TRAN QUANG HAI : articles divers sur le chant de gorge diphonique (GOOGLE.COM)

TRAN QUANG HAI : articles divers sur le chant de gorge diphonique

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Trần Quang Hải, expérimentateur de l’oralité – › ethnomusicologie
de J Curtet – ‎2019Présenter Trần Quang Hải le temps d’un entretien n’est pas un exercice facile, tant les facettes … URL : manquants : written ‎| Doit inclure : written
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Trần Quang Hải, né le 13 mai 1944 à Linh Dong Xa au Viêt Nam, est un ethnomusicologue dont le domaine de recherche est la musique vietnamienne, …Termes manquants : writtengoogle.
Tran Quang Hai : biographie, actualités et émissions France … › personne-tran-quang-hai
Tran Quang Hai : Né le 13 mai 1944, à Linh Dông Xa (Gia Dinh), Sud Viet Nam , Trân Quang Hai est à la fois musicien accompli, éminent ethnomusicologue, …Termes manquants : “articleswrittengoogle.
QUANG HAI Tran – Google Scholar › citations
Traduire cette pageQUANG HAI Tran. Senior Lecturer, University of … ArticlesCited by … QH Tran. Musical Voices of Asia, Individual Research Reports, 162-173, 1980. 49, 1980 …Termes manquants : written ‎| Doit inclure : written
chants diphoniques – Traduction en anglais – exemples … › traduction › francais-anglais › chants+diphoniques
Reverso Context GRATUITE – Sur Google Play. Télécharger … Tags: france, khoomei, overtone singing, paris, the ode to joy, tran quang hai … Tags: acoustics, article, denis guillou, france, khoomei, original research, overtone singing, tran quang hai. Les Touvains … The author has three is an overtone singer and translator.
Ethnomusicologue: Béla Bartók, Alan Lomax, Komitas, John … › books › about › Ethnomusicologue
Ce contenu est une compilation d’articles de l’encyclopedie libre Wikipedia. … Arthur Morris Jones, Guillaume Andre Villoteau, Tran Quang Hai, Constantin …
Tran Quang Hai | Free Internet Radio | Slacker › artist › tran-quang-hai
Traduire cette pageListen to the biggest hits from Tran Quang Hai, including The Starling Song, Landscape of the Highlands, Towards the Vietnam Land, and more on Slacker …
Tran Quang Hai and Bach Yen biography | › music › +wiki
Traduire cette pageHe is the co-author, actor and music composer of this film. He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese and Asian music (New Grove Dictionary, Encyclopedia ..

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Posts about Tran Quang Hai written by haidiphonie. … … There are more than 600 articles, video clips concerning overtone singing from Tuva, …
Board Member 23 | IJHS – INTERNATIONAL JEW’S HARP … › board-member-23
Traduire cette pageTran Quang Hai was born on 13 May 1944 in Vietnam, and is a talented and renowned … He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese and Asian music.
Gilbert Rouget. Un roi africain et sa musique de cour. Chants … › journals › yearbook-for-traditional-music › article
de G Béhague – ‎1996 – ‎Autres articles7 mars 2019 – 391 pp., photographs, musical transcriptions by Trân Quang Hai in collaboration with the author, two accompanying compact disks.
Tran Quang Huy – Google Scholar › citations
Traduire cette pageArticlesCited by … FY Lin, AH Vo, VB Phan, TT Nguyen, D Bryla, CT Tran, BK Ha, DT Dang, . … NTQ Nhu, DTM Ha, ND Anh, TN Duong, ND Quang, NTN Lan, .
Bio Johanni Curtet | Meïkhâ › bio-johanni-curtet-en
Traduire cette pageFirst initiated by Tran Quang Hai, he learnt khöömii from Tserendavaa … singing (2013, University of Rennes 2), and several academic articles he wrote. In 2009 …
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Traduire cette pageTran Quang Dat. Doctor of Physics … TQ Dat, NT Ha, DQ Hung … DQ Tran, HT Pham, HQ Do … TQ Dat, NT Ha, P Van Thin, NV Tung, DQ Hung … Articles 1–10.

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Bryce: Playlist from November 16, 2012 – › playlists › shows
Traduire cette page16 nov. 2012 – Tran Quang Hai, Jew’s Harps of the World, 0:00:00 (Pop‑up) … a list of most-hated holiday-theme songs (see article and comments too): … … The Hmong culture doesn’t have a tradition of the written word, …
Overtone singing – › Overtone_singing
Traduire cette pageMain article: Music of Mongolia § Throat singing … The most commonly practiced style, Khöömii (written in Cyrillic as Хөөмий), can be … Tran Quang Hai , a researcher on overtone singing since 1969 in Paris … 152–155 Google Books Web.

Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council | ScienceGate › journalTraduire cette pageRead & Download the latest articles of Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council published by JSTOR. … Tran Quang Hai,; Michel Lepage. PlumX Metrics.
Revue De Musicologie Tome 70 N Deg 1 1984 By Simha Arom … › by-simha-arom-revue-de-musicologie-t…
198 212 (texte révisé d’un article paru en anglais dans The World of Musicen 1981). (PDF) Une Raison En Acte … TRAN QUANG HAI : PUBLICATIONS DE GILBERT ROUGET – TRẦN VĂN … Pierre Couprie. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. … by simon wells author hardback.pdf …
Jan G.SVEC’s bibliography , Czech … – TRANQUANGHAI’s › 2008/03 › jan-gsvecs-bibliograph…
Tran Quang Hai is a Vietnamese musician, and especially a specialist of overtone singing, … Cité 101 fois – Autres articles – Recherche sur le Web … …

Three Films by Hugo Zemp: Visual Anthropology: Vol 27, No › doi › fullTraduire cette page25 sept. 2014 – … Zemp never abandoned writing analytic books and articles or making … Lortat-Jacob and Tran Quang Hai, all of whom experimented with …

What is Overtone Singing? – I love overtone singing … › overtone-singing › what-is-ov…Traduire cette page … Overtones | Tran Quang Hai website. …3 mai – 4 maiObertongesang lernen für …Parma (IT), Italien › 2020/01/15 › tran-quang-hai-… … TRAN QUANG HAIhaidiphonie.comARTICLES ON THROAT SINGINGTRAN QUANG HAI’s world throat … Author: tranquanghai1944.Termes manquants : written ‎| Doit inclure : written
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Posts about TRAN QUANG HAI ‘s articles written by tranquanghai1944. … In 1969,I started my overtone research with Mongolian xöömij style which was very … (type each of these words : overtone singing , throat singing …
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Read all of the posts by haidiphonie on TRAN QUANG HAI. … there are videos, articles (acoustics, physiology, different researchers working on throat singing) … Workshop of overtone singing and workshop of didjerido in Monte Bruno, at Ass. Art & Tradition … …
books on overtone singing | TRAN QUANG › category › books-on-overtone-singing
31 janv. 2015 – Posts about books on overtone singing written by haidiphonie. … Also carries out research work into voice pathology. … You can find many articles written by Trân Quang Hai in English and French, and a very long list of websites concerning every … Recherches diverses effectuées sur
Overtone singing – › wiki › Overtone_singing
Traduire cette pageOvertone singing – also known as overtone chanting, harmonic singing, or throat singing – is a … Main article: Music of Mongolia § Throat singing … The most commonly practiced style, Khöömii (written in Mongolian Cyrillic as Хөөмий,), … Tran Quang Hai , a researcher on overtone singing since 1969 in Paris,France, has …
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Posts about Tran Quang Hai written by haidiphonie. … … There are more than 600 articles, video clips concerning overtone singing from Tuva, … Tran Quang Hai & Denis Guillou : Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in …
diphonique – Traduction en anglais – exemples français … › traduction › francais-anglais › diphonique
Reverso Context GRATUITE – Sur Google Play. Télécharger … The author has three is an overtone singer and translator. En effet, on peut … Tags: aaspect acoustique, chant diphonique, tran quang hai. Tags: acoustics, article, denis guillou, france, khoomei, original research, overtone singing, tran quang hai. Depuis une …
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Traduire cette pageTran Quang Hai, Category: Artist, Albums: Landscape Of The Highlands: String … and lectured throughout the world, and the author of dozens of published articles. … on the art of overtone singing, just one of Hai’s many outlets for making music. … to study oriental music with his father Tran Van Khe in the French metropolis.Termes manquants : google. ‎| Doit inclure : google.
Tran Quang Hai’s Page – Overtone Music › profile › TRANQUANGHAI
Traduire cette pagede DG BARACCA – ‎Autres articlestran quang hai sings the ode to joy in one breath with overtones in CATANIA, … Tran Quang Hai & Denis Guillou : Original Research and Acoustical Analysis … Website : Au Coeur de la résonance – Articles and links on overtones … to time a translation contribution to the Google Vietnamese or French version of this network.
Overtone Singing Archives | › tag › overtone-singing
Traduire cette pageget to know the basic techniques of overtone singing: NG (gong), RR (bird), … To register, fill in the google form (coming soon) and answer a few questions. … Tran Quang Hai has a new book out celebrating his 50 years of music research in … several key articles on this technique by Dr. Tran Quang Hai and understand the …

marco tonini – Tertium Auris › author › marcotoniniTraduire cette pageOvertone Singing Workshop Tran Quang Hai – Marco Tonini … Reading this article on The University of Chicago Press talking about a research (from The …
What is Overtone Singing? – I love overtone singing … › overtone-singing › what-is-ov…
Traduire cette pageAnyone who can speak can therefore also learn overtone singing. … Overtone singing is a vocal technique that creates the auditory impression of … … Tran Quang Hai website. Webfont Settings:.3 mai – 4 maiObertongesang lernen für …Parma (IT), Italien
(PDF) Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physio … › publication › 334122063_…
Traduire cette page30 juin 2019 – Trân Quang Hai (1944–), a Viet-. namese musician and researcher living. in Paris, got in contact with Mongol. overtone singing in 1969 and he …
Tuvan Throat Singing Research Papers – › Documents › Tuvan_Throat_Singing
View Tuvan Throat Singing Research Papers on for free. … Référence papier Johanni Curtet et Quang Hải Trần, « Trần Quang Hải, … The article deals with the issues of preserving the unique Tuvan throat singing tradition, … are currently (un)available as recordings, the author analyses a single song… more.
Tran Quang Hai and Bach Yen biography | › music › +wiki
Traduire cette pageRead Tran Quang Hai and Bach Yen’s bio and find out more about Tran Quang … He has been working for the National Center for Scientific Research in France … He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese and Asian music (New Grove … zither dan tranh, monochord dan dôc huyên, Jew’s harp and overtone singing.
Bio Johanni Curtet | Meïkhâ › bio-johanni-curtet-en
Traduire cette pageOvertone khöömii singing, throat singing, guitar, dombra lute … First initiated by Tran Quang Hai, he learnt khöömii from Tserendavaa Dashdorj in the …
TRANQUANGHAI’s WORLD: 10/01/2011 – Tran Quang › 2011/10
31 oct. 2011 – Stage de chant diphonique dirigé par Tran Quang Hai, à Cannes organisé par … Natascha Nikeprelevic Michael Vetter overtone singing … This is a listing of journal articles, books, and sound recordings which deal with …
Wolfgang Saus (@overtonesinging) | › overtonesinging
Traduire cette pageThe latest Tweets from Wolfgang Saus (@overtonesinging). … Workshop con il maestro Tran Quang Hai, Sabato 1 & Domenica 2 Febbraio 2020, Ex Filanda, via …
Khoomei, Harmonics & Related › klinks
Traduire cette pageMark von Tongeren: Mark is a fine overtone and khoomei singer, and author of … Tran Quang Hai: Site of one of the pioneer researchers of overtone singing and … Scientific American Article on ThroatSinging: Interesting piece by Ted Levin and … Google Search: “singing” and “larynx” Just can’t get enough, can you?
Tran Quang Hai | Music Theory | Sound – › document › Tran-Quang-Hai
Traduire cette page14 mai 2017 – Tran Quang Hai : Method of Learning Overtone Singing KHOOMEI … For several months, I carried out bibliographical research into articles

