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Anna-Maria Hefele


Anna-Maria Hefele is an overtone singer and voice artist. She plays nyckelharpa, harp & other instruments.

In 2018 she graduated as Master of Arts in Elemental Music & Dance Education with classical singing as her main subject from the Carl Orff Institute, Mozarteum University Salzburg

She started with overtone singing in 2005 and has written compositions and arrangements for polyphonic solo voice since 2006.

Vita as PDF – download

Press photos – download

A new website with up-to-date informations is currently


Talk on overtone singing @ TEDxGenova on 23rd of February 2019. If you wish to keep updated regarding my activities, please sign up for my Newsletter!

Concert with Anna-Maria Hefele @ International Overtone Festival, Gmünd in Kärnten (AT), 29th of August 2019

Soloconcert with Anna-Maria Hefele @ Nikolausberger Musiktage, 07.09.2019

Concert with Chorknaben Uetersen @ Hannover, 12.-15.09.2019

Concerts with Jan Henning & Kristoffer Fynbo Thorning, 06.10.2019 in Vodskov  (DK) and 09.10.2019 in Aalborg (DK)


Currently are not so many workshop dates available. Please contact me if you are interested in attending  a workshop, then I’ll inform you about future plannings. EMAIL

Workshop @ Nikolausberger Musiktage (DE), 07.09.2019

Workshop & Lecture at Hannover (DE), 12.09.2019-15.09.2019

Workshop @ chor@Berlin (DE),


I offer individual lessons and prefer real contact to people, especially for learning singing. If you can manage to come to Upper Austria and want to learn, let me know & be welcome, or also let me know where you live, if there are enough people from one region it’s possible to organize a workshop there, or probably I am travelling to your town and we can meet when I’m there some time.


Supersonus @InnTöne Festival 2019. Soloconcert with Anna-Maria Hefele @ Black Forest Voices, 30.06.2019.  Lecture & Workshop @ Fonetic conference Stockholm (SE). Contemporary Short Opera performances (Taschenopernfestival Salbzurg) in Solingen together with Musikfabrik Köln 2018. Supersonus @ Teatro Comunale, Modena (IT), 04.05.2018. Anna-Maria Hefele & Thomas Radlwimmer @ Festival Mixtour Lemgo (DE), 22.09.2018. Ars Choralis 2018. With Kammerchor I Vocalisti: concerts at Stiftskirche Stuttgart, Ulmer Münster, Hamburg/Quickborn/Lübeck/Lütjensee 2018.  February 17th 2018 concert in St. Petersburg, Russia, Mariinsky Theatre with Kammerchor I Vocalisti. Singer and teacher (2018) @ London Acapella Festival and A CAPE’LLA- Festival Aoutour de la Voix.  Singer @ Festival Angelica, Bologna, working with Heiner Goebbels & Tiziano Popoli on contemporary music involving overtones. Singer and performer (opera composed by Birke Bertelsmeier) @ Taschenopernfestival Salzburg with Thierry Bruehl, Hans-Peter Jahn, OENM and more. Organisation, performing & teaching at the 1st austrian overtone festival @ Pankratium Gmünd, August 2017. Workshop, Vortrag & concert @ Dortmund, also with Kammerchor I Vocalisti (2017). Speaker @ symposium for micrtotonal music, Salzburg (2017),  singer & teacher @ Aarhus Vocal Festival (2017), speaking @ International Congress of Voice Teachers, Stockholm 2017. Concert @ Europäisches Kirchenmusikfestival Schwäbisch Gmünd with Supersonus (2017), concert @ Bach-Festival Arnstadt with Kammerchor I Vocalisti (2017),Gent Festival van Vlaanderen Belgium (2016), Konzerthaus Blaibach (Sept. 2016), Bozar Belgium (2015), Barbican London (2015), Klangfestival Naturstimmen Toggenburg CH (2016), Ossola Guitar Festival IT (2016), Franz K. Reutlingen (2016), Alte Oper Frankfurt (2015), Scala Ludwigsburg (2015), Theaterhaus Stuttgart (with Orchester der Kulturen), Lisboa Todos Festival (2015), Workshop @ Labyrinth, Crete, Workshops @ Musikhochschule Hannover and Musikhochschule Hamburg & Mozarteum Salzburg, speaking and presenting @ Ars Choralis Zagreb & International Voice Symposion Salzburg….

