Chakra Chants An Interview with Jonathan Goldman by Tae Darnell for Etherean
Q: You’ve been involved in helping bring awareness of sound healing to the public since the early 80’s. Your latest recording “CHAKRA CHANTS” just won the 1999 Visionary Awards for both “Best Healing-Meditation Album” and “Best Album of the Year”. Do you think this is an indication of a trend toward greater appreciation of the use of sound as a healing modality?
A: I like to think so. When I first began in this arena, there were only a handful of recordings that focused on using sound and music for healing. Nowadays, the market seems to be glutted with them. But unfortunately, many of the ones I’ve encountered that claim to be therapeutic, at least from my perspective, are not. Or, if they do demonstrate therapeutic possibilities, they are not very listenable. I’m extremely honored that enough people thought that “CHAKRA CHANTS” was not only a good album for healing and meditation, but that it was also a good album period.
Q: What do you think is so different about “CHAKRA CHANTS”?
A: Most of the recordings that I’ve created have been very cutting edge. “DOLPHIN DREAMS” which I made for the birth of my son Joshua many years ago, was the first recording that ever featured dolphin sounds. I had initially wanted my son to have a dolphin assisted water birth, but when I discovered that unless we moved to the Soviet Union or New Zealand that wasn’t possible. So, using my knowledge of sound, I created this energy–the morphic field, if you like– on a recording. Such a sonic experience simply wasn’t available, so I created it. The same is true about my other releases.
In the early 1980’s, I first began researching the relationship between sound and the chakras and the more I delved into the subject, the more overwhelmed I became. There were literally dozens of different systems of using sounds that seemed to be successful for resonating and balancing the chakras. But very few of these systems were in resonance with each other. It made for a lot of confusion for me, and also a lot of skepticism. And brought me to the realization of “Frequency+ Intent = Healing” , a very important sonic formula that first appeared in my book HEALING SOUNDS.
Q: Frequency + Intent? What does that mean?
A: Frequency is a way of measuring sound and for me is a metaphor for the actual physical sound itself. Intent is the energy behind the sound. It was the answer that came to me after becoming totally frustrated by seeing that few, if any, of the different systems of chakra resonance agreed with each other. It didn’t make sense. Then my -inner guidance came forth with the “Frequency + Intent = Healing” formula, and suddenly, I could understand how different notes or chants or mantras could all effect the same chakra. It came from the intention of the person creating the sound.
With “CHAKRA CHANTS”, I actually combined a number of different systems for chakra resonance that had never been put together before. In truth, like many of my other recordings, it was an experiment. I really didn’t know if the Sacred Vowel Sounds could work with the Bija Mantras or a harmonically related diatonic scale or Shabda Yoga Sounds or any of the other elements that I wanted to try. Thankfully, they did. I think that the combination of these different systems is one of the reasons why “CHAKRA CHANTS” is so effective. If one of the systems is not in resonance with a listener, there’s a good chance that another is in resonance. Also, I was very conscious of the concept of intention. With my background and training, I was able to concentrate on a specific chakra I was working with and hopefully, put this intention into the sound that I was creating.
Q: You mention resonance a number of times. Could you define it?
A: Well, resonance is simply the natural vibrations of an object. Everything is in a state of motion. From the electrons moving around the nucleus of an atom to planets moving around stars in distant galaxies–there is movement everywhere. And if there is movement, there is vibration and there is sound. This is an ancient understanding that modern science is beginning to accept.
Our body is in a state of vibration. Every organ, every bone, all our different tissues, all our different systems, like the nervous system of the circulatory system, these all create sounds. An analogy I like to use is that the human body is like this wonderful orchestra that is playing an overall harmonic of health. When we are healthy, we are in sound health. But continuing with our analogy, what happens if the second violin player in this orchestra looses their sheet music? They begin to play out of tune, out of harmony, out of rhythm. Pretty soon, the entire string section sounds bad. Soon after, the whole orchestra begins to sound off. With this analogy, this would be what we perceive of as disease!
Right now traditional medicine has the approach of either feeding this string player enough drugs so they simply pass out or cutting this players head off with a surgical instrument–which works at least to get them out of the scene. But what if it were possible to give this string player back their sheet music? What if it were possible to project the correct resonant frequency back into the part of the body that is vibrating out of tune? This is the basic principle of using sound to heal. And it is one of the concepts behind the energy of “CHAKRA CHANTS”.