CAROLE PEGG: Mongolian conceptualizations of overtone singing (xöömii)

Mongolian conceptualizations of overtone singing (xöömii)

By Carole Pegg

Radik and Carole Pegg

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Based on fieldwork in western Mongolia during 1989 and 1990, this paper relates Mongolian xöömii or overtone singing to its social context and to the cognitive world of the performers. It looks at secular performance contexts, theories of origin, legendary/historical development, recent transformation into an art form, traditional training methods and transmission, Mongolian classification of xöömii, and its relationship with nature and shamanism. A brief overview is given of previous non‑Mongolian perspectives, which have either concentrated on acoustical and physiological analysis of the sounds themselves or have made claims that overtone singing is a “magical voice technique” causing spiritual and physical healing. The latter is contrasted with the Mongolian belief that, although consumption of the sounds may be beneficial, the production of xöömii is potentially harmful to the body.


The term “overtone singing” (see note 1) refers to an extraordinary vocal technique in, which a single performer simultaneously produces up to three separate voca1 lines, which can be clearly distinguished by listeners. There are several types of “overtone singing”, but most involve the sounding of a fundamental drone, whilst producing a flute‑like melody by reinforcing a series of chosen harmonics or partials of that fundamental. This phenomenon has been embraced in the West by two groups of people who view it with very different perspectives. On the one hand, there are those who assume that it is linked with ancient religious practices and beliefs, with powerful forces within the universe, that it may be used for meditation or for magical healing. On the other hand, there are those who are curious to understand how one person can physically produce such sounds, and musicologists and others have carried out a considerable amount of research on this over the last ten years. But little has been done to relate the phenomenon to its social context or to the cognitive world of the performers. This has been partly because of the inaccessibility of those Central Asian areas where it occurs and partly because of the orientation of the researchers. This paper attempts to augment these previous perspectives with indigenous ones gained during fieldwork undertaken in Mongolia during 1989 and 1990. It contextualises Mongolian overtone singing in geographical, historical and societal terms and considers the culture bearers’ own conceptualisation of musical sound. It also illustrates the use of xöömii in secular contexts in Mongolia, considers its relationship with religion and points to the potentially harmful effects of the production of these sounds on the body.


1  Turko‑Mongol peoples                               

          Overtone singing is found predominantly amongst the Turco‑Mongol peoples of Southern Siberia and Central Asia. In addition to Mongolia, it is found in Tannu Tuva, an autonomous region of Russia which lies just north of western Mongolia, and amongst neighbouring peoples such as the Bashkirs (Garcia 1840; Lebedinskii 1962:147‑49), Khakassians and the Gorno altai/Mountain Altai (Aksenov 1964). Lamas in the dGe‑lugs‑pa monasteries of Gyume and Gyottö in Tibet were trained from the age of twelve for tantric ritual performance to produce sounds which have been called ” xöömii” (Smith and Stevens 1967:211), but the harmonics or partials are not produced with the intention of creating melodies as in Mongolian xöömii.

2  South Africa and India

Isolated examples have been found in other parts of the world. For instance, the women and girls of the Xhosa people of South Africa perform overtone singing (umngqokolo) during which three tones simultaneously produced by one person are clearly audible (Dargie 1991:39). Umngqokolo ngomqangi, a technique where only two lines are audible (fundamental and overtone), is explained by one performer as originating in the Xhosa boys’ habit of impaling a large flying beetle called umqangi on a thorn and then holding the desperately buzzing insect within the mouth. Umqangi is also an alternative name for the umrhubhe mouth bow, and it is suggested that the umngqokolo ngomqangi overtone technique and narne were derived frorn the bow either directly or via the unfortunate insect (ibid.). The single example (note 2) recorded in Rajasthan is thought to be imitating either the satara double flute or the jew’s harp (Zemp and Tran 1989 F). (note 3)

3 Mongolia

In Mongolia, prior to the destruction of the monasteries by the communists during the 1930s and 1940s, the chanting of Buddhist monks was pitched very deep, and overtones would also sometimes occur, although apparently with no intention of producing a melody. The lama Ven Luvsangshirab (who had been training to become a lama prior to the Revolution and in 1990, because of the new freedom, had been reinstated) dismissed this as a sound which, although impressive, only “resembled” xöömii (IN). Amongst the Mongols, xöömii performance was a secular activity which was considered by the lamas to be “without respect” (xdndtei bish). Despite the claims in 1967 of the Hungarian musicologist Vargyas (D) that xöömii was “still fairly common among male singers, especially in Eastern Mongolia”, the tradition of secular overtone singing belongs to the Altai mountain region of western Mongolia.

My own fieldwork was undertaken in the three provinces or aimag which lie along the Altai mountain range‑Uvs, Xovd and Bayan Olgii‑and contain many different yastan. (Note 4) The majority of Mongols belong to the XaIxa, but there are 22 other yastan in Mongolia, mostly living in the west. An aimag is divided into administrative units called sum, each occupied predominantly by one yastan. I investigated the xöömii tradition in each aimag.

i. Uys aimag.(note 5) Situated in northwest Mongolia, immediately south of the border with Tannu Tuva, this aimag is occupied by three yastan, the Bayad, the Dörvöd and the Xoton. Overtone singing is rare amongst the Dörvöd and Xoton but has a strong tradition amongst the Bayad. Opinions vary about whether the Bayad had their own xöömii tradition or whether they took it from the Urianxai in Tannu Tuva. (note 6)  It is 85‑year old Düüdei’ s belief (IN) that the Bayad in the border sum of Tes copied the Urianxai. This however was disputed by Byambadorj (IN), a knowledgeable Bayad in charge of the Ulaangom Museum.

He pointed the relationship between ?// (cannot readt the text badly photocopied) an epic performance. He suggested that since the Bayad had a strong epic tradition it was likely that xöömii was also indigenous, In Byarribadorj’s opinion, the influence between the two groups of people was mutual, arising from (instant interaction between the Uriarixai and Bayad in pre‑Revolutionary Mongolia). Many of the Mongols in the seven sum which lie along the border with Tuva intermarried with the Urianxai and gave children to families across the border (Piiveen IN). They also traded with each other, and some of the Urianxai xöömiich (xöömii performers) settled in Uvs.(Note 7) Certainly the xöömii tradition was strong among the Bayad in the 1930s. Jamiyan, who was a teenage Bayad herder in Tes sum at that time, recalled that almost everyone could perform xöömii (IN). Later, in the 1950s and 60s, the media also began to aid the dissemination of xöömii and its different styles, reaching yastan which previously had no known tradition of it. For example, 40‑year old Dörvöd Tseveen copied Tuvan xöömii performers whom he beard on his radio whilst herding as a boy in Ölgii sum, Uvs aimag.

ii. Xovd aimag. Xovd aimag is divided from Xirijiang, (note 8) an autonomous region of northwest China, by the Altai mountains in the south and southwest and lies to the south of Uvs aimag. Xovd is divided into seventeen sum in which ‘live six different yastan.(note 9) The people of Chandman’ sum, who are XaIxa, believe that Mongolian xöömii originated there (note 10) Certainly, Chandman’ sum is the source and centre of xöömii revival in Mongolia and of its transformation into a cultural “art form” (see below). But xöömii is also found amongst other yastan in Xovd aimag‑for instance, among the Torguud and Urianxai in Bulgan sum, (Tsoloo IN), the Bayad and Dörvöd in Uvs aimag (as described above)‑‑and also among the Tuvans in Tsengel sum, Bayan Ölgii aimag.

iii. Bayan Ölgii aimag. Bayan Ölgii aimag lies in the extreme northwest of Mongolia. On its western border the Altai Mountains separate it from China and in the north from Russia. To the East lie Uvs and Xovd aimags. In Bayan Ölgii aimag are three yastan: Tuvan, Urianxai and Kazak. The Tuvans, who live in Tsengel sum, say that they originated in that area and spread out from there to present‑day Tannu Tuva (Magsar IN). (note 11) Now there are less than 1,000 Tuvans. (???cannot read from photocopy) population are Kazak. In “the old time” when the Tuvans herder yaks and lived in the high mountain there were many xöömii perfromers  as thers are now in Russia (Magsar ) The Kazaks also perfrom xöömii

            The majority of Mongols are semi‑nomadic pastoralists who, despite political changes, have led a virtually unchanged lifestyle since the time of Chinggis Xaan. They continue to live in round felt, easily transportable tents called ger, to lead a semi‑nomadic life within a prescribed (note12) area in accordance with the wealth of pasture, and to use the animals they herd for their own subsistence needs. Chinggis united the Mongol tribes in the thirteenth century, founding a great empire which eventually encompassed the whole of China and spread as far west as the Black Sea. When Mongolia succumbed to Manchu rule in the sixteenth century, the aristocratic princes (xan) and noblemen (noyon) retained their position of dominance within Mongolian society, although they remained answerable to the Manchu Emperor and paid tribute to him (apart from a ten‑year period of autonomy beginning in 1911) until the communist‑inspired revolution of 1921. In pre‑revolutionary Mongolia, when Lamaism was strong, xöömii was used in everyday contexts despite the disapproval of the lamas, who did not like people to indulge in such secular activities.

A consideration of some Mongolian perspectives on xöömii will assist in greater understanding and help to distinguish differences in the way in which Mongols and some Westerners view it.


1 Performance contexts

1 Herding

Xöömii was popular amongst the Urianxai and Bayad camel herders and the Bayan Ölgii Tuvan yak herders. For instance, Mangiljav, a 48‑year‑old Bayad, camel herdsman, is a fine xöömiich who used to perform whilst looking after the herds as a child. He learned from Setsen, his avga (uncle on father’s side), and recalled how his uncle’s xöömii could be heard over a great distance, an ability which was much prized. The Bayad Jamiyan, for instance, recalled People who could be heard over a distance of three kilometres (IN)  The Tuvans in Bayan Olgii aimag used xöömii to “call” yaks ‑ a function which may be connected with this great value placed on carrying power.

