UNIVERSITEIT UTRECHT: overtone singing

singing
overtone singingtuva overtone singing 1tuva overtone singing 2tuva overtone singing 3tuva overtone singing 4
 overtone singing
This is a demonstration of overtone singing. Overtone singing is an articulatory technique in which a certain overtone is amplified. You will hear a whistle over the drone of the fundamental and lower harmonics.
The first fragment demonstrates a technique which is especially used in the Western countries. The tongue is very slowly moved from the position of the vowel /O/ to the position of the vowel /i:/, resulting in a special scale of overtones. The fundamental remains the same in all cases! The careful somewhat retroflex articulation brings the second and third formant together, which amplifies the nearby overtone. The overtones 5-16 can be heard. To produce the overtones 3-5, one has to make a nasal sound and articulate from /o:/ to /a:/. The overtone is then amplified by the first formant, while the nasal anti-resonance creates the acoustic distinction between the amplified overtone and the lowest harmonics.
In the subsequent demonstrations, we hear song fragments containing overtone singing, from the Tuva Republic in Mongolia. The technique is not essentially different from the Western technique, but glottal adducation is much higher (almost pressed singing). The Tuva people know a number of techniques, which are related to the fundamental frequency. In these fragments you will hear Sygyt which is typically produced with a pitch of 150-200 Hz. An other technique is Kargyra, with a characteristic low pitch of less than 60 Hz. More information:
Bloothooft, G., Bringmann, E., van Cappellen, M., van Luipen, J.M., and Thomassen, K.P. (1992). Acoustics and perception of overtone singing, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 1827-1836. Levin, Theodore C., and Edgerton, Michael E. (1999). The Throat Singers of Tuva, Scientific American, Sept.1999. www.harmonx.com [19 Jul 2001] with sound clips!


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overtone singing
Keeping a constant pitch of about 130 Hz, a professional Western performer sings a scale of the overtones 4 to 16. The narrow-band spectrogram shows the amplification of the successive overtones. The lowest overtones are amplified by the first formant, the stepwise increasing resonance is the combination of second and third formant. Higher formants are also visible.


File size505246 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 1
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size363058 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 2
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size329092 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 3
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size398652 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing


tuva overtone singing 4
A Tuva singer demonstrates his “throat singing” or overtone singing, in which individual overtones are amplified. These overtones are clearly visible in the spectrogram.


File size407606 bytesFormataiffKeywordsovertone throat singing

http://audiufon.hum.uu.nl/data/e_boventoon.html

Hilary FINCHUM: Tuvan Overtone Singing: Harmonics Out of Place

Hilary FINCHUM: Tuvan Overtone Singing: Harmonics Out of Place

Tuvan Overtone Singing: Harmonics Out of Place
Hilary Finchum

HILARY FINCHUM-SUNG

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The region known as Tuva is contained within the southern portion of Siberia, lying in the exact geographical center of Asia. The traditional territory stretches from the Altai Mountains to the headwaters of the Yenisei, northwest of the mountain border between Russia and Mongolia. Surrounded by mountain ranges on the northeast, north, northwest, and western boundaries, Tuva was kept in relative isolation for a very long time. Economically, these people are dependent on their flocks of sheep, reindeer, horses, yaks, and others for much of the materials that are required to live in this harsh environment‹skin and fur for clothing, meat, milk, and dung for fuel.

Proximity to nature produces at once a dependency on Tuva’s resources and an intimate relationship of respect with the wonders of the natural world. This sense of intimacy is very much reflected in xcoomei, the Tuvan form of throat or overtone singing. Overtone singing is a type of singing in which one or more upper harmonics carry the melody, while the lower harmonics, including the fundamental, sustain a steady drone beneath the melody. The result is that a single singer can sing two or more pitches simultaneously.

In the recent past, some work has been done on the analysis of xoomei, and more has been done on overtone singing generally. The focus on this research has been on the effort to discover exactly how overtone melodies are produced. Hypotheses as to the mechanics of overtone singing range from ideas as to the necessary physical stance and posture used by the singer during a performance, to the actual physical formation of the mouth cavity in producing the overtones. Several previous researchers seem to agree that the production of the harmonics in throat singing is essentially the same as the production of an ordinary vowel. Leothaud says: “nous pouvons … conclure qu’il n’existe aucune difference de nature entre la prononciation des voyelles et l’emission diphonique” (we can conclude that there exists on difference in nature whatsoever between the pronunciation of vowels and overtone singing) (1989, 34). Similarly, Bloothooft, et al., report an entire investigation of overtone singing, based on the similarity of this kind of phonation to the articulation of vowel. The most persuasive of the researchers who approach overtone singing as vowel production is Mark Van Tongeren, who actually learned to produce the sounds of xoomei from Tuvan throat singers. In his lessons with the Tuvan singer Mongush Mergen, he says that in “explaining (to) me how to sing vowels he also commented on the physical aspects of singing, and said that I should not worry about the melodies as long as I sang the vowels properly” (Zanten and Roon 304). Different vowel sounds are supposed to produce varied effects. Van Tongeren implies that vowels are more important than the actual pitch of the overtones, since once the correct vowel sounds are produced the pitches will sound. “Apparently the most important thing is to produce the same vowel and the same sound quality” (Zanten and Roon 305).

Based on the results of acoustic analysis of Xoomei conducted at SAVAIL, I would like to argue that the physical act of creating overtones may originate in vowel production, but the end product (the actual overtones themselves) are far from vowel-like. It is not the case that the production of certain vowels will result in the presence of overtones that can carry a melody. Initial evidence that the overtones used to make melody are not vowel-like can be gathered from the fact that singers appear to be able to sing either vowels or overtone melodies, but not both at the same time; in other words, if overtones were simply vowels pronounced in a certain order, then singers could sing a text consisting of words whose vowels contained the necessary overtones to make the melody. Instead it appears that when throat singers want to include a text, they cannot melodicize overtones until the text is over; the text is “ordinary”, monophonic singing, with the fundamental frequency carrying the melody of the song; overtone melodies do not occur until the text is over. When the upper overtones become prominent enough to carry a melody, they cease to function as part of a vowel, which depends on the upper harmonics to contribute toward the sensation of timbre, (or vowel quality) rather than pitch. In fact, the Tuvans have a genre of Xoomei, called xorekteer, which is not overtone singing, consisting instead of text, with the fundamental as the melodic basis. Usually sung as an introduction to a xoomei piece, the xorekteer provides the text, which the xoomei lacks while it is focused on overtone singing.

This paper presents part of the results of larger study on Xoomei. I hope to show in this paper through acoustic analysis of a single example of Xoomei, typical of the genre and of overtone singing in general, that the necessary acoustic characteristics of overtones when they are produced for melodic purposes make then useless for timbral purposes; as soon as these overtones become prominent enough to be “heard out” as separate pitches, they fail to be fused into the unitary sensation of timbre, or vowel quality. The form of xoomei analyzed for this project is called Borbannadir which means “rolling” and thus imitates either the sound of running water, or horses hooves. The sound of borbannadir is much fuller than other forms of Xoomei, and the fundamental drone tends to be a little higher – in either the bass or baritone range.

For the analysis of the style of Xoomei in question, three different computer programs were employed. Oedipe-2.0 allowed a three-dimensional view of the progress of the harmonic envelop over time, and also allowed us to view each of the prominent harmonics as a function of time. Spectro-3.0 is an important tool in providing true energy-based frequency readings of prime harmonic peaks, rather than approximating a frequency based on its location within a calibrated window. SpecDraw was invaluable in allowing the filtering of individual harmonics, so that the prominent, melody-carrying overtones could be examined in isolation from the rest of the sound.

A sample of Borbannadirb is pictured below. Fig. 1 shows the entire sample as a spectrogram with its waveform; three prominent harmonics can be seen moving in parallel. Fig. 2 shows the most prominent overtoneb filtered from the remainder of the sound; the frequency scale has also been changed for closer examination. Here we see the frequency movement of the overtone, moving from 1563 Hz to
1788 Hz to 1338 Hz, which translates approximately into the sensation of the pitches G#, A, and F.

Fig. 1: Spectrogram and waveform of sample. Spectrogram is narrowband for viewing individual harmonics, with time along the horizontal axis in milliseconds, and frequency along the vertical axis. For the waveform, the horizontal axis is time, the vertical axis voltage.

Fig. 2: Spectrogram and waveform of most prominent harmonics, with frequency scale shortened for closer viewing. Spectrogram is narrowband for viewing individual harmonics, with time along the horizontal axis in milliseconds, and frequency along the vertical axis. For the wavform, the horizontal axis is time, the vertical axis voltage.

It is important to note that the overtone melody is not made from a single overtone that changes pitch over time. Rather the pitch movement of the melody in the case of the Borbannadir sample is the result of three different harmonics – the eighth, ninth, and tenth – which take their turn in prominence. This is generally true of overtone singing where the fundamental and its harmonics compose an unmoving drone with the melody above it: the melody cannot be made of a single harmonic changing frequency; instead, each pitch of the melody consists of a different harmonic, so that part of the skill of overtone singing must lie in the smooth transition from one prominent harmonic to the next. Fig. 3 shows the same waveform of the Borbannadir sample, with points marked in the middle of segment of pitch. Figs. 4, 5, and 6 show spectra of the Borbannadir sample at points coinciding exactly with the marks G#, A, and F. Each spectrum shows a different harmonic in prominence, whose frequency coincides approximately with the corresponding pitches.

Fig. 3: Waveform of Borbannadir sample with pitches marked at places where spectra of Figs. 4, 5, and 6 are sliced.

Fig. 4: spectrum drawn from point marked G# in Fig. 3. Eighth harmonic is prominent F in Fig. 3. Tenth harmonic is prominent.
X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude. Fig. 5: spectrum drawn from point marked A in Fig. 3. Ninth harmonic is prominent.
X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude. Fig. 6: spectrum drawn from point marked F in Fig. 3. Tenth harmonic is prominent.
X -axis is frequency, Y-axis is amplitude.

Figure 7 shows the rise time, steady state, and decay of each of the three harmonics. Notice that they overlap each other, rather than decaying sharply or leaving silence between them; this is perhaps part of the reason that the melody of the overtones moves smoothly from pitch to pitch, even though each pitch is a different harmonic.


Fig. 7: Rise time, steady state, and decay of three overlapping harmonics which produce the overtone melody.

While it will come as no surprise to an acoustician, it is somewhat counterintuitive to the musician to realize that all sounds are composed of the same physical ingredients. A harmonic of 440 Hz drawn from a violin tone will sound exactly like a harmonic of 440 Hz drawn from a flute tone, or even from a vocal tone; a single harmonic is simply a sine wave of a certain frequency, a wave of air pressure arriving to our ears from the environment, no matter what instrument emits it. What makes a harmonic distinctive to a given instrument (in its steady state, since attacks and decays will involve characteristic variations), is the amplitude of that harmonic relative to the other harmonics of the instrument. Or, what makes the harmonic distinctive is its role in producing the sensation on the part of the listener of the emitting instrument’s tone quality.

Conceptually, then, the mechanics of producing melodic overtones are interesting precisely because they deprive the prominent harmonic of its identity. As soon as that harmonic becomes loud enough to produce the sensation of melody, it can no longer contribute to the tone quality of the instrument, having become a melody-bearing element rather than a timbre-bearing element. As soon as the harmonic becomes audible on its own, it is a sinewave with the peculiar timbral quality of a sinewave, possessing nothing of the timbre of the human instrument that emitted it. It is a harmonic which could theoretically belong to any instrument having the same fundamental frequency as the tone which includes it.

Similarly, for both acoustic and perceptual reasons, the production of an overtone melody can not be described as vowel production. Acoustically, a vowel is distinctive because of its formant structure. In overtone singing, formants are reduced to one or a few harmonics, often with surrounding harmonics attentuated as much as possible. Even Bloothooft et al confess that the formants of an overtone-sung tone are so narrow as to have bandwidths that are difficult to measure. Perhaps these researchers had trouble measuring the bandwidths because the formants they wanted to measure were no longer formants, having been narrowed to prominent harmonics instead. And perceptually, overtone singing usually sounds nothing like an identifiable vowel. This is primarily because, as described above, a major part of the overtone-sung tone has switched from contributing to the timbre of the tone to provoking the sensation of melody. Such a distorted “vowel” can convey little phonetic information.

Works Cited

Bloothooft, Gerrit, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Cappellen, Jolanda B van Luipen, and Koen P. Thomassen. “Acoustics and Perception of Overtone Singing”. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. vol 4, part 1. October 1992: 1827-1836.

Bregman, Albert S. Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Broadhead, Alex. “Harmonic Singing: An Introduction to the Phenomenon and its Production and Analysis”. Unpublished. Dartmouth College, 1995.

Handel, Stephen. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989.

Levin, Theodore. Program notes for “Huur-Huur-Tu: Throat Singers of Tuva”. Weigel Hall. Columbus, Ohio. January 1994.

Van Zanten, William and Van Roon, Marjolijn, ed. Oideion: The Performing Arts World Wide 2. Research School: Leiden University, 1995. Publié il y a 12th January 2009 par TRAN QUANG HAI

Nguyễn Đức : Hát đồng song thanh

alash-tuva-2012-compositejpg-7d14d494ce2e0791

Nguyễn Đức Tất cả bài viết

Hát đồng song thanh

Hát đồng song thanh hay được biết đến trên thế giới với cái tên Tuvan Throat Singing, Khoomei (Khơ mây), Hooliin Chor.  Là một biến thể đặc biệt của hòa âm giọng hát, được hình thành và phát triển từ Mông Cổ, Nội Mông, Tuva và Siberia. Nó được tổ chức UNESCO công nhận là di sản văn hóa phi vật thể năm 2009 dưới cái tên Nghệ thuật hát Mông Cổ, Khơ mây.

Trong kĩ thuật hát này, người trình diễn sẽ tạo ra một cao độ cơ bản và đồng thời tạo ra thêm một cao độ khác cao hơn cùng lúc. Kỹ thuật này đã có từ thời xa xưa, nhiều người đàn ông du mục chăn nuôi ở khu vực này biết hát Khơ mây, nhưng nữ thì có thể tập luyện và tiếp cận kỹ thuật này tốt hơn. Sự phổ biến của kỹ thuật hát này cũng bắt nguồn từ vị trí địa lý và nền văn hóa du mục. Với quan cảnh và địa hình tại các khu vực này có thể mang âm thanh đi một khoảng cách rất xa. Thông thường các ca sĩ hay đi đến các vùng nông thôn hẻo lánh, đến các bờ sông, hay vùng thảo nguyên với nhiều sườn núi để tạo môi trường thích hợp để rèn luyện biểu diễn kỹ thuật hát khá ảo diệu này.