Q: How so?
A: When I worked with these different systems, whenever a sound was being recorded, my intention was that not only would it resonate a particular chakra, but that it would help balance and align it. This is important because I believe that energy went into the recording and then was received by the people listening to it. I also believe that “CHAKRA CHANTS” is an interesting musical journey. While chanting a mantra in one key for an extended period of time may be effective, for most people, this type of recording becomes tedious and difficult to listen to. I wanted to avoid this type of experience. There are over 48 different tracks-on “CHAKRA CHANTS” -most of them vocal–and while it’s sometimes subtle, there’s actually a lot happening in the recording. Most people find it quite an extraordinary and powerful sonic experience.
Q: Getting back to my first question, do you sense a change in the field of sound and music healing since you first began nearly 20 years ago.
A: Certainly. More and more people are becoming aware of the power of sound and music to heal and transform. More people are looking for music that will help put them into balance and more people are starting to consciously create music that will do this. It can, hopefully, only continue to get better and better.
Q: You’ve worked with Tibetan Monks, Hindu Swamis and Shaman from different traditions, among others. Does any one group really have a handle on sound healing?
A: I think they all do. And no one does. All different aspects of the Creator.
Q: You have two non-fiction books–HEALING SOUNDS and SHIFTING FREQUENCIES. Now, you have just produced THE LOST CHORD, an adventure novel revolving around sound. Why a novel?
A: Because it hadn’t been done before. I like creating things that haven’t been done. Way back before I got into sound healing, back before I was a professional musician, I was a writer. Wrote my first novel when I was 15. So, the energy of creative writing has been in me for a long time. Like most of the things I’m involved in lately, THE LOST CHORD was divinely inspired.
Q: How so?
A: I awoke from a dream. And in the dream, I was writing a novel. I didn’t remember anything about the story itself, I just knew that it was a very “pop” easy to read story. And as I was awakening from the dream, I heard a voice say “Get yourself a Power Book!” I didn’t have a clue what this was, but a week later, I had a fully loaded used lap top computer. And I just began to write. It was like taking dictation. Two months later THE LOST CHORD was completed.
Q: THE LOST CHORD, is set in Boulder, Colorado. It’s about a computer program that produce a series of frequencies which are both highly addictive and create interdimensional portals. It’s told from the viewpoint of a blues guitarist named Christopher Shade. You played lead guitar in bands for many years. How real is the book and how much of Christopher Shade is you?
A: The information about the power and effects of sound is real. The scientific material and the spiritual experiences in THE LOST CHORD are based upon fact. Except for the actual creation of the Lost Chord itself. Most of that information is correct as well, but I threw in a couple of total fabrications in case anyone wanted to try and create it.
Q: Could you create it if you wanted?
A: I wouldn’t, if I could. But I can’t. Although I must admit that when I lead groups of people in sacred chanting, coupling vocalization with visualization we come very close to some of the energy of the Lost Chord. And this idea of humans working with combined consciousness being able to better create the Lost Chord, is definitely in the book. So is the concept of scientific technology versus spiritual teaching and practice. There’s a lot of important material about sound as a healing and transformative modality in those pages that lots of readers who may get turned off by text type books will be able to read and enjoy.
Q: And are you Christopher Shade?
A: Perhaps in another dimension or a parallel life or something, he may be an alter ego of mine. Because he’s very real. But no, he’s not me. Shade cracks me up. I think he is very funny. A total spiritual skeptic who finds himself in incredible situations that he can’t get out of. And Shade keeps denying what’s going on. He just wants to get back to playing guitar in a blues band. But he can’t because he’s going through spiritual awakening and there’s no turning back.
Q: Shade uses the Lost Chord and meets Shamael, the Angel of Sound. Is this being also a total invention of yours?
A: Actually, Shamael is a little known angelic entity who is regarded in some very esoteric traditions as being the “divine herald” and “master of heavenly song”. He is a being I have often encountered in meditation and altered states of consciousness. But never through the Lost Chord.
Q: How would you define your novel? Is it science fiction? Fantasy? Mystery? Metaphysical?
