotion, that she found a new musical language.

There are some examples of overtone singing in European classical music. Stockhausen’s awesome Stimmung, for instance, or Tan Dun’s Water Passion after St Matthew.

The most famous non-traditional throat singer was the American blues musician Paul Pena, who brought self-taught throat singing into his bottleneck blues, and who in the 1999 documentary Genghis Blues travelled to Tuva to compete in throat singing contests.

What is it in the European musical psyche that links overtone singing to the demonic? Tenores is the profane counterpoint to cuncordu, Sardinia’s sacred polyphonic choir music. The styles are differentiated by the use of overtone singing in tenores, which also allocates roles in a four man-choir to each emulate the sounds of wind, sheep and cows.

There are four main disciplines of Tuvan overtone singing: khorekteer (“chest voice”), khomeii (a swirling, wind-like sound), sygyt (piercing, whistling bird noises), and kargyraa (the deep growling sound, said to be a figurative depiction of winter in Tuvan folklore).

モングンオール・オンダール スグット – Monguniol · Ondal Sugut

モングンオール・オンダール スグット

Monguniol · Ondal Sugut

Published on Jul 29, 2013

2013年6月9日(日) ヴァレリー・モングーシュさんの60歳記念コンサート会場で歌う モングンオール・オンダール。 照明の色が変わりすぎなので、あえて白黒にしました。 是非2013年9月の来日をチェック!!
June 9, 2013 (Sunday) Magnoliol-Ondahl singing at the 60-year-old concert venue of Valery Mongoos. Since the color of lighting changes too much, I dare made it black and white. Please check the arrival in September 2013!

Dmitriev LB, Chernov BP, Maslov VT. : Functioning of the voice mechanism in double-voice Touvinian singing.

1983;35(5):193-7.

Functioning of the voice mechanism in double-voice Touvinian singing.