Trong thế giới tâm linh của các vùng đất này, họ tôn thờ thiên nhiên, các đối tượng trong tự nhiên không chỉ bởi hình thể, vị trí mà còn là âm thanh, vì vậy mà giả lập lại âm thanh trong tự nhiên là nguồn gốc của kỹ thuật hát này.

Kỹ thuật hát đồng song thanh chỉ đơn giản là sự hài hòa âm thanh mà người hát có thể sản xuất từ sâu trong cổ họng của họ. Thông thường, giai điệu được tạo ra bằng cách cô lập bậc 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 và 12 phù hợp với dòng hòa âm (nếu cơ bản tần số là C3, các âm bội sẽ là: G5, B ♭ 5, C6, D6, E6, G6), mặc dù nó có thể đạt đến mức thấp thứ 2 và cao đến bậc 24. Các cao độ cơ bản thường nằm ở khoảng G dưới middle C, và điều này ảnh hưởng đến phạm vi của quãng giọng các ca sĩ có thể đạt được.

Để dễ hiểu hơn ta có thể xem qua video clip của GS. TS Trần Quang Hải, người đầu tiên nghiên cứu và thành công trong việc hát được kỹ thuật hát đồng song âm ở Việt Nam.

Có 3 phong cách hát đồng song thanh cơ bản là  Khoomei, Kargyraa and Sygyt, Ezengileer, Borbannadyr

Khoomei là phong cách truyền thống, phong cách âm nhẹ nhàng hơn, với các âm cơ bản (hay drone) thường ở tần trung thấp đến tầm trung của giọng nói bình thường của ca sĩ. Trong phong cách này, thường là 2 hoặc 3 giai điệu có thể được nghe từ một đến hai quãng tám trên. Trong Khoomei, bụng khá thoải mái, và có ít căng thẳng về thanh quản hơn trong các phong cách khác. Cao độ được hình thành bằng thao tác thông qua một sự kết hợp của đôi môi, cổ họng, lưỡi hoặc hàm.


Sygyt nghĩa đen là huýt sáo, do âm thanh tạo ra ở tầm trung cơ bản và các bồi âm ở tần cao nghe giống tiếng huýt sáo,  tiếng chim. Cao độ hình thành tương tự phong cách Khoomei

https://adammuzic.vn/hat-dong-song-thanh/

Kargyraa là kỹ thuật có liên quan đến Phật giáo Tây Tạng và có sự tương đồng với vocal fry trong thanh nhạc hiện đại và cũng là cách đã hình thành nên giọng nói của nhân vật hoạt hình Popeye’s

ở 2 phong cách còn lại là sự biến thể của 3 phong cách chính trên. Ngày nay hát đồng song thanh đã có những bước phát triển sáng tạo khi được sử dụng vào cả nhạc dance, rap hiphop để cho ra các thể loại độc đáo và rất lạ.

https://adammuzic.vn/hat-dong-song-thanh/

CÉRÉMONIE DES CHAKRAS – par Pierre Redon & l’Ensemble “9”

CÉRÉMONIE DES CHAKRAS – par Pierre Redon & l’Ensemble “9”

304 vues•5 févr. 2020 6 1 Partager EnregistrerLes Sœurs Grées – Marche Sonore Pierre Redon 18 abonnés Avec les musiciens de l’ensemble “9”, en réharmonisant vos centres énergétiques au son des shengs et des bols de cristal, vous augmentez votre vitalité et l’incarnation de soi.

Johanni Curtet et Quang Hải Trần: Trần Quang Hải, expérimentateur de l’oralité

Anciennement Cahiers de musiques traditionnellesSommaire32 | 2019
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Entretien

Trần Quang Hải, expérimentateur de l’oralité

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Présenter Trần Quang Hải le temps d’un entretien n’est pas un exercice facile, tant les facettes de cet étonnant personnage sont nombreuses. Je n’aborderai pas ici sa carrière de musicien, avec ses quelques 3000 concerts ; ni celle de compositeur, avec plus de 200 chansons vietnamiennes. Je ne m’attarderai pas non plus sur les raisons de son succès reconnu par des distinctions telles que la médaille de Cristal du CNRS (1995), le Prix Spécial du khöömii à Kyzyl en République de Touva (1995), le Prix du meilleur joueur de guimbardes de Molln en Autriche (1998) et la médaille de Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (2002). Je souhaiterais insister davantage sur la période qui a construit l’ethnomusicologue et musicien que nous connaissons, né le 13 mai 1944 à Linh Dong Xa au Viêt Nam.

Au début des années 1990, alors que je menais des expériences vocales adolescentes, je suis tombé sur un reportage à la télévision dans lequel un homme, asiatique, présentait une technique vocale étrange dans …Haut de page

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Johanni Curtet et Quang Hải Trần, « Trần Quang Hải, expérimentateur de l’oralité », Cahiers d’ethnomusicologie, 32 | 2019, 247-267.

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Johanni Curtet et Quang Hải Trần, « Trần Quang Hải, expérimentateur de l’oralité », Cahiers d’ethnomusicologie [En ligne], 32 | 2019, mis en ligne le 01 octobre 2021, consulté le 11 février 2020. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ethnomusicologie/3654Haut de page

Auteurs

Johanni !curtet & tran quang hai

Johanni Curtet

Johanni CURTET, docteur en musicologie, est chercheur associé à l’EA Histoire et critique des arts, Université Rennes 2. Ethnomusicologue spécialiste du khöömii (chant diphonique mongol) et de la Mongolie, ses recherches portent notamment sur la transmission, l’histoire, le timbre vocal, la spectacularisation, l’institutionnalisation, la patrimonialisation et le processus compositionnel dans cette tradition. Il est aussi enseignant du chant diphonique (Cité de la musique, Université Rennes 2, etc.) musicien, producteur, et directeur artistique de Routes Nomades.

Quang Hải Trần

Tran Quang Hai , né le 13 mai 1944 à Linh Dong Xa au Viêt Nam, est un ethnomusicologue dont le domaine de recherche est la musique vietnamienne, la musique asiatique, et le chant diphonique sibérien. Il a été ethnomusicologue au Centre de recherche en ethnomusicologie (CNRS) de 1968 á 2009 et a pris sa retraite en mai 2009.

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https://tranquanghaisworldthroatsinging.com/2019/10/15/article-de-johanni-curtet-dans-la-revue-cahiers-de-musiques-traditionnelles-tran-quang-hai-experimentateur-de-loralite-21pages-paru-2019/

Music and Dance from Mongolia, Feb 14th, 6pm Bayard Sharp Hall, University of Delaware, USA

Music and Dance from Mongolia, Feb 14th, 6pm Bayard Sharp Hall, University of Delaware, USA. Please spread the word!

WOLFGANG SAUS : What is Overtone Singing?

What is Overtone Singing?

The art of singing two notes at the same time

Overtone singing is a vocal technique that creates the auditory impression of polyphony by filtering individual overtones from the sound spectrum of the voice by controlling the resonances in the vocal tract in such a way that they are perceived as separate tones. [(Saus 2004)]

00:0000:00

Sound sample: Pianoo – Harmoniversum

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Short Version

It is amazing when a single person sings two notes at the same time. A second flute-like tone suddenly sounds about two octaves above the normal voice, which seems to float crystal clear and hardly locatable in space. The sound is reminiscent of a glass harp, exotic and yet strangely familiar. It touches in a peculiar way, has a calming effect and is almost physically palpable.

Can anyone do that?
Yes, anyone who can speak can learn overtone singing.

→ Learning overtone singing

How does overtone singing sound? 00:0000:00

Brahms’ Lullaby in bass and soprano at the same time.

→more sound samples

Where does overtone singing come from?
The styles were created independently of each other. Western overtone singing comes from Europe and not from Mongolia, as is often claimed. Altai styles of the Turkic peoples are related to each other. Less well known are overtone songs from Africa, Papua New Guinea and Tibet. Here is a list of styles:

→ Styles worldwide

How does overtone singing work?
The resonance in the mouth and throat are combined with tongue, lip and jaw movements in such a way that individual overtones become so loud that they are perceived as individual tones.

→ see below

The Trick: Double Resonance

The secret of overtone singing is double resonance – the merging of two resonance frequencies that originate in the pharynx and oral cavity (vocal tract) [(Kob, Neuschaefer-Rube, and Saus 2001), (Matern et al. 2001),

(Neuschaefer-Rube et al. 2002), (Saus 2009)]. This does not occur in the German language. That’s why overtone singing is not so easy to discover by oneself, although in principle it consists only of exotic “vowels”.

The lowest three resonance frequencies in the vocal tract can be changed in pitch arbitrarily. This is done with mouth-, lip-, tongue- and larynx movements. Vowels are created by the first two resonance frequencies, a special pitch for each vowel.

In overtone singing, the third resonance frequency is added and lowered to the pitch of the second resonance frequency by creating an additional cavity under the tongue.

The resulting double resonator is then precisely matched to an overtone [(Saus 2009)]. The effect: the overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, which gives the impression that you hear two tones, namely the voice and the amplified overtone. If you move the double resonator from overtone to overtone, you get the impression of an overtone melody.

Overtone singers thus produce the melody with the form of the vocal tract, not with the vocal chords. The second resonance frequency determines the pitch. The third resonance frequency is used for amplification.

Actually, you still hear all the partials, not two. But the timbre created by the isolated overtone is so unfamiliar that the brain searches for a comparison with what it knows and thus communicates a flute-like sound and a singing voice to the consciousness. Overtone singing is thus a kind of acoustic illusion.

In fact, everyone hears the overtone singing a little differently. Some people experience more or less vowel character and associate the sound of the Australian didgeridoos. Others hear the sound of the flute so clearly and separately that they cannot believe it comes from the voice. These different perceptions are related to the individual sound processing (cf. How overtones work in the brain).

This double resonator can be varied over more than one octave. Most overtone singers don’t know anything about it. They are still good at overtone singing because they have intuitively learned over a long time to control their resonances. Those who have knowledge of the connections, however, learn overtone singing much faster and can optimize overtone singing in a targeted way. If you are looking for an overtone singing teacher, make sure he has this background knowledge. This saves time and money.

Voice as a Double Instrument

Our voice consists of two instruments:

  1. The primary sound (singing tone) is formed in the larynx and consists of a chord of partial tones (sine tones) and a noise portion. It generates the keynote pitch.
  2. The resonances in the vocal tract (mouth, throat, nose) modulate the volume of the partials. They produce the timbre. During overtone singing, they produce the melody from overtones.

Voice = primary sound + resonance

This corresponds to the classic source filter model of the voice. The new thing, however, is that in overtone singing the resonances are used as a second melody instrument. The fact that resonances can be tuned to a precise pitch is generally unknown and is not taught in classical singing education.

First Instrument: Harmonics

Teiltonakkord von c mit Spektrum und Spektrogramm

Overtones are a natural part of the voice. They are always present in the voice. A normal vocal sound consists of a bundle of partials (on the difference between partial and overtone, see here).

This bundle forms a special harmonic partial-tone chord, which we normally hear as a single note with a timbre. The timbre is created by the volume distribution of the partials. The volume distribution in the picture results from the vowel æ.

If an overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, it will suddenly be perceived as a separate tone. This is exactly what happens with overtone singing. Extreme “vowels” are used, which are not found in the language. Overtone singing is in a way an acoustic illusion, because in fact only one note is sung, but because of an extreme “pronunciation” it sounds like two notes. But one could also say that it is an acoustic disillusionment: the tone consists of many tones, and now we hear at least two of them, the keynote and the amplified overtone.

Second Instrument: Resonance Frequencies

The mouth and throat space from the larynx to the lips is also called vocal tract. Like any cavity, the vocal tract has natural resonance frequencies. These resonances are pitches that change with the shape of the mouth. The resonances change the volume distribution of the partials in the voice. This creates vowels. The fact that the resonances can be used as a melody instrument, however, is completely unknown as a concept.

Pharynx Tongue & Second Formant

The pharynx tongue controls the 2nd resonance frequency (2nd formant), the space under the tongue controls the 3rd resonance frequency. The aim of overtone singing is to place the two resonances exactly on top of each other and to meet an overtone at the same time.

During examinations at the University Hospital Aachen we found that the pharyngeal tongue movement together with the epiglottis mainly controls the overtones .

Try it: Let your tongue hang out of your mouth and speak the English we with a creaking voice (vocal fry) and motionless lips, preferably in slow motion. And then the English you, which is the backwards movement. The vowel transition i-u and u-i in these words is now produced exclusively by the pharyngeal tongue because of the inactive front tongue. It’s important that you take time for all the intermediate vocals.

Usa a sound analysis program like Overtone Analyzer to record a spectrogram of the produced sound. You will see in the spectrogram that only the second resonance frequency moves.

Mouth Floor & Third Formant

We don’t move the 3rd resonance frequency in German vowels. Therefore, the associated tongue movements are unfamiliar. If you keep your tongue in the L-position, a cavity will form under your tongue. If you then lower the floor of your mouth and pull back the muscles at the side next to the frenulum of your tongue, you will hear a sound similar to the American “r”  [ ɹ ]. Imagine a small hot potato under your tongue. The larger the cavity, the lower the 3rd resonance frequency.

With a little practice the 3rd resonance frequency can be lowered exactly to the frequency of the 2nd. That’s the basic technique of overtone singing.