A: All of the above, and hopefully more. First and foremost, it’s an adventure which has within elements of science fiction, fantasy and metaphysics. And music. And sound healing. And shamanism. In truth, as I was writing the novel, I realized that there was the potential of both entertaining and educating the reader. Perhaps, also assisting in the process of enlightenment, if that is possible through books.
Q: Quite a tall order. Anything else?
A: I really just wanted to have fun writing THE LOST CHORD. And I figured that if I had fun writing it, maybe someone else would have fun reading it. Thus far, that seems to be the case. I’ve been getting wonderful response from readers who really have enjoyed it. Some are calling it “THE CELESTINE PROPHECY of Sound”. We’ll see.
Q: Any new recording projects?
A: Sure “THE LOST CHORD: The Recording”.
A: Well, I’m going to take some of the ideas and knowledge about psycho-acoustics that I write about in the novel and apply them to this new recording. But unlike the Lost Chord frequencies in the book, which is generated totally by computers, this will feature lots of real time human vocals and human instrumental players. It will be totally safe. And totally listenable. It’ll be based on sacred ratios and feature toning and chanting and should be just a lovely experience for anyone. Perhaps also, “THE LOST CHORD: The Soundtrack to the Book”, with different musical compositions to depict different episodes of the story. It’s an exciting concept. We’ll see what happens. There are all sorts of possibilities. You never know.
Goldman Crystal Bowls Chakra Chants — Navel Chakra Citrine Fire
Jonathan Goldman 43,6 k abonnés http://www.healingsounds.com From “CRYSTAL BOWLS CHAKRA CHANTS” by Jonathan Goldman, & Crystal Tones, this piece called “Navel Chakra—Citrine Fire” features Healing Sounds Pioneer Jonathan Goldman and Crystal Tones. Goldman chanted the vocal sounds, including the sacred vowels, bija mantras and harmonics. Crystal Tones played the beautiful harmonically related crystal bowls. It is designed to resonate and balance the solar plexus chakra–the third chakra. The visuals were created by Liquid Light artist Timothy Helgeson who has numerous videos on YouTube. “CRYSTAL BOWLS CHAKRA CHANTS” features 7 extraordinary tracks of music designed to balance and resonant the 7 chakras of the body. It is a Visionary Award winning recording—a favorite among listeners. To enjoy “Navel Chakra–Citrine Fire” as well as the complete recording of “CRYSTAL BOWLS CHAKRA CHANTS “, please visit: http://www.healingsounds.com or other download websites for more details.
Tuvan Overtone Singing: Harmonics Out of Place Hilary Finchum
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The region known as Tuva is contained within the southern portion of Siberia, lying in the exact geographical center of Asia. The traditional territory stretches from the Altai Mountains to the headwaters of the Yenisei, northwest of the mountain border between Russia and Mongolia. Surrounded by mountain ranges on the northeast, north, northwest, and western boundaries, Tuva was kept in relative isolation for a very long time. Economically, these people are dependent on their flocks of sheep, reindeer, horses, yaks, and others for much of the materials that are required to live in this harsh environment‹skin and fur for clothing, meat, milk, and dung for fuel.
Proximity to nature produces at once a dependency on Tuva’s resources and an intimate relationship of respect with the wonders of the natural world. This sense of intimacy is very much reflected in xcoomei, the Tuvan form of throat or overtone singing. Overtone singing is a type of singing in which one or more upper harmonics carry the melody, while the lower harmonics, including the fundamental, sustain a steady drone beneath the melody. The result is that a single singer can sing two or more pitches simultaneously.
In the recent past, some work has been done on the analysis of xoomei, and more has been done on overtone singing generally. The focus on this research has been on the effort to discover exactly how overtone melodies are produced. Hypotheses as to the mechanics of overtone singing range from ideas as to the necessary physical stance and posture used by the singer during a performance, to the actual physical formation of the mouth cavity in producing the overtones. Several previous researchers seem to agree that the production of the harmonics in throat singing is essentially the same as the production of an ordinary vowel. Leothaud says: “nous pouvons … conclure qu’il n’existe aucune difference de nature entre la prononciation des voyelles et l’emission diphonique” (we can conclude that there exists on difference in nature whatsoever between the pronunciation of vowels and overtone singing) (1989, 34). Similarly, Bloothooft, et al., report an entire investigation of overtone singing, based on the similarity of this kind of phonation to the articulation of vowel. The most persuasive of the researchers who approach overtone singing as vowel production is Mark Van Tongeren, who actually learned to produce the sounds of xoomei from Tuvan throat singers. In his lessons with the Tuvan singer Mongush Mergen, he says that in “explaining (to) me how to sing vowels he also commented on the physical aspects of singing, and said that I should not worry about the melodies as long as I sang the vowels properly” (Zanten and Roon 304). Different vowel sounds are supposed to produce varied effects. Van Tongeren implies that vowels are more important than the actual pitch of the overtones, since once the correct vowel sounds are produced the pitches will sound. “Apparently the most important thing is to produce the same vowel and the same sound quality” (Zanten and Roon 305).