2 The ger

In pre‑revolutionary Mongolia, xöömii was also performed within the ger, the round felt tent which was the standard home of the nomadic Mongols. Düüdei (IN), for example, recalled how, during her childhood in Tes sum, Urianxai camel‑herders came from Tuva to gather Sea Buckthorn (Note13) berries, which they used for medicinal purposes and which only grew in Tes sum. Bringing with them many camels and much baggage, they often spent four or five days in her father’s ger, during which time they performed xöömii She noted that before performing they would always repeat the following couplet:

Altai tsantai jurtentei

Amban noen zaxirgaatai. (note14)

suggesting that, in contrast to the lamas’ attitude, the people did treat the performance of xöömii with respect. It is possible that this short introduction was an “offering” to the Altai mountains in much the same way that Altain Magtaal / Praise Song to the Altai Mountains was always performed by the Uriarixai before the rendering of an epic.

3 The noyon’‑s nair / nobleman’s celebration

Jarniyan (IN), born in 1924 in Tes sum, recalled how the noyon JaJin Gün would invite the best bii (Note15) dancers, two‑stringed spiked fiddle players (ixelch) (note16) longsong singers (urtyn duuch) and xöömii performers to his ger to entertain distinguished guests. Xöömii performers, however, were not usually invited to the herders’ own nair (celebrations), to local nair held by the noyon or to a nair held officially (alban yusoor).

4 Chigee uulaax / to cause to drink fermented mare’s milk (note17)     

This term was used for a collective celebrations forming part of the wedding ritual known as “seeing off the bride”; it was the only herders’ celebration at which xöömii was performed. Over several days the bride‑to‑be would be invited to the ger of different relatives, accompanied by two xia (note18) and someone whose function was to carry her gifts. She had to wear a special hat and to cover her face with a scarf. Inside each ger she would be offered special meat to eatsheep’s breast, adjoining meat and roasted fat‑and a nair would be held at which, as above, dancers, fiddle players, long‑song singers and xöömiich would perform.

2 Theories of origin

The people of Chandman’ sum believe that xöömii explain its origin in several ways.

1 Nature and the supernatural

The Performance of xöömii and the claim that Chandman’ is its place of origin is attributed to the unusual natural features of this sum: the mountains, lakes. rivers and birds. This “natural origin is also linked, however, with the supernatural or magical.

The geographical features of Chandman’ sum are unusual in Mongolian terms in that it is surrounded on three sides by mountains and lakes. Its western border is formed by Lake Xar Us Nuur in the north and two high mountain ranges, Zuun Jargalantyn Nuruu and Xuremtiin Nuruu. The eastern border is formed by two lakes, Xar Nuur and Dargin Nuur. The two largest lakes, Xar Us Nuur and Xar Nuur are connected in the north by a much smaller lake, Dalai Nuur, and by a river called Chono Xaraix. To the south lies semi‑desert.

Birds. It is claimed that several birds produce xöömii ‑type sounds. For instance, the usny buxI bittern (Note19) keeps its head under water in the lake and produces a sound which can be heard a saaxalt (note20) away (Sengedorj IN). The crane (togoruu), said to live for 3,000 years, also has a distinctive call which, when heard, is considered a portent of long life (Bolorma IN). The noise produced by the wings of the snow cock (xoilog), widespread in Mount Jargalant as well as on the lakes, is said to be very like the sound xöömii. Xöömii is sometimes referred to as the ‘voice’s echo” or “bird’s echo”.

Mountains. The mountains stand alone in the steppe, seperated  from the main Altai massif. The people of Chandman’ sum stress that the sounds heard in the mountains have a special quality, and those who live on Mount Jargalant often discuss the variety of sounds which they hear. For example, they say that sounds are different in the morning from the evening because of a difference in the flow of air (agaaryn ursgal), that common sounds such as rain sound quite different in the mountains, and that there is a particular kind of echo which enables a noise to be heard four or five am (note21) away (Tserendavaa INa).

Mount Jargalant also has a special power. It is said to be able to “hold” the very strong winds which come from the west before releasing them into the steppe below. Sometimes the wind is “held” for four to five hours (Sengedorj) sometimes 24 hours (Tserendavaa INc) and sometimes for as long as three days. During this time the mountain drones or makes a hollow sound (dungenex). The people in the steppe below are thus warned of the impending wind and able to make preparations to meet it. Old people credit the same power to the lake as well. They say that Mount Jargalant and Lake Xar Us Nuur ” attract and digest the sound of the wind” (tataj sleingeex). Batchuluian (IN), a horse herder who lives on the steppe between the mountains and the lake, talked of a musical communication which is set up between the two. His father, a very good xöömiich born 100 years ago, told him, “Our mountain and lakes speak to each other in musical language, and that is why people living between do the same.” His father added that the music had a beneficial effect, which explained why the horses there are bigger, the cattle very good and so on.

Rivers. In addition, the mountains contain many rivers and waterfalls, which produce different combinations of sounds according to the types of stones over which they run. On the peak of Mount Jargalant is a small river‑itself an unusual phenomenon‑which is said to produce good sounds. Once again, though, the explanation in terms of nature is elaborated to include the magical. A particular river is cited as the origin of xöömii ‑ the River Eev‑and this has “magical” properties.        For the peoples of western Mongolia, the River Eev has become a symbol of the “old time” before the Oirad (western Mongols) settled east of the Altai mountains. Identification of its exact location varies. (Note 22) Although everyone knew of it, I never met anyone who had personally seen this river. In old times , Urianixai people used to say that they wanted to drink the water of the River Eev before they died. For all of the yastan in western Mongolia it remains a powerful symbol. Opinions differ about whether it was a river or a stream, but all agree that it made particularly unusual sounds as it trickled or ran over stones. Chuluun used to perform a melody on his morin xuur (note23) Called “The River Eev”(note 24) or “The flow of the River Eev” producing xöömii at the same time. He said that this melody represented the sound of the River Eev which was connected with the origin of xöömii and with the playing of the tsuur. (note25) Xöömii said Chuluun is an interpretation of the sounds of the River Eev in the mind of the xöömiich.

The sounds of this river also had a magical effect. They lured animals to the water to drink but then bewitched them, causing them to fall in (Margad IN, Tserendavaa INb). They also had the power to entrance people. For example, the tale was told of a young girl who went to the river to get water: once she heard the melody of the river she remained there all day, forgetting her mission (Tseveen IN). Samdan (IN) maintained that people born by the River Eev became very good singers and very beautiful people.

2 Historical and legendary time

There is no firm evidence to suggest a date for the origin of xöömii in Mongolia. Historical documents refer to musicians, 300‑strong court orchestras and singers, but xöömii is never mentioned. One of the earliest apparent references to overtone singing appears in Serruys’ translation of a sixteenth‑century Chinese document, containing a description of songs which have “beaucoup de sons de la gorge et des levres that is, “many sounds from the throat and the lips” (1945:153). Another clue, perhaps more definite, occurs in a sixteenth century French poem which seems to describe overtone singing (Anvers 1520, cited in Leothaud 1989).

J’ay veu comme il me semble,

Ung fort homme d’honneur,

Luy seul chanter ensemble

Et dessus et teneur

I saw, it seems to me

A strong man of honour

Singing together with himself

Both above and below. (Note26)

And three centuries later, in a paper given in 1840 to the French Academy of Sciences, Garcia referred to the solo two‑part singing of the Bashkirs (OP.Cit.).

This lack of documentation is possibly because the elevation of overtone singing (and of Mongolian traditional music generally) into an “art form” postdates the Communist Revolution of 1921, when the “music of the people” became imbued with special value and found support from “people’s power” ,Tserendavaa INb). Cultural centres were included in the small group of Administrative buildings placed at the centre of each sum, and local traditional music performers were enlisted to give concerts. The theatres built in each aimag centre drew their artists from those who performed at the cultural centres.

For the people of Chandman’, the origin of xöömii lies in a legendary time when Bazarsad used to perform at nair (celebrations). The xarxiraa xöömiich Margad, now 50 years old, recalled that when he was a boy the old people used to talk of Bazarsad of Chandman’ sum, who lived in ancient times. They described him as being very tall and strong (chadaltai) and a very good wrestler.

When horseman Dashdondob was five years old in 1923, he heard that Bazarsad was the first to perform xöömii in Chandman’ (IN). It was said that he performed türlegt or xosmoljin xöömii a combination of long song with different xöömii techniques, and that when he performed this kind of xöömii well, the spirits of the land and waters came to listen to him (Tserendavaa INc). Although no‑one has actually met or heard Bazarsad, it is affirmed that none will match his skill. By contrast, people did know Chimiddorj, who performed three‑voiced xöömii and Togon Chulum the man who is credited with beginning a new stage in xöömii development.

3 Development of xöömii as a cultural art form

In pre‑revolutionary Mongolia, the performance of xöömii was a secular tradition which had been passed down from generation to generation but was in decline (Sengedorj IN). Old people in Chandman’ sum attributed this to the predominance of Buddhism saying that the disapproval of the lamas caused an interruption in xöömii  development. The Bayad in Uvs aimag still consider it to have declined, since at present only two or three young people can perform it (Jamiyan IN). The new development in the history of xöömii came from Chandman’ sum in Xovd aimag through individual xöömiich

1 Chandman’ Xöömiich

Togon Chuluun was a XaIxa Mongol born in the 1890s who, in addition to performing xöömii whistled, played the tsuur and excelled on the morin xuur  Before the Revolution, he often used his skills when travelling with a camel train to secure himself food and lodgings in ger along the route. There is some disagreement about whether Chuluun learned overtone singing from the declining tradition in Chandman’ sum and later improved his performance whilst in military service in the West Border Guards, or whether he learned the skill whilst in the Guards. In any event, it was Chuluun who, in 1930, first demonstrated xöömii as a “folk art” (Tsambaa IN). He had many pupils, including the now well‑known xöömiich Tserendavaa. These pupils developed xöömiii into a national “art” form capable of winning many medals in folk competitions.

Tsedee is the man accredited with the introduction of xöömii to the rest of the country. He lived on the lakeside and learned xöömiii from Chuluun. In 195? Tsedee joined Xovd Theatre, becoming the first professional xöömii perforner in Mongolia. In 1954 Xovd Aimag Musical Drama Theatre (Xovd Aimagiin Kogjimt Dramyn Teatr) visited the capital, Ulaanbaatar, to present a (dekaden (note27); or ten‑day) concert, and Tsedee became the first person to perform xöömiii there. Xöömii was subsequently officially recognised as a professional “art”. After Tsedee, Sundui joined Xovd Theatre.

Sundui is considered to be the founder of what has been termed the “modern classical form” of xöömii (Tserendavaa INb). He is said to be unique among xöömii performers in that he can produce half tones, rather than the usual full tones. (Note28) He can perform classical European melodies by composers such as Tchaikovsky and Bizet (Batzengel 1980:52) and is able to make vocal leaps over wide intervals (Sengedorj IN). He has a high technical level of xöömii performance, can produce “a scale using four vowels” (gammalax dorvon egshig: Tserendavaa INC) (note29) and is thought to be a possible match for the legendary, Bazarsad.