Literature & Sources

Itemisations

Books

Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Arjopa. 1999. Choomii – das mongolische Obertonsingen [Medienkombination] : Anleitung zum Selberlernen. 1. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausendeins. Coffin, Berton. 1980. Coffin’s Overtones of Bel Canto: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel-Chart Exercises: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel Chart Exercises. Scarecrow Pr Inc. Cope, Jonathan. 2004. How to Khoomei: And Other Overtone Singing Styles. Sound For Health. Finscher, Ludwig und Friedrich Blume. 1994. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart ( MGG): 23 Bände. 2., neubearb. A. Metzler. Galgut, Peter. 2005. Humming Your Way Happiness: An Introduction to Tuva and Overtone Singing from Around the World. O Books (John Hunt). Goldman, Jonathan. 1994. Heilende Klänge : die Macht der Obertöne. München: Droemer Knaur. Goldman, Jonathan. 2002. Healing Sounds: The Power of Harmonics. New. Healing Arts Home. Goldman, Jonathan. 2008. Klangheilung. Die Schöpferkraft des Obertongesangs. Mit CD zum Erlernen heilender Klänge! Erw. Ausg. mit CD. AMRA Verlag. Grawunder, Sven. 1999. Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs – Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang. Unpublished Diploma, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/S. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf. Grawunder, Sven. 2005. On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing – Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidences. Unpublished PhD thesis, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle. Grawunder, Sven. 2009. On the physiology of voice production in South-Siberian throat singing: analysis of acoustic and electrophysiological evidences. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Groeneveld, B.D. 2007. Stem en boventonen / druk 1: oefeningen, improvisaties, klankmeditaties. 1. Panta Rhei, Uitgeverij. Hinds, Stuart. 2012. Eine Oberton-Erfahrung – An Overtone-Experience: 15 Lieder mit mehrstimmigem Obertongesang – 15 polyphonic overtone songs you’ll love to sing. Übers. von Wolfgang Saus. 1., Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Levin, Theodore Craig und Valentina Suzukei. 2006. Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond with CD (Audio) and DVD: Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Har/Com/Dv. Indiana University Press. Mecke, Ann-Christine, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter und Thomas Seedorf, Hrsg. 2016. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme: Geschichte – Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen – Gesangstechniken – Interpreten. 1. Aufl. Instrumenten-Lexika. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. Pegg, Carole. 2001. Mongolian Music, Dance, and Oral Narrative: Recovering Performance Traditions. Pap/Com. Univ of Washington Pr. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Boventoonzang: een zelfstudiecursus in het leren hzingen van boventoonen. 1. Aufl. Katwijk aan Zee: Servire Uitgevers B. V. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Overtone Singing Study Guide. 1. Aufl. Cryptic Voices. Reimann, Michael. 1993. Unendlicher Klang. Obertöne in Stimme und Instrumentalmusik. Norderstedt: Kolibri. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Was ist Obertongesang – Eine Definition. In: Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs, 58. 1. Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs. 4. (2011). Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Obertongesang. In: Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft, hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller, 182–189. Schüttorf: Hess, 9. November. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang. Hg. von Ann-Christine Mecke, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter, und Thomas Seedorf. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme. Instrumenten-Lexika 5. Laaber: Laaber. Saus, Wolfgang und Minghao Xu. 2009. DVD. Der Oberton Workshop mit Wolfgang Saus. Erlerne das Geheimnis der magischen Stimmkunst Obertongesang. The Overtone-Workshop. Aquire the magical art of harmonic singing.DVD-5. 16:9 PAL. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang, Alexander Lauterwasser, Michael Konrath, Uwe Ross, Emily Zurek, Peter Gabis, Herbert Seitz, u. a. 2010. Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft. Hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller. Hess, Schüttorf. Stroh, Wolfgang Martin. 1999. Handbuch New Age Musik. Auf der Suche nach neuen musikalischen Erfahrungen. Conbrio Verlagsges.Mbh. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Hardcover). 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West. 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. Vetter, Michael. 1996. Om-Eine ObertonschuleAudio CD. Spectrum (Note 1). Voigt-Zimmermann, Susanne, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt und Wanda Mainka, Hrsg. 2016. Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Formanten – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Formanten (zugegriffen: 27. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Stimme – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Stimme (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Intervalle – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Intervalle (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Hören – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Hören (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Obertöne – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Obertöne (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wolff, Stephanie. 1987. Obertöne. Versinken in die Welt des Klanges. Meditation und Therapie durch neue Dimensionen der Musik. Mit einer praktischen Einführung in die Technik des Obertonsingens. Freiburg: Bauer.

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Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, hg. von Hellmut K Geissner, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2008. Faszination Oberton – Was sind Obertöne? 6, Nr. 6/2008. Organ des Europäischen Fachverbandes Klang-Massage-Therapie e.V.: 58–60. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Obertöne im Chor. Hg. von VDKC e. V. Chor und Konzert 130, Nr. 2/2009. Zeitschrift des Verbandes Deutscher Konzertchöre: 26–32. www.vdkc.de. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Karlheinz Stockhausen’s STIMMUNG and Vowel Overtone Singing. In: Ročenka textů zahraničních profesorů / The Annual of Texts by Foreign Guest Professors, 3:471–478. Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta: FF UK Praha. http://www.ff.cuni.cz/FF-8338.html. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Formant Tuning Taken to a New Level. Gehalten auf: PAS – The 5th International Conference on the Physiology and Acoustics of Singing, Stockholm, Schweden. http://www.speech.kth.se/pas5/ (zugegriffen: 14. Oktober 2015). Saus, Wolfgang. 2015. Chorphonetik – wenn Vokale die Intonation steuern. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 11, Nr. 1 (2. Juni): 22–26. http://www.bdg-online.org/. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang – wenn Formanten zu Tönen werden. In: Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis, hg. von Susanne Voigt-Zimmermann, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt, und Wanda Mainka, 19–23. Berlin: Frank & Timme, 22. August. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Gesangsphonetik – Ein neuer Weg zum optimalen Vokal. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 13, Nr. 4. (Jahreskongress des BDG 2017, Dokumentation): 17–20. http://voxhumana-online.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/vh_04-17_saus.pdf. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Fremd und doch vertraut: Obertongesang. Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift 12, Nr. 05 (August): 14–19. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-115597, https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0043-115597 (zugegriffen: 29. August 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Nur 1 von 20 kann diese Melodie hören – Mach den Hörtest. Ich liebe Obertongesang. 11. August. https://www.oberton.org/hoertest-saus/ (zugegriffen: 2. Januar 2019). O A. Spirituelles Portal – Tor zum Selbst und Verzeichnis für Spiritualität, Esoterik und Ganzheitlichkeit. http://www.spirituelles-portal.de/text.php?aktKategorie=Yoga&katNr=3&e0=0&e1=3&kategorienWurzel=3&&textNr=40&zurueck=/texteArchiv.php (zugegriffen: 10. Juni 2008). Stefanie Schramm – Die Zeit, Hamburg. 2005. Obertöne brummen rechts im Hirn. http://www.zeit.de/2005/33/Hirn-Orchester (zugegriffen: 22. Mai 2008). O A. throat-singing (music). Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1550505/throat-singing (zugegriffen: 23. Juni 2014). Tran Quang Hai. 2009. Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009). http://www.der.org/resources/study-guides/bibliography-of-overtone-singing.pdf. Tsai, Chen-Gia. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Physical Modeling of the vocal tract of a Sygyt singer. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PhysicalModelingofthevocaltractoaSygytsingeChengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Perception of Overtone Singing. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PerceptioofOvertoneSingingChenGiaTsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. 2005. Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing. Gehalten auf: International Symposium on Body & Cognition, Taipei, Taiwan. http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/index.html. Tsai, Chen-Gia, Yio-Wha Shau und Tzu-Yu Hsiao. 2004. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: A hypothesis. Gehalten auf: International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, Marseille, France. <a href="http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A”>http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). O A. 2005. Universität Heidelberg – Pressemitteilungen – Obertonhörer, Grundtonhörer. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news05/2508waru.html (zugegriffen: 25. April 2009). Weinmann, Karl. 1961. Johannes Tinctoris (1445-1511) und sein unbekannter Traktat „De inventione et usu musicae“; historisch-Kritische Untersuchung. Berichtigte und mit einem Vorwort versehene Neu-Ausg. von Wilhelm Fischer. H. Schneider. Öberg, Robin. 2008. What is Throat Singing? – Lunds universitet – PDF Download link. http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/1317205/file/1317206.pdf (zugegriffen: 15. Mai 2012).

Websites

Albi. Face Music – Switzerland – Geschichte Reiternomaden, in Deutsch. http://face-music.ch/nomads/horsemen_de.html (zugegriffen: 26. Januar 2010). Birkicht, Matthias. Das kleine Obertonbrevier. http://www.oberton.info/obertonbrevier01.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Grover, Brian. grover’s khoomei critique page. http://www.busker-kibbutznik.org/khoomei/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Großer, Miroslav. Europäischer Obertongesang – Unterricht und Workshops in Berlin. http://www.stimmlabor.de/obertongesang/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. Harmonic Singing: Your Voice is a Rainbow. http://www.squidoo.com/harmonicsinging (zugegriffen: 1. März 2014). Hykes, David. harmonicpresence.org. http://www.harmonicpresence.org/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Lübben, Barbara. Obertonspektrum von Frauen – wo liegt der Wohlfühlbereich? http://polyphona.de/komponieren.html (zugegriffen: 29. Oktober 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. overtone singing news. Social network. facebook. https://www.facebook.com/overtonesinging (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Khoomei. http://www.khoomei.com/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Steve Sklar’s Online Throat-Singing Lessons. http://www.khoomei.com/lessons.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. TimelineJS Embed. https://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline3/latest/embed/index.html?source=1v25ZZZrrXTYmC8RnlMiaaSGo_f5NHkrGgLeJ-GXAEgo&font=Default&lang=en&initial_zoom=2&height=650 (zugegriffen: 1. Mai 2017). Tran Quang Hai. Overtones | Tran Quang Hai website. http://tranquanghai.info/c29-overtones.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. Obertongesang. Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obertongesang (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Tuvan throat singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 29. Juli. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_throat_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Overtone singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3. August. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overtone_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wolfe, Joe. Harmonic singing. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/xoomi.html (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009).

The first version of this article was published in 2000, the first WordPressverion on 8/3/2013. 3 replies

  1. Claudia Franke says: Ganz herzlichen Dank für diese klare, hervorragend strukturierte und überzeugende Darstellung!
    Dadurch wird mir die Hörbarkeit des 2. Tons endlich deutlich.
    Ich werde weiter daran versuchen. Reply
  2. Elisabeth Ossendorf says: so spannend Reply
  3. Miroslav Grosser says: oberton.org war und ist aus meiner Sicht eindeutig die informativste Webseite zum Thema Obertongesang im deutschsprachigen Raum. DANKE für soviel Informationen und das ganze Engagement und die Zeit, die es erfordert, dieses ständig aktualisierte, wachsende und mittlerweile sogar interaktive lexikonartige Wissen hier zu versammeln und der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Ich bin echt begeistert von dieser Fundgrube für Stimm-Interessierte und Oberton-Fans!!! Reply

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  1. Chorphonetik Intonationsoptimierung und Obertongesang für Chöre beim Hessischen Sängerbund – mit Wolfgang Saus – 29.02.2019 in Wiesbaden/Naurod Sat., 29.02.2020 — Sun., 01.03.2020
  2. Vortrag: Stimmsouveränität, Persönlichkeit und Selbst-Vertrauen – 24.04.2020 in Filderstadt Fri., 24.04.2020 | 19:00 — 20:30
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What is Overtone Singing?

The art of singing two notes at the same time

Overtone singing is a vocal technique that creates the auditory impression of polyphony by filtering individual overtones from the sound spectrum of the voice by controlling the resonances in the vocal tract in such a way that they are perceived as separate tones. [(Saus 2004)]

00:0000:00

Sound sample: Pianoo – Harmoniversum

Inhalt

Short Version

It is amazing when a single person sings two notes at the same time. A second flute-like tone suddenly sounds about two octaves above the normal voice, which seems to float crystal clear and hardly locatable in space. The sound is reminiscent of a glass harp, exotic and yet strangely familiar. It touches in a peculiar way, has a calming effect and is almost physically palpable.

Can anyone do that?
Yes, anyone who can speak can learn overtone singing.

→ Learning overtone singing

How does overtone singing sound? 00:0000:00

Brahms’ Lullaby in bass and soprano at the same time.

→more sound samples

Where does overtone singing come from?
The styles were created independently of each other. Western overtone singing comes from Europe and not from Mongolia, as is often claimed. Altai styles of the Turkic peoples are related to each other. Less well known are overtone songs from Africa, Papua New Guinea and Tibet. Here is a list of styles:

→ Styles worldwide

How does overtone singing work?
The resonance in the mouth and throat are combined with tongue, lip and jaw movements in such a way that individual overtones become so loud that they are perceived as individual tones.

→ see below

The Trick: Double Resonance

The secret of overtone singing is double resonance – the merging of two resonance frequencies that originate in the pharynx and oral cavity (vocal tract) [(Kob, Neuschaefer-Rube, and Saus 2001), (Matern et al. 2001),

(Neuschaefer-Rube et al. 2002), (Saus 2009)]. This does not occur in the German language. That’s why overtone singing is not so easy to discover by oneself, although in principle it consists only of exotic “vowels”.

The lowest three resonance frequencies in the vocal tract can be changed in pitch arbitrarily. This is done with mouth-, lip-, tongue- and larynx movements. Vowels are created by the first two resonance frequencies, a special pitch for each vowel.

In overtone singing, the third resonance frequency is added and lowered to the pitch of the second resonance frequency by creating an additional cavity under the tongue.

The resulting double resonator is then precisely matched to an overtone [(Saus 2009)]. The effect: the overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, which gives the impression that you hear two tones, namely the voice and the amplified overtone. If you move the double resonator from overtone to overtone, you get the impression of an overtone melody.

Overtone singers thus produce the melody with the form of the vocal tract, not with the vocal chords. The second resonance frequency determines the pitch. The third resonance frequency is used for amplification.

Actually, you still hear all the partials, not two. But the timbre created by the isolated overtone is so unfamiliar that the brain searches for a comparison with what it knows and thus communicates a flute-like sound and a singing voice to the consciousness. Overtone singing is thus a kind of acoustic illusion.

In fact, everyone hears the overtone singing a little differently. Some people experience more or less vowel character and associate the sound of the Australian didgeridoos. Others hear the sound of the flute so clearly and separately that they cannot believe it comes from the voice. These different perceptions are related to the individual sound processing (cf. How overtones work in the brain).

This double resonator can be varied over more than one octave. Most overtone singers don’t know anything about it. They are still good at overtone singing because they have intuitively learned over a long time to control their resonances. Those who have knowledge of the connections, however, learn overtone singing much faster and can optimize overtone singing in a targeted way. If you are looking for an overtone singing teacher, make sure he has this background knowledge. This saves time and money.