Based on the results of acoustic analysis of Xoomei conducted at SAVAIL, I would like to argue that the physical act of creating overtones may originate in vowel production, but the end product (the actual overtones themselves) are far from vowel-like. It is not the case that the production of certain vowels will result in the presence of overtones that can carry a melody. Initial evidence that the overtones used to make melody are not vowel-like can be gathered from the fact that singers appear to be able to sing either vowels or overtone melodies, but not both at the same time; in other words, if overtones were simply vowels pronounced in a certain order, then singers could sing a text consisting of words whose vowels contained the necessary overtones to make the melody. Instead it appears that when throat singers want to include a text, they cannot melodicize overtones until the text is over; the text is “ordinary”, monophonic singing, with the fundamental frequency carrying the melody of the song; overtone melodies do not occur until the text is over. When the upper overtones become prominent enough to carry a melody, they cease to function as part of a vowel, which depends on the upper harmonics to contribute toward the sensation of timbre, (or vowel quality) rather than pitch. In fact, the Tuvans have a genre of Xoomei, called xorekteer, which is not overtone singing, consisting instead of text, with the fundamental as the melodic basis. Usually sung as an introduction to a xoomei piece, the xorekteer provides the text, which the xoomei lacks while it is focused on overtone singing.
This paper presents part of the results of larger study on Xoomei. I hope to show in this paper through acoustic analysis of a single example of Xoomei, typical of the genre and of overtone singing in general, that the necessary acoustic characteristics of overtones when they are produced for melodic purposes make then useless for timbral purposes; as soon as these overtones become prominent enough to be “heard out” as separate pitches, they fail to be fused into the unitary sensation of timbre, or vowel quality. The form of xoomei analyzed for this project is called Borbannadir which means “rolling” and thus imitates either the sound of running water, or horses hooves. The sound of borbannadir is much fuller than other forms of Xoomei, and the fundamental drone tends to be a little higher – in either the bass or baritone range.
For the analysis of the style of Xoomei in question, three different computer programs were employed. Oedipe-2.0 allowed a three-dimensional view of the progress of the harmonic envelop over time, and also allowed us to view each of the prominent harmonics as a function of time. Spectro-3.0 is an important tool in providing true energy-based frequency readings of prime harmonic peaks, rather than approximating a frequency based on its location within a calibrated window. SpecDraw was invaluable in allowing the filtering of individual harmonics, so that the prominent, melody-carrying overtones could be examined in isolation from the rest of the sound.
A sample of Borbannadirb is pictured below. Fig. 1 shows the entire sample as a spectrogram with its waveform; three prominent harmonics can be seen moving in parallel. Fig. 2 shows the most prominent overtoneb filtered from the remainder of the sound; the frequency scale has also been changed for closer examination. Here we see the frequency movement of the overtone, moving from 1563 Hz to 1788 Hz to 1338 Hz, which translates approximately into the sensation of the pitches G#, A, and F.
Fig. 1: Spectrogram and waveform of sample. Spectrogram is narrowband for viewing individual harmonics, with time along the horizontal axis in milliseconds, and frequency along the vertical axis. For the waveform, the horizontal axis is time, the vertical axis voltage.
Fig. 2: Spectrogram and waveform of most prominent harmonics, with frequency scale shortened for closer viewing. Spectrogram is narrowband for viewing individual harmonics, with time along the horizontal axis in milliseconds, and frequency along the vertical axis. For the wavform, the horizontal axis is time, the vertical axis voltage.