TRAN QUANG HAI ‘s workshop of overtone singing in GUBBIO, UMBRIA, ITALY, saturday 9 November 2019 from 13:00-18:00 in the framework of UMBRIA IN VOCE 5 2019


TRAN QUANG HAI ‘s workshop of overtone singing in GUBBIO, UMBRIA, ITALY, saturday 9 November 2019 from 13:00-18:00


Un eccezionale workshop di cinque ore per approfondire il canto armonico con un maestro indiscusso a livello mondiale.
CONTENUTI DEL WORKSHOP:Durante il seminario, Tran Quang Hai insegnerà le 2 tecniche di base del canto armonico:Tecnica della cavità a una bocca con serie inferiori di sovratoni.Tecnica di due cavità della bocca con serie superiori di sovratoni.Esercizi per l’improvvisazione e la creazione collettiva.Esercizi per il controllo di ogni tono.Miglioramento delle sfumature imparando a ridurre il suono fondamentale.Imparare come ascoltare le proprie sfumature per creare piccole melodie.


Per informazioni e prenotazioni si prega di contattare 3349843087 (Irene)3394076156 (Cristina)o scrivere a

Tran Quang Hai, vietnamita residente a Parigi, è un musicista di talento e rinomato che proviene da una famiglia di cinque generazioni di musicisti. Ha lavorato come etnomusicologo per il Centro Nazionale per la Ricerca Scientifica in Francia dal 1968, annesso al Dipartimento di Etnomusicologia del Musee de l’Homme. Gira il mondo con la sua arte vocale unica e la sua tecnica di insegnamento.È membro di molte società internazionali: Society for Ethnomusicology, ICTM (membro del comitato esecutivo dal 2005), Asian Music Society, French Society for Ethnomusicology (membro fondatore), International Jew’s Harp Society (membro fondatore), e molti altri.Ha pubblicato 23 dischi sulla musica vietnamita (dal 1971 al 1997), 4 DVD sul canto armonico (2004, 2005, 2006), 2 DVD sulla musica tradizionale del Vietnam (2000, 2009), 1 DVD sulla sua vita dalla televisione belga Production (2005), articoli su New Grove Dictionary Music and Musicians (edizioni 1st – 1980 e 2nd (2001)), New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (1984) e alcune centinaia di articoli in diversi paesi.Destinatario della medaglia di Cristal del Centro nazionale per la ricerca scientifica (Francia) nel 1995, della medaglia del cavaliere della legione d’onore (Francia) nel 2002 e della medaglia d’onore del lavoro, categoria Grand Gold (Francia ) nel 2009.

//ENGLISH VERSION//Workshop of khoomei or throat singing.Khoomei is the name used in Tuva and Mongolia to describe a large family of singing styles and techniques in which a single vocalist simultaneously produces two (or more) distinct tones. The lower one is the usual fundamental tone of the voice and sounds as a sustained drone or a Scottish bagpipe sound. The second corresponds to one of the harmonic partials and is like a resonating whistle in a high, or very high register. During the workshop, Tran Quang Hai will teach the 2 basic techniques of overtone singing:Technique of one mouth cavity with lower series of overtones;Technique of two mouth cavities with higher series of overtones.Exercices for improvisation and collective creation.Exercices for the control of each overtoneImprovement of overtones by learning how to reduce the fundamental soundLearning of how to listen to own overtones in order to create small melodiesTRAN QUANG HAITran Quang Hai ,a talented and renowned musician who comes from a family of five generations of musicians. had been working as an ethnomusicologist for the National Center for Scientific Research in France since 1968, attached to the Department of Ethnomusicology of the Musee de l’Homme. He is retired since May 2009.His field is Vietnamese music, Overtone singing in Siberia. He is member of many international societies : Society for Ethnomusicology, ICTM (executive board member since 2005), Asian Music Society, French Society for Ethnomusicology (founding member), International Jew’s Harp Society (founding member), etc…He has published 23 records on Vietnamese music (from 1971 to 1997), 4 DVD on overtone singing (2004, 2005, 2006), 2 DVD on traditional music of Vietnam (2000, 2009), 1 DVD on his life by the Belgian TV Production (2005), articles in New Grove Dictionary Music and Musicians (1st – 1980 and 2nd (2001) editions), New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (1984) and some few hundreds of articles in different countries .Recipient of the Medal of Cristal of the National Center for Scientific Research (France) in 1995 , of the Medal of the Knight of the Legion of Honour (France) in 2002, and of the Medal of Honour of Work, Grand Gold category (France) in 2009.