Voice as a Double Instrument

Our voice consists of two instruments:

  1. The primary sound (singing tone) is formed in the larynx and consists of a chord of partial tones (sine tones) and a noise portion. It generates the keynote pitch.
  2. The resonances in the vocal tract (mouth, throat, nose) modulate the volume of the partials. They produce the timbre. During overtone singing, they produce the melody from overtones.

Voice = primary sound + resonance

This corresponds to the classic source filter model of the voice. The new thing, however, is that in overtone singing the resonances are used as a second melody instrument. The fact that resonances can be tuned to a precise pitch is generally unknown and is not taught in classical singing education.

First Instrument: Harmonics

Teiltonakkord von c mit Spektrum und Spektrogramm

Overtones are a natural part of the voice. They are always present in the voice. A normal vocal sound consists of a bundle of partials (on the difference between partial and overtone, see here).

This bundle forms a special harmonic partial-tone chord, which we normally hear as a single note with a timbre. The timbre is created by the volume distribution of the partials. The volume distribution in the picture results from the vowel æ.

If an overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, it will suddenly be perceived as a separate tone. This is exactly what happens with overtone singing. Extreme “vowels” are used, which are not found in the language. Overtone singing is in a way an acoustic illusion, because in fact only one note is sung, but because of an extreme “pronunciation” it sounds like two notes. But one could also say that it is an acoustic disillusionment: the tone consists of many tones, and now we hear at least two of them, the keynote and the amplified overtone.

Second Instrument: Resonance Frequencies

The mouth and throat space from the larynx to the lips is also called vocal tract. Like any cavity, the vocal tract has natural resonance frequencies. These resonances are pitches that change with the shape of the mouth. The resonances change the volume distribution of the partials in the voice. This creates vowels. The fact that the resonances can be used as a melody instrument, however, is completely unknown as a concept.

Pharynx Tongue & Second Formant

The pharynx tongue controls the 2nd resonance frequency (2nd formant), the space under the tongue controls the 3rd resonance frequency. The aim of overtone singing is to place the two resonances exactly on top of each other and to meet an overtone at the same time.

During examinations at the University Hospital Aachen we found that the pharyngeal tongue movement together with the epiglottis mainly controls the overtones .

Try it: Let your tongue hang out of your mouth and speak the English we with a creaking voice (vocal fry) and motionless lips, preferably in slow motion. And then the English you, which is the backwards movement. The vowel transition i-u and u-i in these words is now produced exclusively by the pharyngeal tongue because of the inactive front tongue. It’s important that you take time for all the intermediate vocals.

Usa a sound analysis program like Overtone Analyzer to record a spectrogram of the produced sound. You will see in the spectrogram that only the second resonance frequency moves.

Mouth Floor & Third Formant

We don’t move the 3rd resonance frequency in German vowels. Therefore, the associated tongue movements are unfamiliar. If you keep your tongue in the L-position, a cavity will form under your tongue. If you then lower the floor of your mouth and pull back the muscles at the side next to the frenulum of your tongue, you will hear a sound similar to the American “r”  [ ɹ ]. Imagine a small hot potato under your tongue. The larger the cavity, the lower the 3rd resonance frequency.

With a little practice the 3rd resonance frequency can be lowered exactly to the frequency of the 2nd. That’s the basic technique of overtone singing.

Literature & Sources

Itemisations

Books

Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Arjopa. 1999. Choomii – das mongolische Obertonsingen [Medienkombination] : Anleitung zum Selberlernen. 1. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausendeins. Coffin, Berton. 1980. Coffin’s Overtones of Bel Canto: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel-Chart Exercises: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel Chart Exercises. Scarecrow Pr Inc. Cope, Jonathan. 2004. How to Khoomei: And Other Overtone Singing Styles. Sound For Health. Finscher, Ludwig und Friedrich Blume. 1994. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart ( MGG): 23 Bände. 2., neubearb. A. Metzler. Galgut, Peter. 2005. Humming Your Way Happiness: An Introduction to Tuva and Overtone Singing from Around the World. O Books (John Hunt). Goldman, Jonathan. 1994. Heilende Klänge : die Macht der Obertöne. München: Droemer Knaur. Goldman, Jonathan. 2002. Healing Sounds: The Power of Harmonics. New. Healing Arts Home. Goldman, Jonathan. 2008. Klangheilung. Die Schöpferkraft des Obertongesangs. Mit CD zum Erlernen heilender Klänge! Erw. Ausg. mit CD. AMRA Verlag. Grawunder, Sven. 1999. Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs – Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang. Unpublished Diploma, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/S. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf. Grawunder, Sven. 2005. On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing – Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidences. Unpublished PhD thesis, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle. Grawunder, Sven. 2009. On the physiology of voice production in South-Siberian throat singing: analysis of acoustic and electrophysiological evidences. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Groeneveld, B.D. 2007. Stem en boventonen / druk 1: oefeningen, improvisaties, klankmeditaties. 1. Panta Rhei, Uitgeverij. Hinds, Stuart. 2012. Eine Oberton-Erfahrung – An Overtone-Experience: 15 Lieder mit mehrstimmigem Obertongesang – 15 polyphonic overtone songs you’ll love to sing. Übers. von Wolfgang Saus. 1., Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Levin, Theodore Craig und Valentina Suzukei. 2006. Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond with CD (Audio) and DVD: Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Har/Com/Dv. Indiana University Press. Mecke, Ann-Christine, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter und Thomas Seedorf, Hrsg. 2016. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme: Geschichte – Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen – Gesangstechniken – Interpreten. 1. Aufl. Instrumenten-Lexika. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. Pegg, Carole. 2001. Mongolian Music, Dance, and Oral Narrative: Recovering Performance Traditions. Pap/Com. Univ of Washington Pr. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Boventoonzang: een zelfstudiecursus in het leren hzingen van boventoonen. 1. Aufl. Katwijk aan Zee: Servire Uitgevers B. V. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Overtone Singing Study Guide. 1. Aufl. Cryptic Voices. Reimann, Michael. 1993. Unendlicher Klang. Obertöne in Stimme und Instrumentalmusik. Norderstedt: Kolibri. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Was ist Obertongesang – Eine Definition. In: Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs, 58. 1. Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs. 4. (2011). Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Obertongesang. In: Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft, hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller, 182–189. Schüttorf: Hess, 9. November. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang. Hg. von Ann-Christine Mecke, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter, und Thomas Seedorf. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme. Instrumenten-Lexika 5. Laaber: Laaber. Saus, Wolfgang und Minghao Xu. 2009. DVD. Der Oberton Workshop mit Wolfgang Saus. Erlerne das Geheimnis der magischen Stimmkunst Obertongesang. The Overtone-Workshop. Aquire the magical art of harmonic singing.DVD-5. 16:9 PAL. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang, Alexander Lauterwasser, Michael Konrath, Uwe Ross, Emily Zurek, Peter Gabis, Herbert Seitz, u. a. 2010. Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft. Hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller. Hess, Schüttorf. Stroh, Wolfgang Martin. 1999. Handbuch New Age Musik. Auf der Suche nach neuen musikalischen Erfahrungen. Conbrio Verlagsges.Mbh. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Hardcover). 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West. 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. Vetter, Michael. 1996. Om-Eine ObertonschuleAudio CD. Spectrum (Note 1). Voigt-Zimmermann, Susanne, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt und Wanda Mainka, Hrsg. 2016. Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Formanten – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Formanten (zugegriffen: 27. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Stimme – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Stimme (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Intervalle – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Intervalle (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Hören – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Hören (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Obertöne – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Obertöne (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wolff, Stephanie. 1987. Obertöne. Versinken in die Welt des Klanges. Meditation und Therapie durch neue Dimensionen der Musik. Mit einer praktischen Einführung in die Technik des Obertonsingens. Freiburg: Bauer.

Specialist Articles

O A. A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences – Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=A+self-sustained+vocal-ventricular+phonation+mode%3A+acoustical%2C+aerodynamic+and+glottographic+evidences (zugegriffen: 12. Oktober 2016). Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Black, Jocelyn. 2018. Overtone Singing: History, Development, and Influence in Contemporary Music. Capstone Projects and Master’s Theses (1. Dezember). https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/caps_thes_all/402. Cosi, Piero und Graziano Tisato. 2003. ON THE MAGIC OF OVERTONE SINGING. Voce, Canto, Parlato / Studi di Onore di Franco Ferrero. Instituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione Sezione di Padova “Fonetica e Dialettologia”: 83–100. (zugegriffen: 14. November 2008). O A. Ecole de Garcia. Traité complet de l’art du chant en 2 parties. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b52502455v/f23.item (zugegriffen: 26. Juli 2014). Edgerton, Michael Edward, Graham Welch, John Nix und David Howard. The Extra-normal Voice. Oxford Handbooks Online. https://www.academia.edu/6978897/The_Extra-Normal_Voice (zugegriffen: 23. August 2019). O A. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009). O A. File:Tinctoris.jpg – Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinctoris.jpg?uselang=de (zugegriffen: 7. Februar 2012). Foresman, Bryant. 2008. Acoustical Measurement of the Human Vocal Tract: Quantifying Speech & Throat-Singing. Senior Thesis, Claremont: Pomona College, 25. April. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/pomona_theses/25. Fuks, Leonardo. 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Oktober. http://icb.ifcm.net/en_US/overtone-singing-not-just-monks-shamans-anymore/ (zugegriffen: 15. September 2018). O A. Johannes Tinctoris – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Tinctoris (zugegriffen: 7. Februar 2012). O A. Johannes Tinctoris: Complete Theoretical Works — De inventione et usu musice. http://earlymusictheory.org/Tinctoris/texts/deinventioneetusumusice/#pane0=Translation (zugegriffen: 15. Oktober 2017). Kob, Malte. 2004. Analysis and modelling of overtone singing in the sygyt style. Applied Acoustics 65, Nr. 12. Musical Acoustics (1. Dezember): 1249–1259. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2004.04.010, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003682X04001082 (zugegriffen: 7. November 2019). Kob, Malte, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube und Wolfgang Saus. 2001. Untersuchungen der akustischen Eigenschaften des Obertongesangs. In: . Hamburg: TU Hamburg-Harburg. Kovaříková, Ludmila. 2019. Alikvotní zpěv a jeho uplatnění ve sborovém zpěvu. 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Matern, Gabriele, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Wolfgang Saus und Malte Kob. 2001. Ansatzrohrgestaltung beim Obertonsingen. In: , hg. von M Gross, 8:. Matrenitsky, Vladislav. Study of effects of overtone throat singing in Tuvan (Southern Siberia) shamanic tradition. http://www.un-hun.com/research_en.html (zugegriffen: 9. Mai 2013). O A. 2009. Musik aktiviert das Lustzentrum – Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. http://www.ksta.de/html/artikel/1229427005442.shtml (zugegriffen: 10. März 2009). Neubauer, Jürgen, Michael Edgerton und Hanspeter Herzel. 2004. Nonlinear Phenomena in Contemporary Vocal Music. ftp://ftp.elet.polimi.it/outgoing/Carlo.Piccardi/VarieCda/ArticoliStudenti/u4.pdf (zugegriffen: 26. Februar 2009). Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane, Wolfgang Saus, Gabriele Matern, Malte Kob und Stanislaw Klajman. 2002. Sonographische und endoskopische Untersuchungen beim Obertonsingen. In: Stimmkulturen – 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Neuwirthová, Anna. Fenomén alikvotního zpěvu jako všestranný funkční nadstandard vzdělávání dospělých v oblasti hudby – Neuwirthova.pdf. http://www.thakur.cz/upload/sborniky/2006/Soubory/DISTANCNI_VZDELAVANI_V_OBLASTI_HUDBY/Neuwirthova.pdf (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Neuwirthová, Anna. Alikvotní zpěv v kontextu hudby na přelomu 20. a 21. století – Mgr. Anna NEUWIRTHOVÁ. http://theses.cz/id/iavhnb/?lang=en;furl=%2Fid%2Fiavhnb%2F (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Neuwirthová. 2006. Alikvotní zpěv – mýtus i realita v hudební pedagogice. In: Česká hudební pedagogika a vzdělávání dospělých na počátku 21. století: sborník z 28. muzikologické konference Janáčkiana ; (Ostrava 1. a 2 června 2006). Divadelní Ústav. Neuwirthová, Anna. 2009. Alikvotní zpěv v muzikoterapii a hlasové výchově. In: . Ostrava, 31. Januar. konference.osu.cz/khv/2009/file.php?fid=71. O A. openPR.de – Pressemitteilung – Stimmlabor FREIKLANG Berlin – Die Stimme als Spiegel – Vortrag am 16,12.2008 in Berlin zu Stimm-Analyse und Stimmbildung. http://www.openpr.de/news/257039/Die-Stimme-als-Spiegel-Vortrag-am-16-12-2008-in-Berlin-zu-Stimm-Analyse-und-Stimmbildung.html (zugegriffen: 5. November 2008). Paysen, Arne. 2004. Johannes Tinctoris – Zeugnisse zu seiner musikgeschichtlihcen Perspektive. Vortrags Ausarbeitung. Kiel. http://www.angli-clamant.de/mth_tinctoris.php (zugegriffen: 21. November 2013). Podlena, Jan. 2014. Alikvótní zpěv a jeho praxe mimo původní etnika. Bachelor’s thesis. 2. Juni. http://is.muni.cz/th/382831/ff_b/ (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Riccabona, Markus. 2004. Viele Stimmen aus einer Kehle. http://www.aufklang.net/beitraege/8-kat-klangmeridian/30-viele-stimmen-aus-einer-kehle.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Saus, Wolfgang. 2002. Nutzen von Obertongesang für westliche Sänger und Chorleiter. In: Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, hg. von Hellmut K Geissner, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2008. Faszination Oberton – Was sind Obertöne? 6, Nr. 6/2008. Organ des Europäischen Fachverbandes Klang-Massage-Therapie e.V.: 58–60. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Obertöne im Chor. Hg. von VDKC e. V. Chor und Konzert 130, Nr. 2/2009. Zeitschrift des Verbandes Deutscher Konzertchöre: 26–32. www.vdkc.de. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Karlheinz Stockhausen’s STIMMUNG and Vowel Overtone Singing. In: Ročenka textů zahraničních profesorů / The Annual of Texts by Foreign Guest Professors, 3:471–478. Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta: FF UK Praha. http://www.ff.cuni.cz/FF-8338.html. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Formant Tuning Taken to a New Level. Gehalten auf: PAS – The 5th International Conference on the Physiology and Acoustics of Singing, Stockholm, Schweden. http://www.speech.kth.se/pas5/ (zugegriffen: 14. Oktober 2015). Saus, Wolfgang. 2015. Chorphonetik – wenn Vokale die Intonation steuern. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 11, Nr. 1 (2. Juni): 22–26. http://www.bdg-online.org/. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang – wenn Formanten zu Tönen werden. In: Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis, hg. von Susanne Voigt-Zimmermann, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt, und Wanda Mainka, 19–23. Berlin: Frank & Timme, 22. August. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Gesangsphonetik – Ein neuer Weg zum optimalen Vokal. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 13, Nr. 4. (Jahreskongress des BDG 2017, Dokumentation): 17–20. http://voxhumana-online.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/vh_04-17_saus.pdf. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Fremd und doch vertraut: Obertongesang. Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift 12, Nr. 05 (August): 14–19. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-115597, https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0043-115597 (zugegriffen: 29. August 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Nur 1 von 20 kann diese Melodie hören – Mach den Hörtest. Ich liebe Obertongesang. 11. August. https://www.oberton.org/hoertest-saus/ (zugegriffen: 2. Januar 2019). O A. Spirituelles Portal – Tor zum Selbst und Verzeichnis für Spiritualität, Esoterik und Ganzheitlichkeit. http://www.spirituelles-portal.de/text.php?aktKategorie=Yoga&katNr=3&e0=0&e1=3&kategorienWurzel=3&&textNr=40&zurueck=/texteArchiv.php (zugegriffen: 10. Juni 2008). Stefanie Schramm – Die Zeit, Hamburg. 2005. Obertöne brummen rechts im Hirn. http://www.zeit.de/2005/33/Hirn-Orchester (zugegriffen: 22. Mai 2008). O A. throat-singing (music). Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1550505/throat-singing (zugegriffen: 23. Juni 2014). Tran Quang Hai. 2009. Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009). http://www.der.org/resources/study-guides/bibliography-of-overtone-singing.pdf. Tsai, Chen-Gia. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Physical Modeling of the vocal tract of a Sygyt singer. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PhysicalModelingofthevocaltractoaSygytsingeChengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Perception of Overtone Singing. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PerceptioofOvertoneSingingChenGiaTsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. 2005. Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing. Gehalten auf: International Symposium on Body & Cognition, Taipei, Taiwan. http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/index.html. Tsai, Chen-Gia, Yio-Wha Shau und Tzu-Yu Hsiao. 2004. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: A hypothesis. Gehalten auf: International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, Marseille, France. <a href="http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A”>http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). O A. 2005. Universität Heidelberg – Pressemitteilungen – Obertonhörer, Grundtonhörer. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news05/2508waru.html (zugegriffen: 25. April 2009). Weinmann, Karl. 1961. Johannes Tinctoris (1445-1511) und sein unbekannter Traktat „De inventione et usu musicae“; historisch-Kritische Untersuchung. Berichtigte und mit einem Vorwort versehene Neu-Ausg. von Wilhelm Fischer. H. Schneider. Öberg, Robin. 2008. What is Throat Singing? – Lunds universitet – PDF Download link. http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/1317205/file/1317206.pdf (zugegriffen: 15. Mai 2012).