It is important to note that the overtone melody is not made from a single overtone that changes pitch over time. Rather the pitch movement of the melody in the case of the Borbannadir sample is the result of three different harmonics – the eighth, ninth, and tenth – which take their turn in prominence. This is generally true of overtone singing where the fundamental and its harmonics compose an unmoving drone with the melody above it: the melody cannot be made of a single harmonic changing frequency; instead, each pitch of the melody consists of a different harmonic, so that part of the skill of overtone singing must lie in the smooth transition from one prominent harmonic to the next. Fig. 3 shows the same waveform of the Borbannadir sample, with points marked in the middle of segment of pitch. Figs. 4, 5, and 6 show spectra of the Borbannadir sample at points coinciding exactly with the marks G#, A, and F. Each spectrum shows a different harmonic in prominence, whose frequency coincides approximately with the corresponding pitches.
Fig. 3: Waveform of Borbannadir sample with pitches marked at places where spectra of Figs. 4, 5, and 6 are sliced.
Fig. 4: spectrum drawn from point marked G# in Fig. 3. Eighth harmonic is prominent F in Fig. 3. Tenth harmonic is prominent. X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude. Fig. 5: spectrum drawn from point marked A in Fig. 3. Ninth harmonic is prominent. X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude. Fig. 6: spectrum drawn from point marked F in Fig. 3. Tenth harmonic is prominent. X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude.
Figure 7 shows the rise time, steady state, and decay of each of the three harmonics. Notice that they overlap each other, rather than decaying sharply or leaving silence between them; this is perhaps part of the reason that the melody of the overtones moves smoothly from pitch to pitch, even though each pitch is a different harmonic.
Fig. 7: Rise time, steady state, and decay of three overlapping harmonics which produce the overtone melody.
While it will come as no surprise to an acoustician, it is somewhat counterintuitive to the musician to realize that all sounds are composed of the same physical ingredients. A harmonic of 440 Hz drawn from a violin tone will sound exactly like a harmonic of 440 Hz drawn from a flute tone, or even from a vocal tone; a single harmonic is simply a sine wave of a certain frequency, a wave of air pressure arriving to our ears from the environment, no matter what instrument emits it. What makes a harmonic distinctive to a given instrument (in its steady state, since attacks and decays will involve characteristic variations), is the amplitude of that harmonic relative to the other harmonics of the instrument. Or, what makes the harmonic distinctive is its role in producing the sensation on the part of the listener of the emitting instrument’s tone quality.
Conceptually, then, the mechanics of producing melodic overtones are interesting precisely because they deprive the prominent harmonic of its identity. As soon as that harmonic becomes loud enough to produce the sensation of melody, it can no longer contribute to the tone quality of the instrument, having become a melody-bearing element rather than a timbre-bearing element. As soon as the harmonic becomes audible on its own, it is a sinewave with the peculiar timbral quality of a sinewave, possessing nothing of the timbre of the human instrument that emitted it. It is a harmonic which could theoretically belong to any instrument having the same fundamental frequency as the tone which includes it.
Similarly, for both acoustic and perceptual reasons, the production of an overtone melody can not be described as vowel production. Acoustically, a vowel is distinctive because of its formant structure. In overtone singing, formants are reduced to one or a few harmonics, often with surrounding harmonics attentuated as much as possible. Even Bloothooft et al confess that the formants of an overtone-sung tone are so narrow as to have bandwidths that are difficult to measure. Perhaps these researchers had trouble measuring the bandwidths because the formants they wanted to measure were no longer formants, having been narrowed to prominent harmonics instead. And perceptually, overtone singing usually sounds nothing like an identifiable vowel. This is primarily because, as described above, a major part of the overtone-sung tone has switched from contributing to the timbre of the tone to provoking the sensation of melody. Such a distorted “vowel” can convey little phonetic information.
Bloothooft, Gerrit, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Cappellen, Jolanda B van Luipen, and Koen P. Thomassen. “Acoustics and Perception of Overtone Singing”. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. vol 4, part 1. October 1992: 1827-1836.
Bregman, Albert S. Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.
Broadhead, Alex. “Harmonic Singing: An Introduction to the Phenomenon and its Production and Analysis”. Unpublished. Dartmouth College, 1995.
Handel, Stephen. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989.