Hefele, Anna-Maria; Eklund, Robert; McAllister, Anita: Polyphonic overtone singing: An acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of a unique mode of singing

June 10, 2019 Conference paper Open Access

Polyphonic overtone singing: An acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of a unique mode of singing

Anna Maria Hefele

Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 2019

Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physio-logical (MRI) analysis and a first -person description of a unique mode of singing

Anna-Maria Hefele1, Robert Eklund2, Anita McAllister3


2 Department of Culture and Communication, Linköping University, Sweden

3 Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden,,

Abstract This paper describes a unique singing mode, tentatively labeled “polyphonic overtone singing”. In overtone singing the vocal harmonics of a stabile fundamental frequency are filtered by the singer in such a way that specific upper harmonics are amplified, and heard clear ly, as a second musical voice. In the “throat singing” of Tuva (Mongolia) moving overtones usually occur over a stable drone. In polyphonic overtone singing not only the pitch of the overtones are changed and moving, but also the fundamental which results in two-voice singing.


The historical records of overtone sing-ing (OTS) are fairly scarce. It is used in different ethnic traditions and musical styles. A well -known example is the “Tuvan throat-singing” (Levin & Edger-ton, 1999), which mainly occurs in Mongolia and Tibetan temples (Smith, Stevens & Tomlinson, 1967). Singers in these regions employ a variety of throat-singing styles, referred to as sygyt, chöömej and kargyraa (Grawunder, 1999:22). Chöömej is also used as an umbrella term for all central Asian techniques. In the west, the tradition of OT is not as strong, and the development of the technique began during the last century.

The earliest existing recording of western OTS is from 1929, sung by an Amer-ican country singer, Arthur Miles. However, Miles did not leave any marked traces in musical history, although he was a local celebrity and even released an album (Tongeren, 2004:161). Also in America, La Monte Young began to experiment with vocal overtones and started to use it as a musical parameter, although it was not yet mature overtone singing (Tongeren, 2004:166).

In 1968 Karlheinz Stockhausen published Stimmung for six vocalists, which can be considered the first composition in contemporary music with exact, notated vocal overtones, amplified through specific vowels (Saus, 2009:1).

Further, Michael Vetter (Germany), who collaborated with Stockhausen from 1969 (Tongeren, 2004:177), and David Hykes “laid the solid foundations for overtone singing as an independent vocal technique /…/ With their original examples, overtone singing became an art in itself” (Tongeren, 2004:175).

The Greek singer Demetrio Stratos (1945–1979) also belongs to the first generation of experimental western overtone singers, and before his early death he left his album Cantare la Voce(1978) with “vocal sounding overtone noises” (Tongeren, 2004:175).

Trân Quang Hai (1944–), a Vietnamese musician and researcher living in Paris, got in contact with Mongol overtone singing in 1969 and he “collaborated in one of the first compositions and public performances of OTS in Europe after Stockhausen .

Apart from his activities as a performer, Trân’s main contribution to the field of overtone singing are scientific and educational” (Tongeren, 2004:171).

From 1983 and on OTS became popular also outside the field of experi-mental music and the knowledge about the technique grew. Singing groups and overtone choirs were formed for chanting, singing mantras or practicing overtone singing together, so it was not only performed by professional musicians (Tongeren, 2004:185). So called “World Music” gained popularity in the west, which spurred an interested in overtone singing. Also enhanced by the Tuva Ensemble tours (Tongeren, 2004:187). To-day western overtone singing is used in many different musical genres. From a phonetic perspective, the formant tuning and the adjustments of the articulators during OTS, are of interest both with regard to aspects related to production and pedagogy.

Method and material

The study includes acoustic analysis of OTS performed by the first author (AMH in the following). In all spectrograms the program Overtone Analyzer( was used.

The MRI recordings were made at Freiburg University Hospital, usinga 3T Siemens Prisma Fit scanner. MRI recordings were completed in collaboration with professor Bernhard Richter, Dr Michael Burdumy and the singer at an earlier date. The MRI-illustrations are provided by the singer AMH. The singerAMH is a classically trained soprano with a wide frequency range of around ~100–2000 Hz. She started with overtone singing in 2005 and now cooperates with several musicians and composers to increase knowledge about the musical possibilities of the technique. AMH is also teaching overtone singing in masterclasses around the world.