Websites

Albi. Face Music – Switzerland – Geschichte Reiternomaden, in Deutsch. http://face-music.ch/nomads/horsemen_de.html (zugegriffen: 26. Januar 2010). Birkicht, Matthias. Das kleine Obertonbrevier. http://www.oberton.info/obertonbrevier01.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Grover, Brian. grover’s khoomei critique page. http://www.busker-kibbutznik.org/khoomei/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Großer, Miroslav. Europäischer Obertongesang – Unterricht und Workshops in Berlin. http://www.stimmlabor.de/obertongesang/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. Harmonic Singing: Your Voice is a Rainbow. http://www.squidoo.com/harmonicsinging (zugegriffen: 1. März 2014). Hykes, David. harmonicpresence.org. http://www.harmonicpresence.org/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Lübben, Barbara. Obertonspektrum von Frauen – wo liegt der Wohlfühlbereich? http://polyphona.de/komponieren.html (zugegriffen: 29. Oktober 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. overtone singing news. Social network. facebook. https://www.facebook.com/overtonesinging (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Khoomei. http://www.khoomei.com/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Steve Sklar’s Online Throat-Singing Lessons. http://www.khoomei.com/lessons.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. TimelineJS Embed. https://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline3/latest/embed/index.html?source=1v25ZZZrrXTYmC8RnlMiaaSGo_f5NHkrGgLeJ-GXAEgo&font=Default&lang=en&initial_zoom=2&height=650 (zugegriffen: 1. Mai 2017). Tran Quang Hai. Overtones | Tran Quang Hai website. http://tranquanghai.info/c29-overtones.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. Obertongesang. Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obertongesang (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Tuvan throat singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 29. Juli. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_throat_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Overtone singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3. August. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overtone_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wolfe, Joe. Harmonic singing. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/xoomi.html (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009).

The first version of this article was published in 2000, the first WordPressverion on 8/3/2013. 3 replies

  1. Claudia Franke says: Ganz herzlichen Dank für diese klare, hervorragend strukturierte und überzeugende Darstellung!
    Dadurch wird mir die Hörbarkeit des 2. Tons endlich deutlich.
    Ich werde weiter daran versuchen. Reply
  2. Elisabeth Ossendorf says: so spannend Reply
  3. Miroslav Grosser says: oberton.org war und ist aus meiner Sicht eindeutig die informativste Webseite zum Thema Obertongesang im deutschsprachigen Raum. DANKE für soviel Informationen und das ganze Engagement und die Zeit, die es erfordert, dieses ständig aktualisierte, wachsende und mittlerweile sogar interaktive lexikonartige Wissen hier zu versammeln und der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Ich bin echt begeistert von dieser Fundgrube für Stimm-Interessierte und Oberton-Fans!!! Reply

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  1. Chorphonetik Intonationsoptimierung und Obertongesang für Chöre beim Hessischen Sängerbund – mit Wolfgang Saus – 29.02.2019 in Wiesbaden/Naurod Sat., 29.02.2020 — Sun., 01.03.2020
  2. Vortrag: Stimmsouveränität, Persönlichkeit und Selbst-Vertrauen – 24.04.2020 in Filderstadt Fri., 24.04.2020 | 19:00 — 20:30
  3. Obertongesang lernen für Anfänger und leicht Fortgeschrittene – mit Wolfgang Saus – 25./26.04.2020 in Filderstadt Sat., 25.04.2020 | 11:30 — Sun., 26.04.2020 | 16:30
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What is Overtone Singing?

The art of singing two notes at the same time

Overtone singing is a vocal technique that creates the auditory impression of polyphony by filtering individual overtones from the sound spectrum of the voice by controlling the resonances in the vocal tract in such a way that they are perceived as separate tones. [(Saus 2004)]

00:0000:00

Sound sample: Pianoo – Harmoniversum

Inhalt

Short Version

It is amazing when a single person sings two notes at the same time. A second flute-like tone suddenly sounds about two octaves above the normal voice, which seems to float crystal clear and hardly locatable in space. The sound is reminiscent of a glass harp, exotic and yet strangely familiar. It touches in a peculiar way, has a calming effect and is almost physically palpable.

Can anyone do that?
Yes, anyone who can speak can learn overtone singing.

→ Learning overtone singing

How does overtone singing sound? 00:0000:00

Brahms’ Lullaby in bass and soprano at the same time.

→more sound samples

Where does overtone singing come from?
The styles were created independently of each other. Western overtone singing comes from Europe and not from Mongolia, as is often claimed. Altai styles of the Turkic peoples are related to each other. Less well known are overtone songs from Africa, Papua New Guinea and Tibet. Here is a list of styles:

→ Styles worldwide

How does overtone singing work?
The resonance in the mouth and throat are combined with tongue, lip and jaw movements in such a way that individual overtones become so loud that they are perceived as individual tones.

→ see below

The Trick: Double Resonance

The secret of overtone singing is double resonance – the merging of two resonance frequencies that originate in the pharynx and oral cavity (vocal tract) [(Kob, Neuschaefer-Rube, and Saus 2001), (Matern et al. 2001),

(Neuschaefer-Rube et al. 2002), (Saus 2009)]. This does not occur in the German language. That’s why overtone singing is not so easy to discover by oneself, although in principle it consists only of exotic “vowels”.

The lowest three resonance frequencies in the vocal tract can be changed in pitch arbitrarily. This is done with mouth-, lip-, tongue- and larynx movements. Vowels are created by the first two resonance frequencies, a special pitch for each vowel.

In overtone singing, the third resonance frequency is added and lowered to the pitch of the second resonance frequency by creating an additional cavity under the tongue.

The resulting double resonator is then precisely matched to an overtone [(Saus 2009)]. The effect: the overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, which gives the impression that you hear two tones, namely the voice and the amplified overtone. If you move the double resonator from overtone to overtone, you get the impression of an overtone melody.

Overtone singers thus produce the melody with the form of the vocal tract, not with the vocal chords. The second resonance frequency determines the pitch. The third resonance frequency is used for amplification.

Actually, you still hear all the partials, not two. But the timbre created by the isolated overtone is so unfamiliar that the brain searches for a comparison with what it knows and thus communicates a flute-like sound and a singing voice to the consciousness. Overtone singing is thus a kind of acoustic illusion.

In fact, everyone hears the overtone singing a little differently. Some people experience more or less vowel character and associate the sound of the Australian didgeridoos. Others hear the sound of the flute so clearly and separately that they cannot believe it comes from the voice. These different perceptions are related to the individual sound processing (cf. How overtones work in the brain).

This double resonator can be varied over more than one octave. Most overtone singers don’t know anything about it. They are still good at overtone singing because they have intuitively learned over a long time to control their resonances. Those who have knowledge of the connections, however, learn overtone singing much faster and can optimize overtone singing in a targeted way. If you are looking for an overtone singing teacher, make sure he has this background knowledge. This saves time and money.

Voice as a Double Instrument

Our voice consists of two instruments:

  1. The primary sound (singing tone) is formed in the larynx and consists of a chord of partial tones (sine tones) and a noise portion. It generates the keynote pitch.
  2. The resonances in the vocal tract (mouth, throat, nose) modulate the volume of the partials. They produce the timbre. During overtone singing, they produce the melody from overtones.

Voice = primary sound + resonance

This corresponds to the classic source filter model of the voice. The new thing, however, is that in overtone singing the resonances are used as a second melody instrument. The fact that resonances can be tuned to a precise pitch is generally unknown and is not taught in classical singing education.

First Instrument: Harmonics

Teiltonakkord von c mit Spektrum und Spektrogramm

Overtones are a natural part of the voice. They are always present in the voice. A normal vocal sound consists of a bundle of partials (on the difference between partial and overtone, see here).

This bundle forms a special harmonic partial-tone chord, which we normally hear as a single note with a timbre. The timbre is created by the volume distribution of the partials. The volume distribution in the picture results from the vowel æ.

If an overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, it will suddenly be perceived as a separate tone. This is exactly what happens with overtone singing. Extreme “vowels” are used, which are not found in the language. Overtone singing is in a way an acoustic illusion, because in fact only one note is sung, but because of an extreme “pronunciation” it sounds like two notes. But one could also say that it is an acoustic disillusionment: the tone consists of many tones, and now we hear at least two of them, the keynote and the amplified overtone.

Second Instrument: Resonance Frequencies

The mouth and throat space from the larynx to the lips is also called vocal tract. Like any cavity, the vocal tract has natural resonance frequencies. These resonances are pitches that change with the shape of the mouth. The resonances change the volume distribution of the partials in the voice. This creates vowels. The fact that the resonances can be used as a melody instrument, however, is completely unknown as a concept.

Pharynx Tongue & Second Formant

The pharynx tongue controls the 2nd resonance frequency (2nd formant), the space under the tongue controls the 3rd resonance frequency. The aim of overtone singing is to place the two resonances exactly on top of each other and to meet an overtone at the same time.

During examinations at the University Hospital Aachen we found that the pharyngeal tongue movement together with the epiglottis mainly controls the overtones .

Try it: Let your tongue hang out of your mouth and speak the English we with a creaking voice (vocal fry) and motionless lips, preferably in slow motion. And then the English you, which is the backwards movement. The vowel transition i-u and u-i in these words is now produced exclusively by the pharyngeal tongue because of the inactive front tongue. It’s important that you take time for all the intermediate vocals.

Usa a sound analysis program like Overtone Analyzer to record a spectrogram of the produced sound. You will see in the spectrogram that only the second resonance frequency moves.

Mouth Floor & Third Formant

We don’t move the 3rd resonance frequency in German vowels. Therefore, the associated tongue movements are unfamiliar. If you keep your tongue in the L-position, a cavity will form under your tongue. If you then lower the floor of your mouth and pull back the muscles at the side next to the frenulum of your tongue, you will hear a sound similar to the American “r”  [ ɹ ]. Imagine a small hot potato under your tongue. The larger the cavity, the lower the 3rd resonance frequency.

With a little practice the 3rd resonance frequency can be lowered exactly to the frequency of the 2nd. That’s the basic technique of overtone singing.