Sundui’s main attributes are said to be: xevliin bagtaamj sailai / having good storage capacity in the stomach; duuny xooloi saitai / having good throat sounds; and mash ix tamirtai / having great physical strength.(note 30)

Sundui later joined the State Folk Song and Dance Ensemble (Ulsyn Ardyn , Duu Bujgiin Chuulga) in Ulaanbaatar and has now retired. He has  many pupils, among them Sengedorj, who is now with the Xoyd theatre, and Tserendavaa.

Najid Sengedorj has no formal musical education but joined Xovd theatre in 1975. He learned xöömii in Chandman’ at about age five, performed xöömii  in the tenth Festival of Young People and Students and has since travelled widely in Eastern Europe.

Ganbold, currently with the Ulaanbaatar Ensemble, is also from Chandman’ sum. He is able to perform a scale (gammalax) on more vowels than Sundui (Tserendavaa INc). Since he is still a young man, it is thought that he will become very good.

Tserendavaa is a truck driver and a skilled musician. He performs many types of song, including western Mongolian long songs (urtyn duu) and praise songs (magtaal, and plays the horse‑head fiddle (morin xuur) and two‑stringed plucked lute (tovshuur). Together with Badraa, he has identified seven types of xöömii (see below), teaches xöömii in the school in Chandman’ sum and has now begun to teach foreigners in Ulaanbaatar.

2 Training methods and transmission

Performers and teachers of xöömii in the West are largely unaware of the physical problems which its performance can precipitate, stressing only its potential beneficial effects. I was specifically requested by Mongol performers to alert practitioners to the dangers and to attempt to enlist scientific aid in understanding and counteracting the problems. In Mongolia, the performance of xöömii is surrounded by rules and regulations.

Learning and performance. Emic theories stress that the training period for the performance of xöömii should be lengthy, preferably beginning in childhood (Tserendavaa INb, Sengedorj IN). Childhood should be a period of “learning”, with “performance” reserved for one’s maturity. For instance, Tserendavaa began learning at age nine but did not “perform” until age 25. Traditionally, learning was by example and imitation. Tserendavaa recalled his first, childhood experience of xöömii, which was to have an enduring effect. The arrival of the xöömiich at his home had left a strong impression in his mind. One evening a “white‑haired, bearded old man rode up on a greyish horse which shone like silver (buural), looking for two lost horses.” The man, later discovered to be the xöömiich Chulutun, spent three nights in the family ger. During that time Tserendavaa listened to his xöömii and learned from him to play the horse‑head fiddle bought for Tserendavaa by his father. Tserendavaa became a xöömiich to repay his debt to this man. Since 1981 Tserendavaa has taught xöömii to children in Chandman’ secondary school. His method is to define which type of xöömii the pupil is naturally attempting, then to give individual advice according to this chosen type and the stage the child has reached. His main teaching method is demonstration. Tserendavaa pointed out that the difficulty in working with children is that they drift between different types. He emphasized the need to learn the general rules of performance and then choose the specific kind. Aids are sometimes used to acquire a “good xöömii voice”. For instance, a cup is held to the mouth to provide an echo,  (ayagaar devex; lit. to fan by means of a cup), or a pupil is made to xöömiilox against the wind (salkiny ogsuur xöömiilox).Once a “good xöömii voice” is acquired, these devices are no longer necessary. Traditionally xöömii has been performed only by men, but Tserendavaa has begun to teach women. The few women in Mongolia who can xöömiilox have all been taught by him.

Physical problems: Can you wrestle? Chuluun stressed that xöömii is a difficult art demanding self control, endurance and great strength. As an illustration of the strength needed, Tserendavaa described how the legendary Bazarsad’s hair used to stand on end when he performed. He compared the strength needed with that required for wrestling, pointing out that both Bazarsad and Sundui, the two most renowned xöömiich, were also famous wrestlers.The ideal age for wrestling is 25‑ the peak of male human strength. Unless the performer has this strength and the other qualities outlined by Chuluun, xöömii; performance is believed to be harmful for the body. Tserendavaa stressed that physical problems associated with xöömii performance needs to be the object of intense scientific research. His own experiences illustrate some of the problems which may occur. As a child, he injured his larynx (tovonx batsrax) while learning and couldn’t swallow for some time. He has also often broken blood vessels. He advised eating a good meal before performance. In 1982 Tserendavaa took part in a concert in Ulaaribaatar for the Twelfth Trade Union Congress and had not eaten. He felt hungry during the concert and, when he was producing high overtones, he lost consciousness. He needed an operation for broken blood vessels near his eyes and was advised to give up xöömii‑but he says that he is unable to do so. He is now 35 and has been “performing” for ten years. Over the last two years he has been performing more often and has begun to have more problems. Because of the strength and power demanded by its performance. xöömii becomes more difficult with age. After age 40, the technique may survive, but there is a loss of the necessary power. Tserendavaa stresses that achieving a “true xöömiii voice” requires overcoming many bad physical effects. His advice is that men should not perform it in advanced years.

Davaajav, a tseejiin xondiin/chest cavity xöömiich, noted that, although xöömii performers are generally also good singers, it becomes increasingly difficult to sing well because of physical changes which occur in the throat. From his own experience, he supports the view that the performance of xöömii affects the body, and he agrees that a person cannot perform xöömii over in extended period of years. Amateur xöömii performers are, he said, able to perform for longer because of the infrequency of performance.

Women. The performance of xöömii by women is a recent phenomenon. Those who do perform are young and are pupils of Tserendavaa.. Xöömii is considered particularly bad for women’s health, so there are strict rules associated with its performance (Badraa IN, Tserendavaa INc). Women should not begin to learn before the age of 17 or 18 and should only be active Xöömiich between the ages of 20 and 24. They may continue to perform until age 30 if they are not married. Once married, however, they should not continue, and after childbirth they are believed to be unable to perform well.

4 Mongolian classification of  xöömii

A. Uyangiin xöömii/melodic or lyrical xöömii

Overtone singing styles vary in Mongolia according to historical period, ethnicity and the ability of the individual performer. For example, XaIxa xöömii styles differ from Kazak and Tuvan styles. Different yastan have their own ways of describing the same types of xöömii. For instance, the xelnii ug style referred to by the Bayad xöömiich Mangiljav as being the most popular in Tes sum when he was a child in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s is performed with the xöömii situated at the back of the tongue or in the throat (IN) and is called by the XaIxa bagalzuuryn xooloin xöömii / throat xöömii. Some yastan, however, have types of Xöömii peculiaronly to their group. Tseveen, a 40‑yearold Dörvöd from Olgii sum, demonstrated two such styles: the Urianxai style of xöömii known as xargia (Note31) in which he cupped his hand to his mouth, and shudniii xöömii/tooth xöömiii as performed by the Kazaks. Purev, a 34‑year‑old Tuvan from Bayan Olgii airnag, used the term xöömii to refer to the very low pitched biphonic sound which he produced, but when using melodic overtones deriving from a drone pitched in a higher register denied that it was xöömii. When demonstrating the sounds produced in “the old tme”, Purev growled impressively from deep in the chest, using the very low fundamental AA,(note32) and referred to it as xargaraa.(Note33)

The attempt by the Mongols to classify styles is fairly recent and has been completed most effectively in relation to the Xalxa of west Mongolia. The XaIxa  xöömiich Tserendavaa pointed out that until the folk music specialist Badraa came to Chandman’ sum in 1982 to produce a film called “Mongolian Xöömii”, he had realised that he used different positions of the tongue, lips and so on but had not conceptualised the differences. He subsequently held many discussions about xöömii classification with Badraa, and the conclusions they reached were incorporated into the film, which won a prize in the International Telefilm Festival. During a tour of England (note34) in 1988, Tserendavaa identified and demonstrated the different categories of Mongolian xöömii as follows.

A. uyangiin xöömii /melodic or lyrical xöömii:

1. uruulyn / labial xöömii

2. tagnain /palatal xöömii

3. xamryn/  nasal xöömii

4. bagaIzuuryn, xooloin / glottal, throat xöömii

5. tseejiin xondiin, xeviiin / chest cavity, stomach xöömii

6. türlegt or xosmoljin xöömii / xöömii combined with long song (Note35)

The sixth type is a combination of speaking (xelex), singing (duulax), humming (ayalax), long song (urtyn duu) melodies and all five melodic types of xöömii. Tserendavaa developed this style, having heard that the legendary xöömiich Bazarsad could perform this combination, and calls it türlegt xöömii (note36). Researchers in Ulaaribaatar have named it xosmoljin xöömii. Tserendavaa, demonstrated the style by performing “Widespread Happiness” or Jargaltai Delger, (note37) using the more restricted range of the west XaIxa variant of the melody rather than that used by the central XaIxa.

Tserendavaa noted that the most difficult types of xöömii to perform are nasal xöömii and türlegt xöömii. Both of these are characterised by much -chinex ‑blood rushing to the face. Nasal xöömii is difficult, he said, because it is necessary to create a powerful flow of air by forcing it through a small channel. Since türlegt xöömii includes elements from all other kinds, it is also very difficult. He needed ten years to master türlegt xöömii, which he first demonstrated in the United States in 1987. In 1988 he won a gold medal at the National Folk Art Competition in Ulaaribaatar performing türlegt xöömii accompanying himself on the morin xuur (horse‑head fiddle).

B. xarxiraa

Tserendavaa also identified a style of xöömii known as xarxiraa, which he compared to the sound of a “rippling waterfall” (note38) He was however unable to Demonstrate it, since it requires a deep, powerful voice.(note39) The  relationship between uyangiin (melodic) xöömii and xarxiraa has been the source of some dispute among Mongol performers and academics. Traditional music researcher Badraa and the xöömiich Tserendavaa classify them separately, a division which is maintained in categories of performance at folk art festivals (Bawden 1991 OS). Badraa (IN) suggested that xarxiraa lacks the overtone melody (uyangiin isgeree; lit. melodic whistle). Others, however, such as Sengedorj and Margad, both from Chandman’ sum, think that xarxiraa is the source of xöömii and that xöömii is founded on it. Margad sees xarxiraa not as a separate style but as the oldest form of xöömii and the background colour or tone (devsger ongo) out of which others developed. In his own performance of xarxiraa, Margad produces an overtone melody. Sengedorj’s argument was that since there is only one flow of air through the vocal tract, there can only be one type of xöömii.  He acknowledged a different technique for xarxiraa and xöömii, however, saying that if the throat is open (zadgai xooloi) the sound produced is called xarxiraa, whereas if it is “closed tightly” (xumix xooloi) then the sound is called xöömii. He also admitted that the stream of air goes through three places‑the nose, lips and throat‑and stated that this is how the terms xamryn (of the nose), amny xendii (of the mouth cavity) and xooloin xöömii (of the throat) have arisen. And he recognised that some people can only produce one type. Davaajav, who performs tseejiin xondiin xöömii and sometimes bagalzuuryn xöömii, agreed with the concept of different types of xöömii. As a xoomich he felt a difference between them but did not know how to explain. He opined that it is not possible for one person to perform all types.