The techniques

In the western style of overtone singing a distinction can be made between the so-called one- cavity-technique, where harmonics get amplified through specific vowel shapes and the so-called two -cavity-technique, where the tongue is raised and divides the oral cavity into two resonance chambers. This results in very clear, whistle-like harmonics. The differentiation between these two tech-niques was first performed by the ethno-musicologists Tran Quang Hai and Hugo Zemp, based on physiological research (Jentsch 2007:55). The one-cavity technique enhances the harmonics through changing the vowel shapes, mostly over a stabile fundamental. This is usually the first technical stage to learn in OTS.


Below different possibilities with OTS are explored. As seen in the spectrogram in Figure 1, overtones can be clearly visualized over a stabile fundamental. Note that a drone would have the same func-tion. Below the spectrogram the simulta-neous MRI registrations are shown. Also note the different and peculiar tongue shapes used to enhance the partials. This is especially apparent in the initial frames. The technique used for this anal-ysis is the two-cavity technique. Another possibility within the two-cavity technique is to move overtone and fundamental in parallel, or to leave the harmonics stabile and move the fundamental through the subharmonic series as shown in Figure 2.By alternating the fundamental frequency different overtones can be enhanced as shown in Figure 3. Here two alternating fundamentals and their harmonics are combined using the two-cavity technique.

Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201992Figure 1. Harmonics 4-10 amplified in the two-cavity technique from fundamental C4. Figure 2. A stable harmonic and a moving fundamental.Figure 3. Overtones over two alternating fundamentals.In Figure 4 AMH illustrates how overtones and fundamentals can be moved in opposite directions. This results in creating a musical counterpoint.Thus, simple classical songs or folk melodies can be easily arranged for OTS. In Figure 5 the spectrogram of the first phrase of “Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge” by W.A. Mozart is shown. The fundamental is not moved randomly but rather chosen within the overtone- and subharmonic series and within the singer’s voice range. Within these options harmonics are chosen that deliver a harmony or create a counterpoint move-ment. This provides a harmonic context to the melody in OT. Figure 4. Fundamental and overtones moving in opposite directions, resulting in a musical counterpoint.To result in polyphonic overtone singing, different combinations of movements for overtones and fundamentals are used. In the figure three combinations of movements for the overtones and the fundamentals are displayed.Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201993Figure 5. Three combinations of movements for overtones and fundamentals are shown. In this example it is the first phrase of “Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge” by W.A. Mozart.The physiology of overtone singing .In the one-cavity-technique the vowel transition between /i/ and /u/ is used, as in the slowly spoken words “oui” and “you”. Here only the movement of the second formant is enhancing harmonics, see Figure 6. In the second panel of the figure the same movement was executed but while whispering, to illustrate the ef-fects of the vocal tract.In the two-cavity technique the ele-vation and shape of the tongue creates two separate resonatory chambers. The tongue shape is similar to a / l/ or / ɹ /. The third formant is lowered and brought close to the second by a raised tongue. The 2nd and 3rd formant are coordinated and moved through the spectrum almost at the same frequency (Saus, 2016:450), amplifying the same harmonic. Also the impact of other formants is lowered.In both techniques, the first formantis kept low to improve control and pro-vide a larger range of options in the har-monic scale. In overtone singing melo-dies are created by formant tuning, pri-marily involving the second and third formant (F2, F3). The shape and eleva-tion of the tongue, jaw position, lip rounding and spreading plays key roles in this process. Figure 6. To the left overtones and f0 is shown while moving from /i/ to /u/ in one-cavity technique. To the right the same movement from /i/ to /u/ while whispering, illustrating filtering of the vocal tract.Discussion In the present study OTS produced by one singer using two techniques was an-alysed. Previously the enhancement of harmonics has been attributed to a nar-rowing of pharynx and the velar constriction, adjusting the mouth opening and a tuning of F1 and F2 (Klingholz 1993). In this study we showed that the formant tuning mainly involves F2 and F3 and that several other alterations are involved, such as tongue elevation and shape, lips and jaw position. Also the alterations differ depending on whether a one- or a two-cavity technique was used. Thus, OTS requires precision and timing of the motor control of the articulators and a very accurate pitch perception.

OT singing: A first-person account

When learning OTS , one learns to perceive harmonics as musical notes or pitches, while they are usually perceived as timbre or different vowels. This also leads to a more detailed perception of timbre and vowels, which is useful while learning other singing techniques or working with other singers. An improved perception and more precise control of your sound can lead toincreased blending and enhanced intona-tion. Learning overtone singing increases the ability to control the first 3 formants precisely and autonomously. This could be a useful ability also in Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201994other singing techniques in order to improve specific resonance strategies.