Literature & Sources

Itemisations

Books

Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Arjopa. 1999. Choomii – das mongolische Obertonsingen [Medienkombination] : Anleitung zum Selberlernen. 1. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausendeins. Coffin, Berton. 1980. Coffin’s Overtones of Bel Canto: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel-Chart Exercises: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel Chart Exercises. Scarecrow Pr Inc. Cope, Jonathan. 2004. How to Khoomei: And Other Overtone Singing Styles. Sound For Health. Finscher, Ludwig und Friedrich Blume. 1994. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart ( MGG): 23 Bände. 2., neubearb. A. Metzler. Galgut, Peter. 2005. Humming Your Way Happiness: An Introduction to Tuva and Overtone Singing from Around the World. O Books (John Hunt). Goldman, Jonathan. 1994. Heilende Klänge : die Macht der Obertöne. München: Droemer Knaur. Goldman, Jonathan. 2002. Healing Sounds: The Power of Harmonics. New. Healing Arts Home. Goldman, Jonathan. 2008. Klangheilung. Die Schöpferkraft des Obertongesangs. Mit CD zum Erlernen heilender Klänge! Erw. Ausg. mit CD. AMRA Verlag. Grawunder, Sven. 1999. Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs – Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang. Unpublished Diploma, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/S. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf. Grawunder, Sven. 2005. On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing – Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidences. Unpublished PhD thesis, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle. Grawunder, Sven. 2009. On the physiology of voice production in South-Siberian throat singing: analysis of acoustic and electrophysiological evidences. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Groeneveld, B.D. 2007. Stem en boventonen / druk 1: oefeningen, improvisaties, klankmeditaties. 1. Panta Rhei, Uitgeverij. Hinds, Stuart. 2012. Eine Oberton-Erfahrung – An Overtone-Experience: 15 Lieder mit mehrstimmigem Obertongesang – 15 polyphonic overtone songs you’ll love to sing. Übers. von Wolfgang Saus. 1., Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Levin, Theodore Craig und Valentina Suzukei. 2006. Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond with CD (Audio) and DVD: Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Har/Com/Dv. Indiana University Press. Mecke, Ann-Christine, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter und Thomas Seedorf, Hrsg. 2016. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme: Geschichte – Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen – Gesangstechniken – Interpreten. 1. Aufl. Instrumenten-Lexika. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. Pegg, Carole. 2001. Mongolian Music, Dance, and Oral Narrative: Recovering Performance Traditions. Pap/Com. Univ of Washington Pr. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Boventoonzang: een zelfstudiecursus in het leren hzingen van boventoonen. 1. Aufl. Katwijk aan Zee: Servire Uitgevers B. V. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Overtone Singing Study Guide. 1. Aufl. Cryptic Voices. Reimann, Michael. 1993. Unendlicher Klang. Obertöne in Stimme und Instrumentalmusik. Norderstedt: Kolibri. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Was ist Obertongesang – Eine Definition. In: Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs, 58. 1. Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs. 4. (2011). Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Obertongesang. In: Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft, hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller, 182–189. Schüttorf: Hess, 9. November. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang. Hg. von Ann-Christine Mecke, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter, und Thomas Seedorf. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme. Instrumenten-Lexika 5. Laaber: Laaber. Saus, Wolfgang und Minghao Xu. 2009. DVD. Der Oberton Workshop mit Wolfgang Saus. Erlerne das Geheimnis der magischen Stimmkunst Obertongesang. The Overtone-Workshop. Aquire the magical art of harmonic singing.DVD-5. 16:9 PAL. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang, Alexander Lauterwasser, Michael Konrath, Uwe Ross, Emily Zurek, Peter Gabis, Herbert Seitz, u. a. 2010. Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft. Hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller. Hess, Schüttorf. Stroh, Wolfgang Martin. 1999. Handbuch New Age Musik. Auf der Suche nach neuen musikalischen Erfahrungen. Conbrio Verlagsges.Mbh. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Hardcover). 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West. 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. Vetter, Michael. 1996. Om-Eine ObertonschuleAudio CD. Spectrum (Note 1). Voigt-Zimmermann, Susanne, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt und Wanda Mainka, Hrsg. 2016. Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Formanten – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Formanten (zugegriffen: 27. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Stimme – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Stimme (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Intervalle – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Intervalle (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Hören – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Hören (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Obertöne – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Obertöne (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wolff, Stephanie. 1987. Obertöne. Versinken in die Welt des Klanges. Meditation und Therapie durch neue Dimensionen der Musik. Mit einer praktischen Einführung in die Technik des Obertonsingens. Freiburg: Bauer.

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Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, hg. von Hellmut K Geissner, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2008. Faszination Oberton – Was sind Obertöne? 6, Nr. 6/2008. Organ des Europäischen Fachverbandes Klang-Massage-Therapie e.V.: 58–60. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Obertöne im Chor. Hg. von VDKC e. V. Chor und Konzert 130, Nr. 2/2009. Zeitschrift des Verbandes Deutscher Konzertchöre: 26–32. www.vdkc.de. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Karlheinz Stockhausen’s STIMMUNG and Vowel Overtone Singing. In: Ročenka textů zahraničních profesorů / The Annual of Texts by Foreign Guest Professors, 3:471–478. Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta: FF UK Praha. http://www.ff.cuni.cz/FF-8338.html. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Formant Tuning Taken to a New Level. Gehalten auf: PAS – The 5th International Conference on the Physiology and Acoustics of Singing, Stockholm, Schweden. http://www.speech.kth.se/pas5/ (zugegriffen: 14. Oktober 2015). Saus, Wolfgang. 2015. Chorphonetik – wenn Vokale die Intonation steuern. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 11, Nr. 1 (2. Juni): 22–26. http://www.bdg-online.org/. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang – wenn Formanten zu Tönen werden. In: Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis, hg. von Susanne Voigt-Zimmermann, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt, und Wanda Mainka, 19–23. Berlin: Frank & Timme, 22. August. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Gesangsphonetik – Ein neuer Weg zum optimalen Vokal. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 13, Nr. 4. (Jahreskongress des BDG 2017, Dokumentation): 17–20. http://voxhumana-online.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/vh_04-17_saus.pdf. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Fremd und doch vertraut: Obertongesang. Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift 12, Nr. 05 (August): 14–19. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-115597, https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0043-115597 (zugegriffen: 29. August 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Nur 1 von 20 kann diese Melodie hören – Mach den Hörtest. Ich liebe Obertongesang. 11. August. https://www.oberton.org/hoertest-saus/ (zugegriffen: 2. Januar 2019). O A. Spirituelles Portal – Tor zum Selbst und Verzeichnis für Spiritualität, Esoterik und Ganzheitlichkeit. http://www.spirituelles-portal.de/text.php?aktKategorie=Yoga&katNr=3&e0=0&e1=3&kategorienWurzel=3&&textNr=40&zurueck=/texteArchiv.php (zugegriffen: 10. Juni 2008). Stefanie Schramm – Die Zeit, Hamburg. 2005. Obertöne brummen rechts im Hirn. http://www.zeit.de/2005/33/Hirn-Orchester (zugegriffen: 22. Mai 2008). O A. throat-singing (music). Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1550505/throat-singing (zugegriffen: 23. Juni 2014). Tran Quang Hai. 2009. Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009). http://www.der.org/resources/study-guides/bibliography-of-overtone-singing.pdf. Tsai, Chen-Gia. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Physical Modeling of the vocal tract of a Sygyt singer. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PhysicalModelingofthevocaltractoaSygytsingeChengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Perception of Overtone Singing. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PerceptioofOvertoneSingingChenGiaTsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. 2005. Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing. Gehalten auf: International Symposium on Body & Cognition, Taipei, Taiwan. http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/index.html. Tsai, Chen-Gia, Yio-Wha Shau und Tzu-Yu Hsiao. 2004. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: A hypothesis. Gehalten auf: International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, Marseille, France. <a href="http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A”>http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). O A. 2005. Universität Heidelberg – Pressemitteilungen – Obertonhörer, Grundtonhörer. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news05/2508waru.html (zugegriffen: 25. April 2009). Weinmann, Karl. 1961. Johannes Tinctoris (1445-1511) und sein unbekannter Traktat „De inventione et usu musicae“; historisch-Kritische Untersuchung. Berichtigte und mit einem Vorwort versehene Neu-Ausg. von Wilhelm Fischer. H. Schneider. Öberg, Robin. 2008. What is Throat Singing? – Lunds universitet – PDF Download link. http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/1317205/file/1317206.pdf (zugegriffen: 15. Mai 2012).

Websites

Albi. Face Music – Switzerland – Geschichte Reiternomaden, in Deutsch. http://face-music.ch/nomads/horsemen_de.html (zugegriffen: 26. Januar 2010). Birkicht, Matthias. Das kleine Obertonbrevier. http://www.oberton.info/obertonbrevier01.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Grover, Brian. grover’s khoomei critique page. http://www.busker-kibbutznik.org/khoomei/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Großer, Miroslav. Europäischer Obertongesang – Unterricht und Workshops in Berlin. http://www.stimmlabor.de/obertongesang/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. Harmonic Singing: Your Voice is a Rainbow. http://www.squidoo.com/harmonicsinging (zugegriffen: 1. März 2014). Hykes, David. harmonicpresence.org. http://www.harmonicpresence.org/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Lübben, Barbara. Obertonspektrum von Frauen – wo liegt der Wohlfühlbereich? http://polyphona.de/komponieren.html (zugegriffen: 29. Oktober 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. overtone singing news. Social network. facebook. https://www.facebook.com/overtonesinging (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Khoomei. http://www.khoomei.com/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Steve Sklar’s Online Throat-Singing Lessons. http://www.khoomei.com/lessons.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. TimelineJS Embed. https://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline3/latest/embed/index.html?source=1v25ZZZrrXTYmC8RnlMiaaSGo_f5NHkrGgLeJ-GXAEgo&font=Default&lang=en&initial_zoom=2&height=650 (zugegriffen: 1. Mai 2017). Tran Quang Hai. Overtones | Tran Quang Hai website. http://tranquanghai.info/c29-overtones.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. Obertongesang. Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obertongesang (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Tuvan throat singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 29. Juli. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_throat_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Overtone singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3. August. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overtone_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wolfe, Joe. Harmonic singing. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/xoomi.html (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009).

The first version of this article was published in 2000, the first WordPressverion on 8/3/2013. 3 replies

  1. Claudia Franke says: Ganz herzlichen Dank für diese klare, hervorragend strukturierte und überzeugende Darstellung!
    Dadurch wird mir die Hörbarkeit des 2. Tons endlich deutlich.
    Ich werde weiter daran versuchen. Reply
  2. Elisabeth Ossendorf says: so spannend Reply
  3. Miroslav Grosser says: oberton.org war und ist aus meiner Sicht eindeutig die informativste Webseite zum Thema Obertongesang im deutschsprachigen Raum. DANKE für soviel Informationen und das ganze Engagement und die Zeit, die es erfordert, dieses ständig aktualisierte, wachsende und mittlerweile sogar interaktive lexikonartige Wissen hier zu versammeln und der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Ich bin echt begeistert von dieser Fundgrube für Stimm-Interessierte und Oberton-Fans!!! Reply

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  1. Chorphonetik Intonationsoptimierung und Obertongesang für Chöre beim Hessischen Sängerbund – mit Wolfgang Saus – 29.02.2019 in Wiesbaden/Naurod Sat., 29.02.2020 — Sun., 01.03.2020
  2. Vortrag: Stimmsouveränität, Persönlichkeit und Selbst-Vertrauen – 24.04.2020 in Filderstadt Fri., 24.04.2020 | 19:00 — 20:30
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What is Overtone Singing?

The art of singing two notes at the same time

Overtone singing is a vocal technique that creates the auditory impression of polyphony by filtering individual overtones from the sound spectrum of the voice by controlling the resonances in the vocal tract in such a way that they are perceived as separate tones. [(Saus 2004)]

00:0000:00

Sound sample: Pianoo – Harmoniversum

Inhalt

Short Version

It is amazing when a single person sings two notes at the same time. A second flute-like tone suddenly sounds about two octaves above the normal voice, which seems to float crystal clear and hardly locatable in space. The sound is reminiscent of a glass harp, exotic and yet strangely familiar. It touches in a peculiar way, has a calming effect and is almost physically palpable.

Can anyone do that?
Yes, anyone who can speak can learn overtone singing.

→ Learning overtone singing

How does overtone singing sound? 00:0000:00

Brahms’ Lullaby in bass and soprano at the same time.

→more sound samples

Where does overtone singing come from?
The styles were created independently of each other. Western overtone singing comes from Europe and not from Mongolia, as is often claimed. Altai styles of the Turkic peoples are related to each other. Less well known are overtone songs from Africa, Papua New Guinea and Tibet. Here is a list of styles:

→ Styles worldwide

How does overtone singing work?
The resonance in the mouth and throat are combined with tongue, lip and jaw movements in such a way that individual overtones become so loud that they are perceived as individual tones.

→ see below

The Trick: Double Resonance

The secret of overtone singing is double resonance – the merging of two resonance frequencies that originate in the pharynx and oral cavity (vocal tract) [(Kob, Neuschaefer-Rube, and Saus 2001), (Matern et al. 2001),

(Neuschaefer-Rube et al. 2002), (Saus 2009)]. This does not occur in the German language. That’s why overtone singing is not so easy to discover by oneself, although in principle it consists only of exotic “vowels”.

The lowest three resonance frequencies in the vocal tract can be changed in pitch arbitrarily. This is done with mouth-, lip-, tongue- and larynx movements. Vowels are created by the first two resonance frequencies, a special pitch for each vowel.

In overtone singing, the third resonance frequency is added and lowered to the pitch of the second resonance frequency by creating an additional cavity under the tongue.

The resulting double resonator is then precisely matched to an overtone [(Saus 2009)]. The effect: the overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, which gives the impression that you hear two tones, namely the voice and the amplified overtone. If you move the double resonator from overtone to overtone, you get the impression of an overtone melody.

Overtone singers thus produce the melody with the form of the vocal tract, not with the vocal chords. The second resonance frequency determines the pitch. The third resonance frequency is used for amplification.

Actually, you still hear all the partials, not two. But the timbre created by the isolated overtone is so unfamiliar that the brain searches for a comparison with what it knows and thus communicates a flute-like sound and a singing voice to the consciousness. Overtone singing is thus a kind of acoustic illusion.

In fact, everyone hears the overtone singing a little differently. Some people experience more or less vowel character and associate the sound of the Australian didgeridoos. Others hear the sound of the flute so clearly and separately that they cannot believe it comes from the voice. These different perceptions are related to the individual sound processing (cf. How overtones work in the brain).

This double resonator can be varied over more than one octave. Most overtone singers don’t know anything about it. They are still good at overtone singing because they have intuitively learned over a long time to control their resonances. Those who have knowledge of the connections, however, learn overtone singing much faster and can optimize overtone singing in a targeted way. If you are looking for an overtone singing teacher, make sure he has this background knowledge. This saves time and money.