5 The Four Siblings (ax duu): overtone singing, epics, long song and horse‑head fiddle

Tserendavaa likened the relationship of the four main types of traditional “art”‑xöömii/overtone singing, Tuul/’epics,  urtyn duu/long song and morin xuur/horse‑head fiddle‑to that of four ‑siblings‑ or “brothers and sisters”. A further instrument should be added to the above list which, possiibly because it is not XaIxa, was omitted by Tserendavaa. The tsuur, played by the Urianxai, Kazak and Tuvans in Bayan Olgii aimag, is a three_holed vertical flute through which the performer plays a melody whilst simultaneously producing  a low‑pitched vocal drone.

This ax duu relationship is significant partly in terms of the sounds produced, for the above traditional musical forms all comply with the Mongolian conceptualisation of traditional music, which involves the division of sound into a low drone above which is laid a high melody line. This division of sound has been discussed above in relation to xöömii. The sounds produced during xöömii are often related to those produced in xailax, the deep, declamatory, non melodic technique used for the performance of epics. Sengedorj, xöömiich and tsuur player with the Xovd theatre, proposed that xailax and xöömii originated from the same source but developed differently within the context of different yastan. Similarly, Byambadorj, assuming a relationship between epic and xöömii vocal techniques, used the presence of a strong epic tradition among the Bayad to validate his argument for the indigenous nature of Bayad xöömii. In neighbouring areas, epics and xöömii performance are more obviously related. For example, xai throat singing amongst the Khakassians usually accompanies epic recitation (Maslov and Chernov 1979‑80:86).(note40) Long songs consist of a highly ornamented, long drawn‑out single melody line but are usually accompanied by the horse‑head fiddle which echoes the vocal melodic line whilst simultaneously supplying the underlying drones. As noted above, turlegt xöömiii also combines long song with xöömii. Regarding the tsuur, the programme notes for xioomii performances at a folk art festival (Bawden 1991 OS) gave one category as “xarxiraa xöömii (aman tsuur)”, i.e., (mouth tsuur), thus making the connection between the sounds of one kind of xöömii and the tsuur.

In addition to the similarity in the sounds produced, Tserendavaa pointed out that these traditional musical forms relate as “brothers and sisters” in that their origins connect and harmonise with nature (baigal’) and the environment (orchin axui). He particularly stressed the relationship of the traditional musical forms to baigal’, noting that the performance of xöömii was not associated with culture (soyol) until the 1930s when Chuluun demonstrated it as a “folk art” (see above).


1 The magical sounds of overtone singing

The experimental composer Karlheinz Stockhausen tells how he was inspired in his vocal work “Stimmung'” ‑ the first major Western composition to be based entirely on the production of vocal harmonics‑by a range of Mexican gods and magical forces (D). Similarly, David Hykes relates the overtone sounds of his New York‑based “Harmonic Choir” to “solar winds”, “gravity waves”, “the flight of the sun” and so on (D). In England and America, the “caring 1990s” is said to be replacing the “Thatcherite materialistic 1980s”. The New Age movement, which embraces the beliefs of esoteric religions and a wide range of alternative healing techniques, is becoming increasingly popular as people seek to reinject a spiritual aspect into their lives. Perhaps because it is an exotic and strange sound, Mongolian overtone singing is being assimilated into this movement and is increasingly being promoted as a means of meditation and of alternative or magical healing. It is being linked with Tibetan overtone chanting and advertised as a means of spiritual and physical healing. Proliferating New Age gurus link overtone singing with both Buddhism and shamanism, assuming that its performance has beneficial effects on the body. For instance, “overtone chanting” influenced by “Mongolian and Tibetan shamanic techniques” has been advertised as a means of “sonic meditation”, as “chanting for psycho‑physical transformation” and as a “magical voice technique” (Purce 1991). In alternative healing it is claimed to be able to “reharmonise the patient’s energy field” (Cocker 1990 OS) and to cause “miraculous healings” (McGregor 1991 OS).

Little work has been done in the West on the potentially harmful physical effects of xöömii. The Vietnamese musicologist Tran Quang Hai does warn that it may be dangerous and suggests that practice should be limited to ten or fifteen minutes a day. As a performer himself, Tran also underwent a clinical examination which showed slight inflammation of the vocal chords and some wearing away of the lining of the nasal passages (Sauvage 1989:6). But he also shows a desire to popularise it, having elaborated a series of physical instructions to enable the production of a form of overtone singing to be accessible to all (1978:163‑4; 1989:15‑16) and collaborated on Zemp’s film which, as a cinematic technique, treats those watching the film as workshop members, encouraging them to try it for themselves (Zemp and TrAn 1989 F).

2 Acoustical and physiological analysis of sound

Spectral analysis and the sonogram have been used to analyse the sounds produced in xöömii in order to understand both the sounds themselves and the physiological processes which produce them. Spectral analysis was used initially to identify the range of partials from which the melody tones are selected, namely the 6th to 13th partials but excluding the 11 th (Walcott 1974:55‑9). My own experiments with Tserendavaa confirmed this. His use of the 7th and 11th partials as auxiliary rather than structural notes support the suggestion that tones were selected in accordance with the anhemitonic pentatonic scale typical of Mongolian traditional music (Huglies n.d.; Cross 1990 OS).

Physiological aspects of xooiii production have been investigated with the aid of X‑ray films. In the early 1970s X‑ray films were made in  Paris (note41) of  Tran Quang in Leningrad (note 42) of Tuvan throat singers and later, in 19?? , in Khahassia of  Khakassian throat singers (Maslov and Chernov 1979‑80).  More recently Tran Quang Hai underwent video examinations of his larynx and buccal cavities in Limoges (paller 1989: 11‑15) and had an X‑ray film recording made of his nose and throat whilst performing overtone  singing with sinlge and double buccal cavities as part of Zemp’s film, Le chant des harnoniques (Zemp and Tran 1989 F). This film also shows multi‑coloured sound spectra of  several types of Mongolian overtone singing  (as well as examples from Tuva, Africa and India) reproduced in synchronic sound and in real time using advanced technology of the DSP sona‑Graph Model 5500 which had been acquired by the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musee de,l’homme.

The fascinating and informative sonograms used in the film have been impressively augmented by Zemp and Tran’s 1991 paper “Recherches experimentales sur le chant diphonique”, in which the physiological characteristics the recorded styles from Tuva, Tibet, Mongolia, Altai, Rajasthan and South Africa are compared with the aid of illustrative sonograms. The strength, range, and contours of bourdons and partials are clearly shown and, by using Tran Quang Hai’s imitative skill in reproducing the same contours, physiological data is provided on the use of different resonating cavities, muscular contractions and ornamentation techniques.

Following Stumpf’s work on the analysis of sung vowel sounds (1918), recent work has also been done on the association of vowel sounds and pitch. Tran Quang Hai (1980:163) elaborated on the way in which the pronunciation vowels produces a series of partials the range of which depends on the tone quality of the singer’s voice and windpipe, and David Hughes (1989) discusses, the use of vowel‑pitch solfege systems in different societies.

As a result of the above acoustical and physiological research, it is possible to give a broad outline of the factors which influence the range, selection and production of partials and which consequently determine the tonal colour xöömii. These include the following five, which overlap to some extent:

  1. the size of the buccal cavity, which may be separated from the pharyngeal cavity by the back of the tongue or divided into a front and rear cavity by raising the tip of the tongue to the palate (Zemp and Tran 1991:31; Tran and Guillou 1980:171);
  2. the contraction of muscles in the stomach, neck, pharynx, the nasal passages and in the soft inner walls of the other cavities of the vocal tract ( (Winckel1960; Gunji 1978:136; Zemp and TrAn 1991:39‑46);

 c)  the production of different vowel sounds (Stumpf 1918; Guriji 1978,Tran 1989; Hughes 1989); the pitch of the fundamental, which in part determinesthe frequency range within which partials are available for selection (Walcott 1974; Cross 1990  OS; Zemp and Tran 1991).

  • manipulation of the muscles of the vocal tract as under point (b), in order to select as primary resonator either the buccal or the pharyngeal cavity, thus 

      emphasising respectively the second or first formant, the latter resulting in the Tuvan kargyraa (Hughes 1989).

Since it is not possible to illustrate adequately in the space available the depth of acoustical and physiological research that has been accomplished, and since the main thrust of this paper is to present the Mongolian viewpoint, it is hoped that the reader will examine the rich data now available through the sources cited.

3 Conceptualisalion of sound

only etic observers compare the sounds produced in overtone singing with those of the jew’s harp (aman xuur, that is, mouth harp). Since the French scientist Manuel Garcia pointed to a similarity between the Bashkirs’ uzIiau overtone singing and the sound produced by a “jew’s harp” in 1840, others have followed suit. For instance, Vargyas (1968:71) made the same comparison in relation to the Tuvans, and this has been echoed by others in relation to the Mongols (Hamayon 1973, Heiffer 1973,Guriji 1978:135). The techniques do have some similarities. In both cases the mouth is used as a resonator and the articulation of silent vowels produces harmonic overtones above a fundamental drone. In the case of the jew’s harp, however, the fundamental is generated by an extrasomatic source‑the tongue of the jew’s harp whilst in overtone singing it is generated by the vibrating vocal chords. Mongolian xöömii is also more diversified and expressive than the sounds produced by a “jew’s harp”, and the techniques used are far more complex. As shown above, the production of each type involves the use of different breathing techniques and changes in tension in the vocal cords, the pharynx, the nasal passages, the windpipe and so on. When Sundui was asked, during a seminar session in Japan, about the validity of the comparison between xöömii and the jew’s harp, he pointed out that whilst the control of the mouth cavity is quite similar, the control of the breath is quite different (Emmert and Minegishi 1980:48). During my fieldwork in Mongolia, xöömii performers in Chandman’ consistently denied any connection between overtone singing and the jew’s harp, insisting, as outlined above, on the interrelation ship of the sounds produced in xöömii with those of the other traditional musical forms and the connection which all of them have with nature.