In polyphonic overtone singing not only the harmonics but also the funda-mental is moved within the musical con-text to enlarge the musical possibilities of the technique.When overtones and fundamentals are moved simultaneously a very specific coordination is required. The clos-est analogy for me (AMH) as a singer is that of “juggling”.

On terminology – what to call it

On the note of terminology the term “polyphonic overtone singing” has been questioned, e.g. by Maxfield and Titze (2015:470), who write: “Ms. Hefele dubs her technique “polyphonic over-tone singing.” In reality, like most over-tone singers, she selectively amplifies overtones to create a melody above a rel-atively stable fundamental frequency (F0). While her F0 does move, it may be questioned whether its movement rise to the level of an independent melody. As such, calling her technique “polyphony” – a musical style with its own rich history – might be a stretch. Stuart Hinds (2005) points out that he and other overtone singers are indeed capable of a style of overtone singing that could justifiably be called polyphonic, but this practice seems to be an extension of the style and not the most common practice”. Ethnomusicologist Carole Pegg notes that English terms for the practice include “biphonic singing,” “split-tone singing,” “Jew’s harp voice,” and “throat sing-ing.” French terms are no less varied, including “chant diphonique,” “voix dé-doublée,” and “voix guimbarde”.While it is (trivially) true that the set of upper harmonics are defined by the fundamental frequency, this does not completely rule out the use of the word “polyphony”. Although composers such as Palestrina (c1525–1594) were free, in theory, to put in any note in the upper voices, he most surely would never had considered going outside of the “true harmony”, making the end result similar to AMH’s singing. Palestrina was considered the “golden standard” of polyphony during his lifetime. This links to the second argumentagainst the term, that the singing tech-nique used by Hefele is not true polyph-ony, since “poly-” means “many”, and OTS can only produce two separate voices (Maxfield and Titze 2015:470).This argument has more merit since many languages make use of a “one, two, many” (singular, dual, plural) grammar. However, the suggested terms “biphonic singing” or “chant diphonique”, while technically accurate, might be somewhat misleading since “biphonic(al)” or the more commonly used term diplophonic phonation is well established in pathological voice production (e.g. Colton, Casper, Leonard, 2011) commonly referring to abnormal vocal fold vibrational patterns (Sveç, 2000) sometimes also including the ventricular folds (Maryn, De Bodt, Van Cauwenberge 2003). The term is also used to describe animal vocalizations (Wilden et al. 1998; Volodin & Vo-lodina, 2012), where it is a common ine.g. African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dholes (Cuon alpinus). Also, and perhaps more importantly, biphonation implies that the sound source are the vo-cal folds vibrating at different frequen-cies or irregularly. This, of course, is very far from the precise control of the fundamental and the harmonics Hefele, and other OT singers use to create their two -part singing.It is evident that OTS, as performed by AMH, is distinct from Tuva throat-singing but what term best describes it is not entirely clear.Overtone singing as a pedagogical tool

Although interesting in and by itself, OTS can also be used in the teaching of general phonetics and acoustic analysis, as tested for years by the second author (RE). Very often it is difficult to make students understand both that there are Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 Stockholm, June 10–12, 201995

For the comple article, click on the link below:

WIKIPEDIA : Anna-Maria Hefele

Anna-Maria Hefele

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search

Anna-Maria Hefele at INNtöne Jazzfestival 2019

Anna-Maria Hefele at Black Forest Voices fetival 2019

Anna-Maria Hefele is a German overtone singer. Hefele is from Grafing near Munich.[1]

This technique of singing polyphonic overtones is also known as “throat singing,” and Hefele has been practicing it since 2005.[2]

There are several styles of overtone singing found around the world. Canadian Inuit and several forms displayed in Mongolia and surrounding regions are the most recognized. Hefele’s style is culturally practiced in the Siberian region of Tuva. This whistling vocal version is called sygyt.[3]

The Huffington Post has commented on her “amazing ability” and her singing being “utterly bizarre”.[4] On 10 October 2014, she was number two on The Guardian’s Viral Video Chart,[5] with one online video titled Polyphonic Overtone Singing, which features Hefele as she demonstrates and explains overtones. As of October 2019, this video has received more than 14 million hits.


“Obertonsängerin Anna-Maria Hefele Eine Stimme wie nicht von dieser Welt”. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Fitzharris, Mia. “Throat Singer’s Performance Goes Viral”. Yahoo News. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Christopher Hooton (6 October 2014). This woman singing multiple notes at once is a total ‘I didn’t even know humans could do that’ moment. The Independent. Accessed October 2014. “German Musician Anna-Maria Hefele Demonstrates Polyphonic Overtone Singing, And It’s Amazing”. Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 October 2014.