Voice as a Double Instrument

Our voice consists of two instruments:

  1. The primary sound (singing tone) is formed in the larynx and consists of a chord of partial tones (sine tones) and a noise portion. It generates the keynote pitch.
  2. The resonances in the vocal tract (mouth, throat, nose) modulate the volume of the partials. They produce the timbre. During overtone singing, they produce the melody from overtones.

Voice = primary sound + resonance

This corresponds to the classic source filter model of the voice. The new thing, however, is that in overtone singing the resonances are used as a second melody instrument. The fact that resonances can be tuned to a precise pitch is generally unknown and is not taught in classical singing education.

First Instrument: Harmonics

Teiltonakkord von c mit Spektrum und Spektrogramm

Overtones are a natural part of the voice. They are always present in the voice. A normal vocal sound consists of a bundle of partials (on the difference between partial and overtone, see here).

This bundle forms a special harmonic partial-tone chord, which we normally hear as a single note with a timbre. The timbre is created by the volume distribution of the partials. The volume distribution in the picture results from the vowel æ.

If an overtone becomes much louder than its neighbours, it will suddenly be perceived as a separate tone. This is exactly what happens with overtone singing. Extreme “vowels” are used, which are not found in the language. Overtone singing is in a way an acoustic illusion, because in fact only one note is sung, but because of an extreme “pronunciation” it sounds like two notes. But one could also say that it is an acoustic disillusionment: the tone consists of many tones, and now we hear at least two of them, the keynote and the amplified overtone.

Second Instrument: Resonance Frequencies

The mouth and throat space from the larynx to the lips is also called vocal tract. Like any cavity, the vocal tract has natural resonance frequencies. These resonances are pitches that change with the shape of the mouth. The resonances change the volume distribution of the partials in the voice. This creates vowels. The fact that the resonances can be used as a melody instrument, however, is completely unknown as a concept.

Pharynx Tongue & Second Formant

The pharynx tongue controls the 2nd resonance frequency (2nd formant), the space under the tongue controls the 3rd resonance frequency. The aim of overtone singing is to place the two resonances exactly on top of each other and to meet an overtone at the same time.

During examinations at the University Hospital Aachen we found that the pharyngeal tongue movement together with the epiglottis mainly controls the overtones .

Try it: Let your tongue hang out of your mouth and speak the English we with a creaking voice (vocal fry) and motionless lips, preferably in slow motion. And then the English you, which is the backwards movement. The vowel transition i-u and u-i in these words is now produced exclusively by the pharyngeal tongue because of the inactive front tongue. It’s important that you take time for all the intermediate vocals.

Usa a sound analysis program like Overtone Analyzer to record a spectrogram of the produced sound. You will see in the spectrogram that only the second resonance frequency moves.

Mouth Floor & Third Formant

We don’t move the 3rd resonance frequency in German vowels. Therefore, the associated tongue movements are unfamiliar. If you keep your tongue in the L-position, a cavity will form under your tongue. If you then lower the floor of your mouth and pull back the muscles at the side next to the frenulum of your tongue, you will hear a sound similar to the American “r”  [ ɹ ]. Imagine a small hot potato under your tongue. The larger the cavity, the lower the 3rd resonance frequency.

With a little practice the 3rd resonance frequency can be lowered exactly to the frequency of the 2nd. That’s the basic technique of overtone singing.

Literature & Sources

Itemisations

Books

Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Arjopa. 1999. Choomii – das mongolische Obertonsingen [Medienkombination] : Anleitung zum Selberlernen. 1. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausendeins. Coffin, Berton. 1980. Coffin’s Overtones of Bel Canto: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel-Chart Exercises: Phonetic Basis of Artistic Singing with 100 Chromatic Vowel Chart Exercises. Scarecrow Pr Inc. Cope, Jonathan. 2004. How to Khoomei: And Other Overtone Singing Styles. Sound For Health. Finscher, Ludwig und Friedrich Blume. 1994. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart ( MGG): 23 Bände. 2., neubearb. A. Metzler. Galgut, Peter. 2005. Humming Your Way Happiness: An Introduction to Tuva and Overtone Singing from Around the World. O Books (John Hunt). Goldman, Jonathan. 1994. Heilende Klänge : die Macht der Obertöne. München: Droemer Knaur. Goldman, Jonathan. 2002. Healing Sounds: The Power of Harmonics. New. Healing Arts Home. Goldman, Jonathan. 2008. Klangheilung. Die Schöpferkraft des Obertongesangs. Mit CD zum Erlernen heilender Klänge! Erw. Ausg. mit CD. AMRA Verlag. Grawunder, Sven. 1999. Die Erforschung eines besonderen Stimmgebrauchs – Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang. Unpublished Diploma, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/S. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf. Grawunder, Sven. 2005. On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing – Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidences. Unpublished PhD thesis, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle. Grawunder, Sven. 2009. On the physiology of voice production in South-Siberian throat singing: analysis of acoustic and electrophysiological evidences. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Groeneveld, B.D. 2007. Stem en boventonen / druk 1: oefeningen, improvisaties, klankmeditaties. 1. Panta Rhei, Uitgeverij. Hinds, Stuart. 2012. Eine Oberton-Erfahrung – An Overtone-Experience: 15 Lieder mit mehrstimmigem Obertongesang – 15 polyphonic overtone songs you’ll love to sing. Übers. von Wolfgang Saus. 1., Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Levin, Theodore Craig und Valentina Suzukei. 2006. Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music, and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond with CD (Audio) and DVD: Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Har/Com/Dv. Indiana University Press. Mecke, Ann-Christine, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter und Thomas Seedorf, Hrsg. 2016. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme: Geschichte – Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen – Gesangstechniken – Interpreten. 1. Aufl. Instrumenten-Lexika. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. Pegg, Carole. 2001. Mongolian Music, Dance, and Oral Narrative: Recovering Performance Traditions. Pap/Com. Univ of Washington Pr. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Boventoonzang: een zelfstudiecursus in het leren hzingen van boventoonen. 1. Aufl. Katwijk aan Zee: Servire Uitgevers B. V. Rachele, Rollin. 1989. Overtone Singing Study Guide. 1. Aufl. Cryptic Voices. Reimann, Michael. 1993. Unendlicher Klang. Obertöne in Stimme und Instrumentalmusik. Norderstedt: Kolibri. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Was ist Obertongesang – Eine Definition. In: Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs, 58. 1. Aufl. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2004. Oberton Singen. Mit Lern-CD: Das Geheimnis einer magischen Stimmkunst – Obertongesang erlernen mit dem Drei-Stufen-Selbstlernkurs. 4. (2011). Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Obertongesang. In: Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft, hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller, 182–189. Schüttorf: Hess, 9. November. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang. Hg. von Ann-Christine Mecke, Martin Pfleiderer, Bernhard Richter, und Thomas Seedorf. Lexikon der Gesangsstimme. Instrumenten-Lexika 5. Laaber: Laaber. Saus, Wolfgang und Minghao Xu. 2009. DVD. Der Oberton Workshop mit Wolfgang Saus. Erlerne das Geheimnis der magischen Stimmkunst Obertongesang. The Overtone-Workshop. Aquire the magical art of harmonic singing.DVD-5. 16:9 PAL. Battweiler: Traumzeit-Verlag. Saus, Wolfgang, Alexander Lauterwasser, Michael Konrath, Uwe Ross, Emily Zurek, Peter Gabis, Herbert Seitz, u. a. 2010. Peter Hess – Klangmethoden im Kontext von Forschung und Wissenschaft. Hg. von Peter Hess und Christina M. Koller. Hess, Schüttorf. Stroh, Wolfgang Martin. 1999. Handbuch New Age Musik. Auf der Suche nach neuen musikalischen Erfahrungen. Conbrio Verlagsges.Mbh. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West (Hardcover). 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. van Tongeren, Mark C. 2004. Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West. 2Rev Ed. Amsterdam: Eburon B V. Vetter, Michael. 1996. Om-Eine ObertonschuleAudio CD. Spectrum (Note 1). Voigt-Zimmermann, Susanne, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt und Wanda Mainka, Hrsg. 2016. Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Formanten – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Formanten (zugegriffen: 27. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Stimme – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Stimme (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Intervalle – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Intervalle (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Hören – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Hören (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wikipedia. 2011. Benutzer:Oberton/Bücher/Obertöne – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Wolfgang_Saus/Bücher/Obertöne (zugegriffen: 24. Januar 2011). Wolff, Stephanie. 1987. Obertöne. Versinken in die Welt des Klanges. Meditation und Therapie durch neue Dimensionen der Musik. Mit einer praktischen Einführung in die Technik des Obertonsingens. Freiburg: Bauer.