V Conclusion

Although there is evidence that xöömii was used in secular contexts in Mongolia, there are also indications that it had religious or magical connotations. For instance, the legends of origin of xöömii outlined above link the sounds which inspired xöömii with beneficial effects on living creatures: the horses and cattle in Chandman’ sum are extra fine because they exist beneath the “musical communication” set up between mountain and lake, the people living by the River Eev are fine singers and also beautiful, the call of the crane is a portent of long life and so on. These sounds are both natural‑in that they emanate from natural phenomena such as mountains, lakes, rivers and birds‑and supernatural in the effects which they have. Although there is no firm evidence of a link with shamanism, pause for thought is given by the stress laid upon “nature” as the origin of xöömii in a people whose folk religion was based on communication with spirits located in natural phenomena. Clearly if the combination of mountains and lakes was the only necessary inspiration, overtone singing would be more geographically widespread. My experiences in western Mongolia showed that the belief in spirits of the mountains did not die during the years of Communist rule. Hunters who five on Mount  Jargalant continue to make libations of fermented mare’s milk (airag) and to burn juniper leaves (arts) and incense (xuj) before setting out on a hunting trip, requesting that the mountain should bestow game upon them that day. And when a tyre burst on my jeep, the former lama who accompanied me knelt in the direction of the mountain and prayed. It would be surprising, therefore, if strange sounds which had the dual function of warning of impending danger and enabling everything beneath it to flourish and which emanated from within the mountain where a spirit was thought to dwell had not, in former days, been interpreted as communication from that spirit. Mongolian traditional music researcher Badraa (IN) also links xöömii with religious belief when he categorises it as a form of whistling, which he believes is one of the earliest noises made by man in imitation of nature; until recently whistling was used to call up the god of the wind.(note43) Similarly, the legendary xöömiich Bazarsad’s performance of tiirlegt xöömii was said to attract the earth and water spirits. Such references to spirits and gods are not insignificant given that at the time of my field trips the Mongols had not reached the degree of openness and freedom of speech and belief which they are now able to enjoy.

There is, then, some basis from the evidence within Mongolia for the belief that these sounds are related to religious belief and particularly to natural phenomena. It is perhaps partly because of a former religious association that the Mongols surround xöömii performance with rules and regulations. But it is also related to the fact that performance of the more difficult types of xöömii may cause physical damage while sustained performance of less difficult types cause physical changes which may also have adverse effects. Whilst an argument could be made that those listening to overtone singing may be effected beneficially (as those hearing the xöömii‑type sounds of mountain, water and birds in Mongolia), the evidence from Mongolia contradicts the idea that those producingxöömii  sounds will also automatically benefit‑suggesting, in fact, that xöömii performance may cause considerable physical problems. At a minimum, those people who are teaching the production of those sounds should be aware of this and also aware, as Tserendavaa pointed out, that beginners may “drift between types”, thereby doing themselves unwitting harm.

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Nestor Kornblum : biography, SPAIN

Nestor Kornblum

Since 1995, Nestor has explored and practised the ancient art of overtone singing, also referred to as vocal harmonics, with particular attention to its therapeutic and meditational uses.

An experienced teacher, he has now taught thousands of people the techniques of overtone singing and Sound Healing in Spain ,UK , Sweden ,Finland ,Italy ,South Africa , Belgium, Holland ,Norway ,Canada and France.

He is one of a handful of Westerners to master the “Deep Voice” overtone chanting employed by Tibetan monks and Tuvan (Mongolian) singers, which enables him to sing up to four simultaneous notes , with a range of 5 octaves.

In addition to his own intensive research into all areas of sound as a healing modality, Nestor has studied Jonathan Goldman’s work on raising personal and planetary frequencies and vibrational repatterning in Boulder , Colorado.

Nestor has also completed Fabien Maman’s course “The Body as a Harp” which teaches the use of tuning fork acupuncture on the master points of the body and spine, specific frequencies for balancing aura and chakras and a number of extremely well researched techniques using sound, colour (light) and movement for healing. He has assisted Fabien by teaching overtone singing on this course.

From 1996—1999 Nestor studied energy work with Dutch clairvoyant/scientist/lecturer Reina Arendson, including balancing chakras and auras, healing and distance healing, and energy reading.

Nestor conducts regular courses (in English and Spanish) on sound healing, overtone singing and sound as a tool for personal and planetary transformation. Many of his courses are held in “The Dome” at his home in Spain , a large structure especially designed for its spectacular acoustics which amplify the subtle tones of the voice and acoustic instruments.

He has been interviewed many times on television, radio and in the press in the 20 countries where he presently works, as an expert on Sound Therapy and was invited by the Music Therapy Department of the National University for Distance Education in Madrid to do a programme on overtone singing which has been shown on national television in Spain.

He has also written articles in English and Spanish on Sound Therapy that have been published in S. Africa, Sweden , U.K. Belgium and Spain.

Due to his knowledge and ability to sing audibly the Overtone Series (Harmonic Scale), he has lectured and given Masterclasses in Universities and Music Schools.

Together with his wife Michêle Averard he has produced 10 CDs of healing/meditational music, which have sold thousands of copies in the countries where their courses are held. The CDs have received acclaim from therapists in all areas of healing and transformation for their ability to provoke transformation, relaxation, stress release and healing.

Nestor, in addition to his mastery of Vocal Harmonics (Overtone Singing) plays a variety of instruments including didgeridoo, monochord, tampura, jew’s harp, overtone flute, mouth bow and assorted percussion.

Nestor is an eloquent and charismatic speaker, and is no stranger to large audiences. He is thoroughly versed in the science and practice of Sound as a healing modality.

Perhaps the most remarkable of his achievements is that he neither sang nor played a musical instrument until the age of 30.

CONTACT:  +34 686 942 033


Nikolay Oorzhak, le Chamane des Cieux Noirs – Tracks ARTE

Nikolay Oorzhak, le Chamane des Cieux Noirs – Tracks ARTE

4 043 vues•5 juil. 2018 58 1 Partager EnregistrerTRACKS – ARTE 109 k abonnés Né dans une tribu nomade de Sibérie, le chamane Nikolay Oorzhak est l’un des maîtres du chant diphonique. Réprimée en URSS, cette technique vocale qui permet de dédoubler sa voix inspire aujourd’hui les groupes de rock locaux. Journaliste : Anne-Laure Lemancel Image : Marjory Dejardin Son : Nicolas Klein Montage : Mildred Varin Rédaction en chef et réalisation : David Combe, Jean-Marc Barbieux Production : Elisabeth Rivière, Guillaume Coudène. Rédaction TV : Justine Kennedy-Gourrichon, Anaïs Dussart, Léa da Cazo Rédaction Web : France Swimberge, Vy Doan, Pierre-Sofiane Kadri, Hermann Michel. SITE WEB :


Overtone singing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to searchFile:Pachelbel's Canon - Overtone Singing.webmPlay media Polyphonic Overtone Singing “Pachelbel’s canon” – Performed by Wolfgang Saus

[2] Chirgilchin performing various styles of Tuvan Throat Singing.

Overtone singing – also known as overtone chanting, harmonic singing, or throat singing – is a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances created in the vocal tract, in order to produce a melody.

From a fundamental pitch, made by the human voice, the belonging harmonic overtones can be selectively amplified by changing the shape of the resonant cavities of the mouth, larynx, and pharynx.[1] This resonant tuning allows singers to create more than one pitch at the same time (the fundamental and one or more selected overtones), while actually generating only a single fundamental frequency with their vocal folds.

Each note is like a rainbow of sound. When you shoot a light beam through a prism, you get a rainbow. You think of a rainbow of sounds when you sing one note. If you can use your throat as a prism, you can expose the rainbow – through positioning the throat in a certain physical way, which will reveal the harmonic series note by note.[2]



Mongolia and Buryatia

Main article: Music of Mongolia § Throat singing

It is thought that the art of overtone singing originated in southwestern Mongolia in today’s Khovd Province and Govi Altai region. Nowadays, overtone singing is found throughout the country and Mongolia is often considered the most active center of overtone singing in the world.[3] The most commonly practiced style, Khöömii (written in Cyrillic as Хөөмий), can be divided up into the following categories:

  • uruulyn / labial khöömii
  • tagnain / palatal khöömii
  • khamryn / nasal khöömii
  • bagalzuuryn, khooloin / glottal, throat khöömii
  • tseejiin khondiin, khevliin / chest cavity, stomach khöömii
  • turlegt or khosmoljin khöömii / khöömii combined with long song

Mongolians also use many other singing styles such as “karkhiraa” (literally “growling”) and “isgeree”.


Main article: Tuvan throat singing

Tuvan overtone singing is practiced in the Republic of Tuva (southern Siberia, Russia) and it’s called Khöömei.

The Tuvan way of singing overtones is based on appreciation of complex sounds with multiple layers or textures, which is how the Tuvans developed a wide range of rhythmic and melodic styles during the centuries.

Most of the styles are sung with “korekteer” (korek = chest, teer = to sing. Literally “to sing with chest voice”), and the main ones are:

  • Khöömei
  • Sygyt
  • Kargyraa (which also uses a second sound source made by false vocal folds. This technique is called “false-folds-diplophony”)

And other special sub-styles like:

  • Borbangnadyr,
  • Chylandyk,
  • Dumchuktaar,
  • Ezengileer.
  • Byrlang (a unique type of vibrato, mainly applied to khöömei and kargyraa styles)

The melodies are traditionally created by using the 6th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 13th and sometimes the 16th harmonics, which form the major pentatonic scale, so the 7th and 11th harmonics are carefully skipped.

The most peculiar melody, from Tuvan tradition, is “Artii Sayir”, mostly performed in kargyraa style.

Altai and Khakassia

Tuva’s neighbouring Russian regions, the Altai Republic to the west and Khakassia to the northwest, have developed forms of throat singing called “kai”, or “khai”. In Altai, this is used mostly for epic poetry performance, to the accompaniment of a topshur. Altai narrators (“kai-chi“) perform in kargyraa, khöömei, and sygyt styles, which are similar to Tuvan. They also have their own style, a very high harmonics, emerging from kargyraa. Variations of kai are called karkyra, sybysky, homei, and sygyt. The first well-known kai-chi was Kalkin.

Chukchi Peninsula

The Chukchi people of the Chukchi Peninsula in the extreme northeast of Russia also practice a form of throat singing.[4]


Tibetan Buddhist chanting is a subgenre of throat singing, mainly practiced by monks of Tibet, including Qinghai (Khokhonor) province in the Tibetan plateau area, Tibetan monks of Nepal, Bhutan, India, and various locations in the Himalayan region. Most often the chants hold to the lower pitches possible in throat singing. Various ceremonies and prayers call for throat singing in Tibetan Buddhism, often with more than one monk chanting at a time. There are different Tibetan throat singing styles, such as Gyuke (Tibetan: རྒྱུད་སྐད་, Wylie: rgyud skad) – this style uses the lowest pitch of voice; Dzoke (Tibetan: མཛོ་སྐད་, Wylie: mdzo skad), and Gyer (Tibetan: གྱེར་, Wylie: gyer).