  1. Perraudin, Frances (10 October 2014). “Viral Video Chart”. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2014.

External links

Authority control GND: 1124113053 MusicBrainz: 9949d133-f1de-467e-b746-4d73d7db351d VIAF: 29148570527924311549 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 29148570527924311549

This page was last edited on 29 October 2019, at 03:15 (UTC).

UMBRIA IN VOCE 5: Workshop di canto armonico con Tran Quang Hai, 9 November 2019, 13:00-18:00, GUBBIO, ITALY,

NOVEMBER 9 , 2019

UMBRIA IN VOCE 5 : Workshop di canto armonico con Tran Quang Hai

Public · Hosted by Umbria in Voce and 2 othersGoingShare


“Hosoo” Khosbayar Dangaa (mong. “Хосоо” Дангаагийн Хосбаяр)

“Hosoo” Khosbayar Dangaa (mong. “Хосоо” Дангаагийн Хосбаяр)

HOSOO ist sein Künstlername, er singt und spielt traditionelle mongolische Lieder, erzählt aus dem Inhalt der Lieder und vermittelt dem Publikum Wissenwertes über die Geschichte und Technik dieser faszinierenden Musik.

HOSOO wurde als Sohn einer Familie der Höömij-Sänger geboren und wuchs in der Heimat der Höömij-Gesänge, der Provinz Tschandman-Sum in Chovd (mong. Ховд аймаг, Чандман Сум), auf. Diese Provinz liegt im Altai-Gebirge, im Westen der Mongolei. Bereits in seiner Kindheit sang seine Familie in einem 30 köpfigen Ensemble ihres Dorfes die Höömij-Gesänge. Hosoo beschäftigt sich seit seinem 7. Lebensjahr, also seit über 25 Jahren, intensiv mit dieser Gesangskunst.

Höömii, der traditionelle mongolische Kehlkopfgesang entwickelte sich im Laufe der Jahrhunderte aus der innigen Naturverbundenheit der nomadisierenden Mongolen, bei der die Tiere (vor allem Pferde, Wölfe, Kamele), die Flüsse, das Echo der Berge und der Wind vom Höömij-Sänger imitiert werden.

HOSOO wurde in der mongolischen Hauptstadt Ulan Bator ausgezeichnet als “Bester Mongolischer Sänger”.

HOSOO ist ein Meister der Oberton-Gesangstechnik “Höömii”, auch Kehlkopfgesang genannt. Die Besonderheit dieser Technik besteht darin, dass der Sänger gleichzeitig zwei Töne hervorbringt: Einen langgedehnten summenden Grundton, über welchem sich die Melodie zu großen Höhen erhebt. Es können sogar bis zu dreistimmige Harmonien gesungen werden.

Seine Website:

Höömii (mong. Хөөмий)

Die älteste Quelle für mongolische Gesangskunst ist die inoffizielle Chronik “Geheime Geschichte der Mongolen“, die in der Zeit der mongolischen Imperiums-Bildung entstand (1240). Hier finden wir viele Beispiele der mongolischen Volksdichtung, Bruchstücke epischer Heldengesänge und zahlreiche Hochzeits-, Lob-, Preis- und Klagelieder (Ernst Emsheimer). Der Weltreisende Carpini schrieb in seinem Reisebericht über die Gesangsfreudigkeit der Mongolen, daß sie nach ein oder zwei Tagen ohne Nahrung nicht ungeduldig wurden, sondern sangen und spielten, als hätten sie die beste Mahlzeit genossen (Risch 1930, S.90). Ebenso war ihre Freude an musikalischen Gelagen recht groß. So schreibt der Historiker Juwaini, daß Dschingis Khan nach der Eroberung von Buchara (1220) die Weinbecher kreisen lies und nach den Sängerinnen der Stadt schickte, damit sie singen und tanzen, während die Mongolen ihre eigenen Gesänge zu den Melodien erhoben (Boyle 1958, S.104).

Im 13. Jahrhundert hatten die großen Khane ihre eigenen Sänger, die ihren Khan priesen und Epengesänge und Lobeshymnen über die mongolische Heimat, deren Natur und das Leben des Volkes sangen.

In der westmongolischen Legende wird über Menschen erzählt, die Geräusche der Natur nachahmten. Und der Dominikanermönch André Longjumeau verglich den Gesang der Mongolen mit dem Heulen der Wölfe, weil sich die Eigenart des mongolischen Klang- und Singstils beträchtlich von dem damaligen abendländischen unterschied.