Levin, Theodore. Program notes for “Huur-Huur-Tu: Throat Singers of Tuva”. Weigel Hall. Columbus, Ohio. January 1994.
Van Zanten, William and Van Roon, Marjolijn, ed. Oideion: The Performing Arts World Wide 2. Research School: Leiden University, 1995. Publié il y a 12th January 2009 par TRAN QUANG HAI
Jump to 1:30 to skip the intro! This is me explaining how to throat sing. If you have any questions please ask, ill answer them for you and if need be ill make a video explaining what i am talking about. This is my first video so please comment and tell me what you think.
Stuart Hinds is active as a composer, performing musician, and teacher. His original compositions include electroacoustic music as well as music for traditional instruments and voices. A substantial part of his work as a composer is devoted to writing pieces that feature his unique style of overtone singing. His repertoire includes solo vocal works and works for voice with keyboard synthesizer or other instruments. Hinds has been commissioned to compose several new works for chorus with overtone singing and a work for oboe with overtone singing. He has received prizes and awards for composition, including a composition competition prize for Beauty, a choral work featuring overtone singing. In addition to composing and performing, Hinds offers lectures and workshops on overtone singing and composition topics.
Stuart Hinds’ amazing ability to produce two discreet melodies at the same time makes him unique among overtone singers. Hinds takes overtone singing to a new expressive level, creating a completely new genre of vocal music. In a quantum leap beyond traditional drone-based overtone singing with an unchanging fundamental pitch, Hinds sings a truly contrapuntal music, vocally producing two melodic lines simultaneously – the fundamental line and the overtone line. The fundamental is no longer confined to a fixed pitch. The fundamental line moves with complete freedom while the overtone line conforms to the natural harmonics of the sounding fundamental at any given time. Both parts move with a high level of independence, given that they are produced by a single vocal tract. In one of his compositions, Renaissance Man, Hinds actually sings in strict canon with himself – the overtone line follows the fundamental line at four beats separation and transposed up a fifth!
Developing contexts for overtone singing is a major focus in Hinds’ work as a composer. As technical abilities increase, so will the compositional and expressive possibilities of the medium. For example, Hinds is currently working with combining text with overtone singing.
Hinds’ original compositions reflect his classical training, with influences from many musical cultures, often borrowing from ethnic or popular models. This diversity creates a highly personal style of music that appeals to a broad range of listeners. One Swedish reviewer wrote that “Hinds is a true master of the technique,” and commented: “I’ve never heard anything like this . . . This shows a true and uncorrupted artistry. I am glad I came across this CD, which not only gives me musical joy, but also a spiritual uplifting.”
Hinds’ on-going study of traditional world music has given him “new” ideas for composing: forms, scales, performance techniques, etc. Sometimes the influence is subtle; other times the borrowing is obvious to a knowledgeable listener. An example of the latter type is Tabuh-tabuhan for two percussionists, which employs interlocking rhythmic figuration textures as practiced in the gamelan music of Java and Bali.
Another example of his cross-cultural work is a group of compositions based on Indian raga. Hinds attempted to remain true to “the color of the melody” as practiced by classical Indian musicians, but in the context of his own formal and contrapuntal designs. Some of the pieces “sound Indian,” some don’t, but each composition is harmonically as well as melodically distinctive as a result of the rag in use. In 1997-1998, Hinds collaborated with classical Indian singer Nanda Banerjee and a jazz ensemble on a series of three “East Meets West” concerts. One of these programs was named one of Houston’s Ten Best concerts of 1997 by the Houston Chronicle.
If Hinds can be said to occupy a niche in society, then his niche must certainly involve teaching. He has taught at every educational level from elementary school to graduate school. He has worked with the brightest students and with those having severe challenges to learning. He has received substantial training in effective teaching techniques and has attended numerous professional development courses on the subject. Hinds also possesses qualities that cannot be taught: a natural rapport with his students and a sincere desire for their success.
At the college level, Hinds has taught music theory and composition, analog and digital synthesis, MIDI sequencing, and music appreciation. He has led a graduate seminar on world music for composers. He has presented guest lectures on Javanese gamelan, the traditional music of Thailand, tape music techniques, composition, and overtone singing. Students have reacted very positively to his broad knowledge, careful and thoughtful preparation, and strong commitment to music as an art form.