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan

The oral poetry of Kazakhstan and the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan sometimes enters the realm of throat singing.[citation needed]

Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan

Balochi Nur Sur is one of the ancient forms of overtone singing and is still popular in parts of Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan – especially in the Sulaiman Mountains.[citation needed]


The Ainu of Hokkaidō, Japan once practiced a type of throat singing called rekuhkara, which is now extinct. The last singer of rekuhkara died in 1976, but there are some recordings left.[4][5]

At sumo tournaments, the announcer, called Yobidashi, announces each wrestler’s name using overtone throat singing.[citation needed]



Main article: Cantu a tenore

On the island of Sardinia (Italy), especially in the subregion of Barbagia, one of the two different styles of polyphonic singing is marked by the use of throat singing. This kind of choir is called “singing a tenore“. The other style, known as cuncordu, does not use throat singing. Cantu a Tenore is practiced by groups of four male singers, each of whom has a distinct role; the ‘oche or boche (pronounced /oke/ or /boke/, “voice”) is the solo voice, while the mesu ‘oche or mesu boche (“half voice”), contra (“against”), and bassu (“bass”) – listed in descending pitch order – form a chorus (another meaning of tenore). Boche and mesu boche sing in a regular voice, whereas contra and bassu sings with the use of the false vocal folds, just like the Tuvan Khoomei and Kargyraa techniques. In 2005, Unesco classed the cantu a tenore as an intangible world heritage.[6] The most well known groups who perform the singing a Tenore are from Bitti, Orosei, Oniferi, and Neoneli. Each town has usually more than one group, and their name is based on a specific place, or monument, and then their hometown: for example: Tenore Su Remediu(place) de Orosei(Town).

Northern Europe

The Sami people of the northern parts of Sweden, Norway, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula in Russia have a singing genre called yoik. While overtone techniques are not a defining feature of yoik, individuals sometimes utilize overtones in the production of yoik.


The Bashkirs of Bashkortostan, Russia have a style of overtone singing called özläü (sometimes spelled uzlyau; Bashkort Өзләү), which has nearly died out. In addition, Bashkorts also sing uzlyau while playing the kurai, a national instrument. This technique of vocalizing into a flute can also be found in folk music as far west as the Balkans and Hungary.

North America


The resurgence of a once-dying Inuit tradition called katajjaq is currently under way in Canada. Inuit throat singing was a form of entertainment among Inuit women while the men were away on hunting trips. It was an activity that was primarily done by Inuit women, though men also did it. In the Inuit language Inuktitut, throat singing is called katajjaq, pirkusirtuk, or nipaquhiit, depending on the Canadian Arctic region. It was regarded more as a type of vocal or breathing game in the Inuit culture rather than a form of music. Inuit throat singing is generally done by two individuals but can involve four or more people together as well. In Inuit throat singing, two women would face each other either standing or crouching down while holding each other’s arms. One would lead with short deep rhythmic sounds while the other would respond. The leader would repeat sounds with short gaps in between. The follower would fill in these gaps with her own rhythmic sounds. Sometimes both women would be doing a dance-like movement such as rocking from left to right while throat singing. The practice is compared more to a game or competition than to a musical style. In the game, Inuit women sit or stand face-to-face and create rhythmic patterns.[7]


South Africa

Some Thembu Xhosa women of South Africa have a low, rhythmic style of throat-singing, similar to the Tuvan Kargyraa style, that is called umngqokolo. It is often accompanied by call-and-response vocals and complicated poly-rhythms.[8][9][10]

Non-traditional styles

Canada, United States, and Europe

The 1920s Texan singer of cowboy songs, Arthur Miles, independently created a style of overtone singing, similar to sygyt, as a supplement to the normal yodelling of country western music. Blind Willie Johnson, also of Texas, is not a true overtone singer according to National Geographic, but his ability to shift from guttural grunting noises to a soft lullaby is suggestive of the tonal timbres of overtone singing.[11]

Starting in the 1960s, some musicians in the West either have collaborated with traditional throat singers or ventured into the realm of throat singing and overtone singing, or both. Some made original musical contributions and helped this art rediscover its transcultural universality. As harmonics are universal to all physical sounds, the notion of authenticity is best understood in terms of musical quality. Musicians of note in this genre include Collegium Vocale Köln (who first began using this technique in 1968), Michael Vetter, David Hykes,[12] Jill Purce, Jim Cole, Ry Cooder, Paul Pena (mixing the traditional Tuvan style with that of American Blues), Steve Sklar, and Kiva (specializing in jazz/ world beat genres and composing for overtone choirs). Others include composer Baird Hersey and his group Prana with Krishna Das (overtone singing and Hindu mantra), as well as Canadian songwriter Nathan Rogers, who has become an adept throat singer and teaches Tuvan throat singing in Winnipeg, Manitoba.[citation needed]

Paul Pena was featured in the documentary Genghis Blues, which tells the story of his pilgrimage to Tuva to compete in their annual throat singing competition. The film won the documentary award at the 1999 Sundance Film Festival, and was nominated for an Oscar in 2000.

Tuvan singer Sainkho Namtchylak has collaborated with free jazz musicians such as Evan Parker and Ned Rothenberg. Lester Bowie and Ornette Coleman have worked with the Tenores di Bitti, and Eleanor Hovda has written a piece using the Xhosa style of singing. DJs and performers of electronic music like The KLF have also merged their music with throat singing, overtone singing, or with the theory of harmonics behind it.

David Hykes, a pioneer in new music, contemplative chant and healing sounds, founded Harmonic Chant in New York in 1975, the year he also founded his legendary group, The Harmonic Choir, considered to be one of the world’s pre-eminent overtone ensembles.

Wolfgang Saus, from Germany, is considered one of the major teachers/performers of “polyphonic overtone singing” in Europe. Formerly trained as a classical baritone, his unique skills makes him instantly recognizable. He’s also a renowned composer and arranger of polyphonic overtone singing music for solo voice and choirs.

A cappella singer Avi Kaplan also exhibited overtone singing during his group’s (Pentatonix) performances. He merged throat singing together with a cappella dubstep.

The Overtone Choir Spektrum from Prague, Czech Republic, is unique among overtone choirs, particularly because it connects traditional choir singing with overtone techniques. It is the only one of its kind in the Czech Republic, and one of only a few in the world.[3] [4]

Sherden Overtone Choir was founded in 2016 in Sardinia by Ilaria Orefice and Giovanni Bortoluzzi. The choir combines Tuvan Throat Singing Styles with Sardinian Throat singing.

Contemporary multi-instrumentalist performer The Suitcase Junket employs a self-taught overtone singing, or throat singing technique in his live and recorded performances.

Several contemporary classical composers have incorporated overtone singing into their works. Karlheinz Stockhausen was one of the first, with Stimmung in 1968. Tran Quang Hai (b.1944), a French national of Vietnamese origin, created the composition “Ve Nguon” with the collaboration of Vietnamese composer Nguyen Van Tuong in 1975, in Paris.[citation needed] “Past Life Melodies” for SATB chorus by Australian composer Sarah Hopkins (b. 1958) also calls for this technique. In Water Passion after St. Matthew by Tan Dun, the soprano and bass soloists sing in a variety of techniques including overtone singing of the Mongolian style.

In 2014 German singer Anna-Maria Hefele went viral on YouTube with her “polyphonic overtone” singing. The Huffington Post has commented on her “amazing ability” and her singing being “utterly bizarre”.[13] On 10 October 2014, she was number two on The Guardian’s Viral Video Chart,[14] with one online video titled Polyphonic Overtone Singing, which features Hefele as she demonstrates and explains overtones. As of March 2018, this video has received more than 11 million hits.

See also


Titze 2008; Titze 1994; Pariser & Zimmerman 2004 Corzine, Amy (2012). The Secret Life of the Universe: The Quest for the Soul of Science, unpaginated. She is quoting a musician. Watkins Media. ISBN9781780282213. Sklar, 2005 4.3.02. “Inuit Throat-Singing”. Retrieved 2008-11-27. Shimomura Isao (下村五三夫), Itō Daisuke (伊藤大介) 樺太アイヌの喉交換遊びレクッカラについてKitami Institute of Technology, 2008 Bandinu 2006. “Inuit Throat Singing”. Dr. Dave Dargie “Some recent developments in Xhosa music : activities of the Ngqoko Traditional Xhoa Music Ensemble, and at the University of Fort Hare”. Retrieved on 2014-04-23. Dr. Dave Dargie “UMNGQOKOLO – Thembu Xhosa – OVERTONE SINGING filmed 1985–1998 in South Africa”. Retrieved on 2014-04-23. Dargie, Dave. “Xhosa Overtone Singing” The world of South African music: A reader. Cambridge Scholars Press, 2005. 152–155 Google Books Web. 23 Apr. 2014. [1] Miller, Bruce. “Overtone Singing Music”. National Geographic. Retrieved February 20, 2012. Bellamy and MacLean 2005, 515. “German Musician Anna-Maria Hefele Demonstrates Polyphonic Overtone Singing, And It’s Amazing”. Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 October 2014.

  1. Perraudin, Frances (10 October 2014). “Viral Video Chart”. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2014.


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Dr. NGUYỄN VI SƠN’s appreciation, Houston, Texas, USA, 2018

Since 1966, Tran Quang Hai has given over 3,000 concerts in 70 countries, and has taken part in a hundred or so international traditional music festivals. He has taken part in radio and television broadcasts in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, and Australia.Professor Hai has perfected and made us understand more the Jew’s Harp, the Song of Harmonics, he is the greatest specialist in overtone singing.


Dr. Nguyen Vi Son

Former Assistant Professor at Texas Tech University

Former Assistant Professor at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Careers

Foreword in the book : Tran Quang Hai : 50 Years of Vietnamese Traditional Music and Overtone Singing, 2018, California, USA

Bloothooft, G., Bringmann, E., van Cappellen, M., van Luipen, J.M., and Thomassen, K.P. (1991). ‘A phonetic study of overtone singing’, Proc. XIIth Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Aix-en-Provence, V 14-17.

Bloothooft, G., Bringmann, E., van Cappellen, M., van Luipen, J.M., and Thomassen, K.P. (1991). ‘A phonetic study of overtone singing’, Proc. XIIth Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Aix-en-Provence, V 14-17.

A phonetic study of overtone singing

Gerrit Bloothooft, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Cappellen, Jolanda B. van Luipen, and Koen P. Thomassen

Research Institute for Language and Speech, University of Utrecht
Trans 10, 3512 JK Utrecht, The Netherlands



We describe the phenomenon of overtone singing in terms of the classical theory of speech production. The overtone sound stems from the second formant or a combination of both the second and third formants, as the result of careful, rounded articulation from //, via schwa // to /y/ and /i/. Strong nasalisation provides, at least for the lower overtones, an acoustic separation between the second and first formants, and can also reduce the amplitude of the first formant. The bandwidth of the overtone peak is remarkably small and suggests a firm and relatively long closure of the glottis during overtone phonation. Perception experiments showed that listeners categorize the overtone sounds differently from normally sung vowels.

1. Introduction

Overtone singing is a special type of voice production resulting in a very pronounced, high and separate tone which can be heard over a more or less constant base sound. The technique is rarely used in Western music but in Asia (especially Mongolia and Tibet) it is more common and overtone singing can be heard during secular and religious festivities. The high tone follows a characteristic musical scale [for instance, for pitch C3 (130.8 Hz) (- and + indicate a deviation from the exact tone): C3, C4, G4, C5, E5-, G5, A5+, C6, D6, E6-, F6+, G6, G#6+, A6+, B6-, C7,… ], from which it can be concluded that one really hears an overtone of the fundamental.