Die Mongolen beschäftigten sich als nomadische Stämme vorrangig mit Jagd und Viehzucht. So setzten sie sich tagein und tagaus mit den Elementarkräften und Naturgewalten auseinander und waren gleichzeitig eng mit ihnen verbunden. Denn nur ein geschickter, respektvoller Umgang mit der Natur sicherte ihnen das Wohlwollen aller sichtbaren und unsichtbaren Kräfte. Die Mongolen begegnen der Natur mit großer Achtung und Verehrung. Ihnen sind die Erde, die Berge und die Flüsse heilig und sie leben im vollendeten Einklang mit der Natur. Der berühmte westmongolische Epenerzähler Avirmed sagte: “Dieses Volk, das beim Verehren der Hochgebirge singend und Ode und Epen erzählend feierte, ist der Pfad der altertümlichen Menschen, die die Feuer verehrten und den Jagdhimmel anriefen“.

Was genau ist Höömii?:

Das Höömij ist eine imitative Vokaltechnik und eine besondere Oberton-Gesangskunst, die von beliebigen Musikinstrumenten begleitet werden kann. Die Besonderheit besteht darin, daß der Sänger bei einigen Höömij-Arten gleichzeitig zwei Töne hervorbringt. Einer dieser Töne ist ein einziger langgedehnter summender Grundton, über welchem sich die Melodie zu großen Höhen erhebt.

Der Ton des Gesanges wird durch gezieltes Ausströmen der Atemluft hervorgerufen. Geformt wird der Ton durch die veränderte Position der Zunge, des Gaumensegels, des Kehldeckels und Verformung der Mundhöhle. Bei einigen Arten wird der Ton noch zusätzlich durch die Kontraktion und Ausdehnung der Hals- und Bauchmuskeln geformt, und so in seiner Klarheit verbessert. Diese Atemtechnik des Obertongesanges beansprucht stark die Stimmbänder, den Kehlkopf und das Zwerchfell. Ein guter Höömij-Sänger singt Höömij-Gesänge, ohne die Lippen zu bewegen!

Es gibt drei Arten des Höömij-Gesangs:

1. Isgeree-Höömij (pfeifartiges Höömij) 
(mong. Исгэрээ хөөмий)

Diese Art des Höömij-Gesangs wird nach der Art der Technik in vier Gruppen unterteilt:

Chooloin-Höömij (Rachen-Höömij) 
(Хоолойн хөөмий)
Beim Rachen-Höömij wird die geatmete Luft aus dem Bauch unter hohem Druck ausgeströmt. Der Ton wird mit Hilfe der Zunge und des Gaumens geformt. Hier spielt die Kontraktion und Ausdehnung des Kehlkopfs eine große Rolle.

Zeedshnij-Höömij (Brustkorb-Höömij) 
(Цээжний хөөмий)
Der Atem wird in der Brust angehalten. Nachdem die Zunge im hinteren Bereich des Gaumens nach oben gebogen ist, strömt die Luft unter hohem Druck durch Mund und Nase aus.

Gedesnij davchar zochilttoi-Höömij 
(Гэдэсний давхар зохилттой хөөмий)
(Höömij mit gleichzeitigem Mitwirken des Bauchmuskels zur Tonformung) Diese Art hat im Vergleich zu den anderen Art eine einfachere Technik. Der laminare Luftstrom aus dem Bauch wird durch plötzliches Dehnen und Zusammenpressen des Bauchmuskels geändert, wodurch der Ton melodisch geformt wird. Diese Art des Höömij-Gesangs beherrschen die Tuwiner außergewöhnlich gut.

Chamrijn-Höömij (Nasen-Höömij) 
(Хамрын хөөмий)
Die Technik ist dem Brustkorb-Höömij ähnlich. Der Ton kommt aber nur durch die Nase.

2. Charchiraa-Höömij (brummendes und krächzendes Höömij) 
(Хархираа хөөмий)

Das Charchiraa-Höömij ist die ursprüngliche Art des Höömij-Gesangs. Diese Art unterscheidet sich von den anderen durch ihre eigenartige Technik und grandiose und pathetische Melodie. Mit Charchiraa-Höömij kann man Epengesänge und Lobeshymnen singen und sogar die Laute verschiedener Tiere nachahmen. Charchiraa-Höömij wird unterteilt in:

Davchar zochilttoi Charchiraa (gleichzeitiges Mitwirken des Bauch- und Kehlkopfmuskels bei der Formung des Tons) Die Besonderheit dieser Art liegt daran, daß beim Ausströmen der Luft die Bauch- und Halsmuskel gleichermaßen dazu beitragen, den Gesang zu verzieren wie die Zunge und Mundhöhle. Diese erfolgt durch freies Ausströmen der Luft, nicht mit so hohem Druck wie bei den anderen Arten.