Specialist Articles

O A. A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences – Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=A+self-sustained+vocal-ventricular+phonation+mode%3A+acoustical%2C+aerodynamic+and+glottographic+evidences (zugegriffen: 12. Oktober 2016). Akademie f. gesprochenes Wort und Hellmut K Geissner. 2002. Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Black, Jocelyn. 2018. Overtone Singing: History, Development, and Influence in Contemporary Music. Capstone Projects and Master’s Theses (1. Dezember). https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/caps_thes_all/402. Cosi, Piero und Graziano Tisato. 2003. ON THE MAGIC OF OVERTONE SINGING. Voce, Canto, Parlato / Studi di Onore di Franco Ferrero. Instituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione Sezione di Padova “Fonetica e Dialettologia”: 83–100. (zugegriffen: 14. November 2008). O A. Ecole de Garcia. Traité complet de l’art du chant en 2 parties. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b52502455v/f23.item (zugegriffen: 26. Juli 2014). Edgerton, Michael Edward, Graham Welch, John Nix und David Howard. The Extra-normal Voice. Oxford Handbooks Online. https://www.academia.edu/6978897/The_Extra-Normal_Voice (zugegriffen: 23. August 2019). O A. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009). O A. File:Tinctoris.jpg – Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinctoris.jpg?uselang=de (zugegriffen: 7. Februar 2012). Foresman, Bryant. 2008. Acoustical Measurement of the Human Vocal Tract: Quantifying Speech & Throat-Singing. Senior Thesis, Claremont: Pomona College, 25. April. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/pomona_theses/25. Fuks, Leonardo. Computer-aided musical analysis of extended vocal techniques for compositional applications. compmus.ime.usp.br. https://www.academia.edu/30880857/Computer-aided_musical_analysis_of_extended_vocal_techniques_for_compositional_applications (zugegriffen: 6. September 2019). Fuks, Leonardo. 1998. Leonardo Fuks Homepage. http://www.speech.kth.se/music/publications/leofuks/leosounds.html (zugegriffen: 3. Februar 2009). Fuks, Leonardo. 1998. PhD Thesis in music acoustics: FROM AIR TO MUSIC – Acoustical, Physiological and Perceptual Aspects of Reed Wind Instrument Playing and Vocal-Ventricular Fold Phonation. Stockholm: KTH. Fuks, Leonardo. 1998. PhD Thesis in music acoustics. http://www.speech.kth.se/music/publications/leofuks/thesis/contents.html (zugegriffen: 26. Februar 2009). Fuks, Leonardo, Britta Hammarberg und Johan Sundberg. 1998. A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences. KTH TMH-QPSR 3, Nr. 1998: 49–59. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johan_Sundberg/publication/285742169_A_self-sustained_vocal-ventricular_phonation_mode_Acoustical_aerodynamic_and_glottographic_evidences/links/56e91a0f08ae9bcb3e1dbed8.pdf (zugegriffen: 12. Oktober 2016). Garcia, Manuel. 1878. Traité complet de l’art du chant en deux parties. Ecole de Garcia. Paris: Heugel et cie. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001981291 (zugegriffen: 21. November 2013). García, Manuel. École de Garcia (Garcia Jr., Manuel) – IMSLP. http://imslp.org/wiki/%C3%89cole_de_Garcia_(Garcia_Jr.,_Manuel) (zugegriffen: 26. Juli 2014). García, Manuel. 1847. Ecole de Garcia. Traité complet de l’art du chant en 2 parties. l’auteur (Paris). http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b52502455v (zugegriffen: 26. Juli 2014). García, Manuel Compositeur. 1851. Ecole de Garcia. Traité complet de l’art du chant en 2 parties (3e éd.) – Première partie. l’auteur (Paris). http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b525032004 (zugegriffen: 26. Juli 2014). García, Manuel. 1985. École de Garcia: traité complet de l’art du chant en deux parties. Minkoff. Grawunder, Sven. 1999. Obertongesang versus Kehlgesang. Diplomarbeit, Halle/Saale: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/S. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/KehlgesangversObertongesang.pdf (zugegriffen: 2. August 2015). Grawunder, Sven. 2003. Comparison of voice production types of „western“ overtone singing and South Siberian throat singing. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Conference Paper. Grawunder, Sven. 2003. Der südsibirische Kehlgesang als Gegenstand phonetischer Untersuchungen. In: Gegenstandsauffassung und aktuelle Forschungen der halleschen Sprechwissenschaft, hg. von Eva-Maria Krech und Eberhard Stock, 53–91. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/files/Autorreferat_SG_Dipl.pdf. Grawunder, Sven. 2012. On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat singing – Extended Abstract. The Phonetician 101/102: 25–32. http://www.isphs.org/Phonetician/Phonetician_101.pdf (zugegriffen: 6. Juli 2014). Hefele, Anna-Maria, Robert Eklund und Anita Mcallister. 2019. Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of a unique mode of singing. In: , 7. 30. Juni. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3246011, . Hinds, Stuart. Overtone Singing: Not Just for Monks and Shamans Anymore – The IFCM Magazine. http://icb.ifcm.net/en_US/overtone-singing-not-just-monks-shamans-anymore/?print=print (zugegriffen: 15. September 2018). Hinds, Stuart. 2012. Overtone Singing: Not Just for Monks and Shamans Anymore. The IFCM Magazine. 15. Oktober. http://icb.ifcm.net/en_US/overtone-singing-not-just-monks-shamans-anymore/ (zugegriffen: 15. September 2018). O A. Johannes Tinctoris – Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Tinctoris (zugegriffen: 7. Februar 2012). O A. Johannes Tinctoris: Complete Theoretical Works — De inventione et usu musice. http://earlymusictheory.org/Tinctoris/texts/deinventioneetusumusice/#pane0=Translation (zugegriffen: 15. Oktober 2017). Kob, Malte. 2004. Analysis and modelling of overtone singing in the sygyt style. Applied Acoustics 65, Nr. 12. Musical Acoustics (1. Dezember): 1249–1259. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2004.04.010, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003682X04001082 (zugegriffen: 7. November 2019). Kob, Malte, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube und Wolfgang Saus. 2001. Untersuchungen der akustischen Eigenschaften des Obertongesangs. In: . Hamburg: TU Hamburg-Harburg. Kovaříková, Ludmila. 2019. Alikvotní zpěv a jeho uplatnění ve sborovém zpěvu. Prague, Czech Republic: Univerzita Karlova, 18. April. https://dspace.cuni.cz/bitstream/handle/20.500.11956/106532/130252186.pdf. Kratz, Thomas. 2007. Interview mit dem Obertonsänger Wolfgang Saus. http://www.spirituelles-portal.de/Thomas-Kratz-Interview-mit-dem-Obertonsaenger-Wolfgang-Saus,2,40.html (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Kritzer, I. 1999. Atem und Stimme. Die heilende Kraft der Obertöne in der Musiktherapie mit schwer behinderten Kindern. Levin, Theodore C. und Michael E. Edgerton. 1999. The Throat Singers of Tuva. Scientific American 281, Nr. 3: 80–87. http://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0999-80, http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/scientificamerican0999-80 (zugegriffen: 23. August 2019). Levin, Theodore Craig und Michael Edgerton. 1999. Die Obertonsänger von Tuwa – Spektrum der Wissenschaft. http://www.spektrum.de/alias/dachzeile/die-obertonsaenger-von-tuwa/825863?id=825863 (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Liesowska, Anne und Derek Lambie. Secrets of throat singing revealed by scientific research into the unusual sounds. http://siberiantimes.com/science/others/news/0070-secrets-of-throat-singing-revealed-by-scientific-research-into-the-unusual-sounds/ (zugegriffen: 7. Februar 2017). Lübben, Barbara. Obertonspektrum von Frauen – wo liegt der Wohlfühlbereich? http://polyphona.de/komponieren.html (zugegriffen: 29. Oktober 2017). Mantovani, Walter. 2015. Il Canto difonico oggi. Armonici.it. 11. März. http://blog.armonici.it/il-canto-difonico-oggi/ (zugegriffen: 2. März 2018). O A. 2013. Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García. Wikipedia. 21. November. http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Manuel_Patricio_Rodr%C3%ADguez_Garc%C3%ADa&oldid=121671398 (zugegriffen: 21. November 2013). Matern, Gabriele, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Wolfgang Saus und Malte Kob. 2000. Ansatzrohrgestaltung beim Obertonsingen. 17. Wiss. Jahrestagung Deutsche Ges. für Phoniatrie und Pädaudiologie, Tübingen (2000)DVD. Aachen: RWTH, Uniklinik. Matern, Gabriele, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Wolfgang Saus und Malte Kob. 2001. Ansatzrohrgestaltung beim Obertonsingen. In: , hg. von M Gross, 8:. Matrenitsky, Vladislav. Study of effects of overtone throat singing in Tuvan (Southern Siberia) shamanic tradition. http://www.un-hun.com/research_en.html (zugegriffen: 9. Mai 2013). O A. 2009. Musik aktiviert das Lustzentrum – Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. http://www.ksta.de/html/artikel/1229427005442.shtml (zugegriffen: 10. März 2009). Neubauer, Jürgen, Michael Edgerton und Hanspeter Herzel. 2004. Nonlinear Phenomena in Contemporary Vocal Music. ftp://ftp.elet.polimi.it/outgoing/Carlo.Piccardi/VarieCda/ArticoliStudenti/u4.pdf (zugegriffen: 26. Februar 2009). Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane, Wolfgang Saus, Gabriele Matern, Malte Kob und Stanislaw Klajman. 2002. Sonographische und endoskopische Untersuchungen beim Obertonsingen. In: Stimmkulturen – 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Neuwirthová, Anna. Fenomén alikvotního zpěvu jako všestranný funkční nadstandard vzdělávání dospělých v oblasti hudby – Neuwirthova.pdf. http://www.thakur.cz/upload/sborniky/2006/Soubory/DISTANCNI_VZDELAVANI_V_OBLASTI_HUDBY/Neuwirthova.pdf (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Neuwirthová, Anna. Alikvotní zpěv v kontextu hudby na přelomu 20. a 21. století – Mgr. Anna NEUWIRTHOVÁ. http://theses.cz/id/iavhnb/?lang=en;furl=%2Fid%2Fiavhnb%2F (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Neuwirthová. 2006. Alikvotní zpěv – mýtus i realita v hudební pedagogice. In: Česká hudební pedagogika a vzdělávání dospělých na počátku 21. století: sborník z 28. muzikologické konference Janáčkiana ; (Ostrava 1. a 2 června 2006). Divadelní Ústav. Neuwirthová, Anna. 2009. Alikvotní zpěv v muzikoterapii a hlasové výchově. In: . Ostrava, 31. Januar. konference.osu.cz/khv/2009/file.php?fid=71. O A. openPR.de – Pressemitteilung – Stimmlabor FREIKLANG Berlin – Die Stimme als Spiegel – Vortrag am 16,12.2008 in Berlin zu Stimm-Analyse und Stimmbildung. http://www.openpr.de/news/257039/Die-Stimme-als-Spiegel-Vortrag-am-16-12-2008-in-Berlin-zu-Stimm-Analyse-und-Stimmbildung.html (zugegriffen: 5. November 2008). Paysen, Arne. 2004. Johannes Tinctoris – Zeugnisse zu seiner musikgeschichtlihcen Perspektive. Vortrags Ausarbeitung. Kiel. http://www.angli-clamant.de/mth_tinctoris.php (zugegriffen: 21. November 2013). Podlena, Jan. 2014. Alikvótní zpěv a jeho praxe mimo původní etnika. Bachelor’s thesis. 2. Juni. http://is.muni.cz/th/382831/ff_b/ (zugegriffen: 2. Juli 2014). Riccabona, Markus. 2004. Viele Stimmen aus einer Kehle. http://www.aufklang.net/beitraege/8-kat-klangmeridian/30-viele-stimmen-aus-einer-kehle.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Saus, Wolfgang. 2002. Nutzen von Obertongesang für westliche Sänger und Chorleiter. In: Stimmkulturen: 3. Stuttgarter Stimmtage 2000, hg. von Hellmut K Geissner, 247–248. St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag. Saus, Wolfgang. 2008. Faszination Oberton – Was sind Obertöne? 6, Nr. 6/2008. Organ des Europäischen Fachverbandes Klang-Massage-Therapie e.V.: 58–60. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Obertöne im Chor. Hg. von VDKC e. V. Chor und Konzert 130, Nr. 2/2009. Zeitschrift des Verbandes Deutscher Konzertchöre: 26–32. www.vdkc.de. Saus, Wolfgang. 2009. Karlheinz Stockhausen’s STIMMUNG and Vowel Overtone Singing. In: Ročenka textů zahraničních profesorů / The Annual of Texts by Foreign Guest Professors, 3:471–478. Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta: FF UK Praha. http://www.ff.cuni.cz/FF-8338.html. Saus, Wolfgang. 2010. Formant Tuning Taken to a New Level. Gehalten auf: PAS – The 5th International Conference on the Physiology and Acoustics of Singing, Stockholm, Schweden. http://www.speech.kth.se/pas5/ (zugegriffen: 14. Oktober 2015). Saus, Wolfgang. 2015. Chorphonetik – wenn Vokale die Intonation steuern. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 11, Nr. 1 (2. Juni): 22–26. http://www.bdg-online.org/. Saus, Wolfgang. 2016. Obertongesang – wenn Formanten zu Tönen werden. In: Stimmstörungen – ein Fokus der Klinischen Sprechwissenschaft: Aktuelle Beiträge aus Wissenschaft, Forschung und Praxis, hg. von Susanne Voigt-Zimmermann, Stephanie Kurtenbach, Gabriele Finkbeiner, Anke Bergt, und Wanda Mainka, 19–23. Berlin: Frank & Timme, 22. August. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Gesangsphonetik – Ein neuer Weg zum optimalen Vokal. Vox Humana – Fachzeitschrift für Gesangspädagogik 13, Nr. 4. (Jahreskongress des BDG 2017, Dokumentation): 17–20. http://voxhumana-online.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/vh_04-17_saus.pdf. Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Fremd und doch vertraut: Obertongesang. Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift 12, Nr. 05 (August): 14–19. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-115597, https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0043-115597 (zugegriffen: 29. August 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. 2017. Nur 1 von 20 kann diese Melodie hören – Mach den Hörtest. Ich liebe Obertongesang. 11. August. https://www.oberton.org/hoertest-saus/ (zugegriffen: 2. Januar 2019). O A. Spirituelles Portal – Tor zum Selbst und Verzeichnis für Spiritualität, Esoterik und Ganzheitlichkeit. http://www.spirituelles-portal.de/text.php?aktKategorie=Yoga&katNr=3&e0=0&e1=3&kategorienWurzel=3&&textNr=40&zurueck=/texteArchiv.php (zugegriffen: 10. Juni 2008). Stefanie Schramm – Die Zeit, Hamburg. 2005. Obertöne brummen rechts im Hirn. http://www.zeit.de/2005/33/Hirn-Orchester (zugegriffen: 22. Mai 2008). O A. throat-singing (music). Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1550505/throat-singing (zugegriffen: 23. Juni 2014). Tran Quang Hai. 2009. Bibliography of Overtone Singing (2009). http://www.der.org/resources/study-guides/bibliography-of-overtone-singing.pdf. Tsai, Chen-Gia. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a theoretical study. <a href="http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm”>http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/falsevocalfoldsurfacechengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Physical Modeling of the vocal tract of a Sygyt singer. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PhysicalModelingofthevocaltractoaSygytsingeChengaitsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. Perception of Overtone Singing. http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/PerceptioofOvertoneSingingChenGiaTsai.htm (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). Tsai, Chen-Gia. 2005. Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing. Gehalten auf: International Symposium on Body & Cognition, Taipei, Taiwan. http://www.gim.ntu.edu.tw/gia/index.html. Tsai, Chen-Gia, Yio-Wha Shau und Tzu-Yu Hsiao. 2004. false vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: A hypothesis. Gehalten auf: International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, Marseille, France. <a href="http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A”>http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40292510/false-vocal-fold-surface-waves-during-Sygyt-singing-A (zugegriffen: 1. März 2013). O A. 2005. Universität Heidelberg – Pressemitteilungen – Obertonhörer, Grundtonhörer. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news05/2508waru.html (zugegriffen: 25. April 2009). Weinmann, Karl. 1961. Johannes Tinctoris (1445-1511) und sein unbekannter Traktat „De inventione et usu musicae“; historisch-Kritische Untersuchung. Berichtigte und mit einem Vorwort versehene Neu-Ausg. von Wilhelm Fischer. H. Schneider. Öberg, Robin. 2008. What is Throat Singing? – Lunds universitet – PDF Download link. http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/1317205/file/1317206.pdf (zugegriffen: 15. Mai 2012).

Websites

Albi. Face Music – Switzerland – Geschichte Reiternomaden, in Deutsch. http://face-music.ch/nomads/horsemen_de.html (zugegriffen: 26. Januar 2010). Birkicht, Matthias. Das kleine Obertonbrevier. http://www.oberton.info/obertonbrevier01.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Grover, Brian. grover’s khoomei critique page. http://www.busker-kibbutznik.org/khoomei/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Großer, Miroslav. Europäischer Obertongesang – Unterricht und Workshops in Berlin. http://www.stimmlabor.de/obertongesang/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. Harmonic Singing: Your Voice is a Rainbow. http://www.squidoo.com/harmonicsinging (zugegriffen: 1. März 2014). Hykes, David. harmonicpresence.org. http://www.harmonicpresence.org/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Lübben, Barbara. Obertonspektrum von Frauen – wo liegt der Wohlfühlbereich? http://polyphona.de/komponieren.html (zugegriffen: 29. Oktober 2017). Saus, Wolfgang. overtone singing news. Social network. facebook. https://www.facebook.com/overtonesinging (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Khoomei. http://www.khoomei.com/ (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Sklar, Steve. Steve Sklar’s Online Throat-Singing Lessons. http://www.khoomei.com/lessons.htm (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). O A. TimelineJS Embed. https://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline3/latest/embed/index.html?source=1v25ZZZrrXTYmC8RnlMiaaSGo_f5NHkrGgLeJ-GXAEgo&font=Default&lang=en&initial_zoom=2&height=650 (zugegriffen: 1. Mai 2017). Tran Quang Hai. Overtones | Tran Quang Hai website. http://tranquanghai.info/c29-overtones.html (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. Obertongesang. Wikipedia. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obertongesang (zugegriffen: 20. Januar 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Tuvan throat singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 29. Juli. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_throat_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wikipedia. 2013. Overtone singing. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3. August. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overtone_singing (zugegriffen: 6. August 2013). Wolfe, Joe. Harmonic singing. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/xoomi.html (zugegriffen: 2. Februar 2009).

The first version of this article was published in 2000, the first WordPressverion on 8/3/2013. 3 replies

  1. Claudia Franke says: Ganz herzlichen Dank für diese klare, hervorragend strukturierte und überzeugende Darstellung!
    Dadurch wird mir die Hörbarkeit des 2. Tons endlich deutlich.
    Ich werde weiter daran versuchen. Reply
  2. Elisabeth Ossendorf says: so spannend Reply
  3. Miroslav Grosser says: oberton.org war und ist aus meiner Sicht eindeutig die informativste Webseite zum Thema Obertongesang im deutschsprachigen Raum. DANKE für soviel Informationen und das ganze Engagement und die Zeit, die es erfordert, dieses ständig aktualisierte, wachsende und mittlerweile sogar interaktive lexikonartige Wissen hier zu versammeln und der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Ich bin echt begeistert von dieser Fundgrube für Stimm-Interessierte und Oberton-Fans!!! Reply

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  1. Chorphonetik Intonationsoptimierung und Obertongesang für Chöre beim Hessischen Sängerbund – mit Wolfgang Saus – 29.02.2019 in Wiesbaden/Naurod Sat., 29.02.2020 — Sun., 01.03.2020
  2. Vortrag: Stimmsouveränität, Persönlichkeit und Selbst-Vertrauen – 24.04.2020 in Filderstadt Fri., 24.04.2020 | 19:00 — 20:30
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