The literature contains only a few reports on overtone singing [1,5,7,8], which indicate both the importance of formants and register type. In this paper we present both an acoustic analysis of overtone singing and a study to evaluate the perception of the overtone sounds, in relation to normally sung vowels.

2. Material

We have recorded series of sung overtones from a singer with many years of experience in overtone singing, both as a performer and as a teacher. In this paper we describe the results for an Fo value of 138 Hz (C#3). In addition, 12 Dutch vowels /a/, /a/, //, /o/, /e/, //, //, /i/, /oe/, //, /u/, and /y/, sung in a normal way at the same Fo, were recorded.

3. Acoustic analysis

The recordings were digitized at a rate of 10 kHz and stored in a computer. From the middle, stable, part of each recording 300 ms was segmented. Average power spectra were obtained from FFT analyses (1024 points, shift 6.4 ms) over this segment. Formant frequencies were computed on the basis of appropriate LPC or ARMA analysis.

3.1. FFT-Spectra

Figure 1 shows the average FFT spectra of all overtone recordings. Despite the averaging procedure, the width of each individual harmonic is limited, indica-ting the stability of Fo over the interval (standard deviation of Fo was less than 0.1 semitone in all cases). It can be seen from the shifting peak in the spectra that overtone singing seems interpretable as a special use of a formant. Obviously, the singer tries to match a formant with the intended overtone frequency and succeeds very well. 

Frequency (kHz)

FIG. 1. Average FFT spectra for overtone sounds, sung at Fo = 138 Hz (C#3). The overtone sounds are numbered according to the main partial involved.

3.2. Formant frequency analysis

In Fig. 2 we present formant frequency results for both the overtone sounds and the sung vowels in the F1 – F2 plane. The figure shows two modes in the production: firstly, the overtone sounds 4-6 around /u/, and secondly, the track from // to /i/.

In the first mode, it can be seen from the FFT-spectra that there is energy absorbtion around 400 Hz, indicating a strong nasalisation. The characteristic overtone sound resides in the second formant, as others [1,8] had already suggested. The bandwidth of the second formant is very narrow and, especially for the lower overtones, seldom exceeds 40 Hz. This indicates little acoustic damping in production: firm glottal closure and small losses in the vocal tract. All these characteristics indicate a low, rounded, nasalised, back vowel /u/ or // (low F1 and F2, a nasal pole/zero pair, and suppressed F3 [3]).

The second mode in the production of an overtone sound, applies for overtone frequencies higher than 800 Hz. The main peak of the spectrum still rises in tune with the intended overtone frequency and is interpreted as a combination of F2 and F3. It may be of interest that the singer explains this series of overtones with the articulatory variation during the word ‘worry’. It is known, already from the Peterson and Barney data, that in a retroflex /r/ the F3 frequency can be remarkably low and can approach the F2 frequency. This has also been mentioned by Stevens (1989), especially in combination with liprounding, while Sundberg (1987) mentioned the effect as the acoustic result of a larger cavity directly behind the front teeth.

For the higher overtone sounds, the articulation comes near /y/ and /i/, where continued lip rounding makes it possible to bring F2 and F3 together [4], although for the highest overtones a subtle lip spread may be needed to reduce the front cavity to a minimum.

FIG. 2. F1 – F2 plane for stimuli sung at Fo = 138 Hz, with positions of the vowels (IPA symbols) and overtone sounds (represented by the number of the corresponding partial).

3.3. The glottal factor

The very narrow bandwidth of the “overtone formant” suggests a good and long glottal closure. We believe that the singer used modal register, with a relatively long glottal closure, originating from a firm glottal adduction. This hypothesis does not exclude that performers may use the vocal fry register as well [7]. In all cases, the long glottal closure requires a strong adduction of the vocal folds, which could easily result in general muscular hypertension in the pharyngeal region. This may relate to the prominent role of the buccal cavity, suggested by Hai (1991).

3.4. Intensity analysis

Up to an overtone frequency of 1.5 kHz, the overtone harmonic has a stable relative intensity of -10 dB relative to overall SPL, and dominates the spectrum. For higher frequencies, the relative level of the overtone harmonic sharply drops with a slope of about -18 dB/octave.

4. The perception of overtone singing

4.1. Material, listening experiment, and analysis

As stimuli we used the combined set of 14 overtone sounds and 12 Dutch vowels. From these stimuli we used the same segment (300 ms) as had been used for the acoustical analyses, but we shaped the first and final 25 ms sinusoidally to avoid the perception of clicks. In a computer-controlled experiment, these stimuli were judged by fifteen listeners on ten 7-point bipolar semantic scales. Further details of semantic scales will be presented in a forthcoming paper. The judgements were analyzed by means of multidimensional preference analysis MDPREF [2]. In the technique of MDPREF a stimulus space is constructed in which distance corresponds to perceptual (dis)similarity.

4.2. The perceptual stimulus space

The plane of the first two dimensions of the stimulus space is shown in Fig. 3. 41 % of the total variation in the judgements was explained in this plane, while higher dimensions each explained less than 6.3 %.

FIG. 3. The perceptual stimulus space. The overtone sounds are given by the number of their corresponding partial, the vowels by their IPA symbol.

The overtone sounds and normally sung vowels are perceptually separated clusters. The vowels are situated roughly in a triangle, with the cardinal vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ at the angles. The overtone sounds are roughly ordered according to their harmonic number, although the stimuli numbered from 4 to 10 can be described as a cluster. This probably relates to the constant relative energy of the overtone harmonic for this set. The direction of the overtone sounds is, from the lower to the higher numbers, about the same as from /u/ to /i/, as may be expected from the relation between harmonic numbers and F2 frequency values.

4.3. A physical description of the perceptual stimulus space

We attempted to match the perceptual stimulus space with multidimensional physical descriptions of the stimuli [formant frequency space (see Fig. 2), 1/3-octave bandfilter energy space both by means of the Plomp metric and the Klatt metric [2,6]]. These attempts were not successful (low correlations between coordinate values along dimensions) because of the division into two clusters of the stimulus space, for which these metrics do not present an explanation. Some additional perceptual sensitivity to the very small bandwidth of the “overtone formant”, which clearly physically separates overtone sounds and normally sung vowels, seems necessary to explain the results.


[1]Barnett, B.M. (1977), “Aspects of vocal multiphonics”, Interface 6, 117-149.
[2]Bloothooft, G. and Plomp, R. (1988), “The timbre of sung vowels”, JASA 84, 847-860.
[3]Fant, G. (1960), ” Acoustic theory of speech production” The Hague: Mouton.
[4]Fujimora, O., and Lindquist, J. (1970), “Sweep-tone measurements of vocal tract characteristics”, JASA 49, 541-558.
[5]Hai, T.Q. (1991), “New experiments about the Overtone Singing Style”, Proc. Conference ‘New ways of the voice’, Becançon, 61.
[6]Klatt, D.H. (1982), “Prediction of perceived phonetic distance from critical-band spectra: a first step”, Proc. ICASSP, Paris, 1278-1281.
[7]Large, J. and Murry, T. (1981), “Observations on the nature of Tibetan chant”, J. of Exp. Research in Singing 5, 22-28.
[8]Smith, H., Stevens, K.N., and Tomlinson, R.S. (1967), “On an unusual mode of chanting by certain tibetan lamas”, JASA 41, 1262-1264.
[9]Stevens, K.N. (1989), “On the quantal nature of speech”, J. of Phonetics 17, 3-45.
[10]Sundberg, J. (1987), “The science of the singing voice“, Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

Sarah Griffiths: Mystery of Siberia’s strange throat singing solved: ‘Human bagpipe’ singers have unique vocal cords that produce eerie notes

Mystery of Siberia’s strange throat singing solved: ‘Human bagpipe’ singers have unique vocal cords that produce eerie notes

  • People living in the Altai mountain region in southern Siberia have differently shaped vocal cords and voice boxes, a study has revealed
  • Unique physiology means they can be throat singers, and make a low hum
  • Singing technique passed down generations has featured in a Bjork song
  • It was used by Mongolian men to communicate across vast spaces

By Sarah Griffiths for MailOnline

Published: 15:37 GMT, 12 January 2015 | Updated: 16:31 GMT, 12 January 2015

134 shares 30 View comments Scientists have discovered that throat singers such as the late Kongar-ol Ondar, have differently shaped vocal cords that allow them to make the deep hum+1

Scientists have discovered that throat singers such as the late Kongar-ol Ondar, have differently shaped vocal cords that allow them to make the deep hum

If you try to emulate the strange low songs of throat singers from Siberia, you will probably be disappointed.

Scientists have discovered that the uniquely shaped vocal cords of people living in the Altai mountain region in southern Siberia means that only they can perform the eerie melodies composed centuries ago, which have been passed down generations.

The distinctive noise comprising a low hum with several higher notes sounded simultaneously, has featured in a song by Bjork, but hasn’t popularly spread beyond the regions because only the people of southern Siberia and Tuva can make it.

Scientists from the Institute of Philology of the Russian Academy of Sciences have discovered that native Turks have different vocal cords so only they can master the melodies, The Siberian Times reported. 

Their cords are slightly wider, with a shorter voice box, allowing natives to make the unique noise, which comes deep within the throat.

Throat singers have been likened to ‘human bagpipes’ and can sing a long, low note, while making higher whistling notes and rhythm.

The study suggests that people in Europe, for example, are unable to make the noises because of their differently shaped throats.

It’s believed that Mongolian men used songs to communicate across the vast, rugged landscape.

They used natural features like mountains to ensure their voices carried long distances.


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Now experts think that the way the notes were sung gradually altered the structure of people’s throats in the region.

The researchers also studied the speech of two residents in Kemerovo who speak Turkic Shor, which is spoken by around 2,800 people in south central Siberia and borrows many of its roots from Mongolian.

They used digital radiography and MRI scans to study the vocal apparatus and the brain.

The research took place in the laboratory of experimental phonetic studies, which, since its creation in the 1960s, has been used to describe the sound and features of more than 40 languages and dialects.


Mongolian throat singing is a particular variant of overtone singing practiced by people in Mongolia and Tuva.

It was added to the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of Unesco in 2009.

Throat singers make one or more pitches sounded simultaneously over a base note – producing a unique sound.

It is not known when the practice originated, but it thought to have passed down generations of male herders for hundreds of years. Now women are using the technique too.

The open landscape of Mongolia and southern Siberia allows the sounds to carry a great distance.

It’s thought human mimicry of nature’s sounds is also at the root of throat singing. Read more:

Choduraa Tumat performs songs with khoomei

Choduraa Tumat performs songs with khoomei

5 772 vues•21 nov. 2015 114 4 Partager EnregistrerORPHOLOGIST 436 abonnés These two songs were played at the IDFA in Amsterdam, 19 november 2015. Female throat singing and beautiful traditional instruments ighil and toshpulduur.