Dan zochittoi-Charchiraa (nur Kontraktion und Ausdehnung des Kehlkopfs) Diese Technik ist geeignet für Lobeshymnen und Epengesänge. Die Luft wird unter sehr hohem Druck aus dem Bauch durch den eng zusammengepreßten Hals zum Gaumen ausgeströmt.

3. Schachaa-Höömij (komprimierendes Höömij)
(Шахаа хөөмий)

Das Schachaa-Höömij ist eine selbständige Art des Höömij-Gesangs. Der Ton wird durch vibrierende Bewegungen der Halsmuskulatur und zusätzlich durch die Mundhöhle geformt, wobei die Zunge und der Gaumen eine große Rolle spielen. Diese Technik ist gut geeignet, Lieder mit schnellen Rhythmus zu singen.

Urtin duu – langes Lied (Уртын дуу)

Melismatisch reich verziert, langsame Tempi, lange Melodien, grosse Intervalle, hat keinen festen Rhythmus.

Es wird in Strophenform gesungen, ohne eigentlichen Refrain und mit voller Stimme und in höchster Lage. Die Melodie hat einen Mantel, man singt mehr als drei Oktaven und verlangt eine strenge Einhaltung der Atmung. Die Atmung ist eigentlich frei, doch man hat sich an strenge Vortrags-Regeln zu halten, so wenig wie möglich Pausen zum Luft holen machen und darf keine Ornamente unterbrechen. Je länger und reichhaltiger die Stimme gehalten werden kann, um so grösser die Aufmerksamkeit der Zuhörer und umso eher eine hohe Annerkennung beim Auftritt.

Die Leute gebrauchen diese langen Lieder vor allem, wenn sie in der offenen Steppe allein sind und langsam voranreiten. Das Repertoire ist Ausdruck für die Freiheit und die Weite der mongolischen Steppen und begleitet auch zyklische Riten des Jahres und Zeremonien des alltäglichen Lebens. Es bildet einen wesentlichsten Bestandteil bei Festen in den Rundzelten und unterliegt strengen Vortrag-Regeln. Es gibt drei Kategorien von langen Liedern: – das Ausgedehnte mit ununterbrochen fliessenden Melodielinien, üppig verziert, lange falsettierte Passagen enthaltend, – das Gewöhnliche ist kürzer, weniger ausgeziert und verzichtet auf das Falsett, – das Verkürzte hat Kurzverse, Kehrreime und sprunghafte Melodieverläufe.

Bogin duu – kurzes Lied
(Богинын дуу)

strophisch, syllabisch, rhythmisch gebunden, wird ohne Verzierungen vorgetragen. Bei Feierlichkeiten werden niemals kurze Lieder verwendet, da diese spontan improvisiert werden und eher satirischer Natur sind. Sie haben oft Dialogform und handeln von bestimmten Freunden und Begebenheiten. Sie erzählen oft in lyrischer Form von der Liebe, dem Alltag oder von Tieren, insbesondere von Pferden.

Tuuli- heroisch-epische Sagen

Mongolische Epen erzählen von erbitterten Kämpfen der guten Mächte gegen die Kräfte des Bösen und sind literarisch hochrangige Dichtungen. Der Epenvortrag war stets an Rituale gebunden, und man schrieb ihm magische Kräfte zu. Naturgeister sollten durch das Vortragen von Epen günstig gestimmt werden, und man versuchte damit die bösen Geister zu vertreiben. In der Regel fand der Epengesang in den runden Filzzelten der Hirten während der Suche nach einem Winterquartier, vor Jagden oder Schlachten, bei Unfruchtbarkeit oder Krankheit statt.

Magtaal – Loblied 

Loblieder (magtaal) werden gesungen zu Ehren der lamaistischen Götter und Naturgeister, Helden oder einzelner Tiere. Epentexte enthalten auch Lobgesänge an Berge, Flüsse, die Natur allgemein. Eine uralte Tradition, wie sie heute noch lebendig gehalten wird von den Stämmen im Raume des Mongol-Altai im Westen der Mongolei. 

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